Definition and etymologyEdit
In Christian theology, redemption (Greek: apolutrosis) refers to the deliverance of Christians from sin. It assumes an important position in salvation because the transgressions in question form part of a great system against which human power is helpless. Leon Morris says that "Paul uses the concept of redemption primarily to speak of the saving significance of the death of Christ." In the New Testament, the redemption word group[further explanation needed] is used to refer both to deliverance from sin and freedom from captivity. In Christian theology, redemption is a metaphor for what is achieved through the Atonement; therefore, there is a metaphorical sense in which the death of Jesus pays the price of a ransom, releasing Christians from bondage to sin and death.
In Islam, redemption is achieved through being a Muslim and doing no action that would forfeit one's identification with Islam, being of sincere faith (iman) and doing virtuous actions. Muslim sinners need only turn to a merciful God in repentance and carry out other good deeds, such as prayer (salah) and charity, for redemption. As a result of this view of redemption, Muslims have criticized alternative views on redemption, especially the Christian doctrine of original sin.
The concept also applies to redemption of real property such as fields and houses, stock animals, such as donkeys, produce, and specific items such as tefillin. It also means the liberation of an estate in real property from a mortgage.
Redemption also applies to individuals or groups: an Israelite slave, an Israelite captive, and the firstborn son pidyon haben, (Hebrew: פדיון הבן) or redemption of the first-born son, is a mitzvah in Judaism whereby a Jewish firstborn son is redeemed from God by use of silver coins to a kohen. It is from these three cases that the concept of exilic redemption is derived because the People Israel are considered God's 'firstborn' derived from Jacob, who are God's slaves forever, but are currently held captive, even while they reside in the modern state of Israel.
In Hasidic philosophy parallels are drawn between the redemption from exile and the personal redemption achieved when a person refines his character traits, although there is no source for this in the Talmud. Rather the Messianic redemption is linked to observing Shabbat, Jewish prayer, and the promise of redemption for those looking toward Mount Zion, the last being the original cultural source of 'Zionism'. As such, the original intent of Zionism was the redemption process by which the Land of Israel that has been pledged to the Israelites is reclaimed, accomplished through a payment of the debt owed to God as a fulfillment of the conditions set out in the Torah.
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- Morris, Leon (1962). Redeemer, Redemption, 'The New Bible Dictionary'. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. pp. 1078–1079.
- "Redemption." Christian Classics Ethereal Library at Calvin College. July 2, 2009. http://www.ccel.org/s/schaff/encyc/encyc09/htm/iv.vii.lxxxv.htm
- Morris, Leon (1993). 'Redemption' Dictionary of Paul and his Letters. Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press. p. 784.
- Demarest, The Cross and Salvation, 177.
- Grudem, Wayne (1994). Systematic Theology: An Introduction to Biblical Doctrine. Nottingham: InterVarsity Press. p. 580.
- Robert Lingat (1973). The Classical Law of India. University of California Press. pp. 98–99. ISBN 978-0-520-01898-3.
- Bhikkhu Nyanatusita (2014). Analysis of the Bhikkhu Patimokkha. Buddhist Publication Society. p. 86. ISBN 978-955-24-0405-4.
- Hava Lazarus-Yafeh (1981). Some Religious Aspects of Islam: A Collection of Articles. Brill Archive. p. 48. ISBN 9789004063297.
- Yahiya Emerick (1 Nov 2011). The Complete Idiot's Guide to Islam, 3rd Edition. Penguin. ISBN 9781101558812.
Salvation and redemption: Islam says our sincere faith and virtuous actions get us into heaven, not just a one-time conversion moment.
- Mahmoud Mustafa Ayoub. "The Idea of Redemption in Christianity and Islam". BYU. Retrieved 18 February 2015.
- Chawkat Georges Moucarry (2001). Faith to Faith: Christianity & Islam in Dialogue. Inter-Varsity Press. p. 110. ISBN 9780851118994.
- Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Rosh HaShanah, 11b
- for example Talmud Yerushalmi, Tractate Berachot, 2c "(mid.)
- Demarest, Bruce (1997). The Cross and Salvation: The Doctrine of Salvation. Wheaton: Crossway Books. p. 176.
- Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Chullin, 35b
- Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Moed Katan, 12a
- for example Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Temurah, 31a
- Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Arachin, 30b
- Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Shevuot, 11b
- Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Arachin, 14b
- Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Arachin, 33a
- Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Bechorot, 5b
- Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Succah, 40b
- Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Gittin, 45b
- for example Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Kiddushin, 18a
- Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Bava Batra, 8a
- Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Bechorot, 31b
- Eugene Joseph Cohen Guide to ritual circumcision and redemption of the first-born son Volume 1 - 1984 "The Redemption of the First-Born - A mother's first-born is to be dedicated to the service of God, in accordance with the verse, "Sanctify the first-born who opens the womb."1 This sanctification was the result of an historical event."; Michele Klein A Time to Be Born: Customs and Folklore of Jewish Birth 2000 Page 224 "They have attributed healing properties to the stick.54 REDEMPTION OF THE FIRST-BORN SON A first child has special significance for both parents, and this was as true in biblical times as today, but then only when the child was male"; Mark Washofsky Jewish living: a guide to contemporary reform practice 2001 Page 148 "Redemption of the First-born Son (Pidyon Haben)- In Jewish tradition, the first-born son is to be "redeemed" from God. This originates in the belief that God "acquired" the Israelite first-born by sparing them from makkat bekhorot," ; Ruth Langer To Worship To Worship God Properly: Tensions Between Liturgical Custom and Halakhah in Judaism (Monographs of the Hebrew Union College Series) 2005 Page 73 "Redemption of the First Born."
- Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Bechorot, 51b
- Vayikra 25:55
- Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Shabbat, 118b
- Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Berachot, 4b
- Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Ketubot, 75a
- Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Bava Batra, 119a
- Redemption, BBC Radio 4 discussion with Richard Harries, Janet Soskice and Stephen Mulhall (In Our Time, Mar. 13, 2003)