Kafir (Arabic: كافر kāfir; plural كَافِرُونَ kāfirūna, كفّار kuffār or كَفَرَة kafarah; feminine كافرة kāfirah) is an Arabic term (from the root K-F-R "to cover") meaning "unbeliever", or "disbeliever". The term alludes to a person who rejects or disbelieves in God according to the teachings of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, and denies the dominion and authority of God, thus often translated with "infidels". Muhammad Asad held "infidels" to be an erroneous translation of "kafir" made by several scholars and western Quran translations, since it is not synonymous with "non-Muslim"; thus, someone who makes good deeds without expectation of worldly rewards would not be a kafir. At the same time, kafir is sometimes used as a derogatory term, particularly by members of political Islam movements. Unbelief is called kufr. Kafir is sometimes used interchangeably with mushrik (مشرك, those who commit polytheism), another type of religious wrongdoer mentioned frequently in the Quran and Islamic works. The practice of declaring another self-professed Muslim a kafir is known as takfir. The person who denies the existence of a creator is called Dahriya.
The word kāfir is the active participle of the root K-F-R. As a pre-Islamic term it described farmers burying seeds in the ground. One of its applications in the Quran is also the same meaning as farmer. Since farmers cover the seeds with soil while planting, the word kāfir implies a person who hides or covers. Ideologically, it implies a person who hides or covers the truth. Poets personify the darkness of night as kâfir, perhaps as a survival of pre-Islamic religious or mythological usage. The noun for disbelief, "blasphemy", "impiety" rather than the person who disbelieves, is kufr.
The Hebrew words "kipper" and "kofer" share the same root as "kafir" כִּפֵּר, or K-F-R. "Kipper" has many meanings including, to "deny", "atone for", "cover", "purge", "represent", or "transfer". The last two meanings involve "kofer" that mean "ransom". "Kipper" and "kofer" are mostly likely used together in the Jewish faith to indicate God's transfer of guilt from innocent parties using guilty parties as "ransom".
The practice of declaring another Muslim as a kafir is takfir. Kufr unbelief and shirk (polytheism) are used throughout the Quran and sometimes used interchangeably by Muslims. According to Salafist scholars, Kufr is the "denial of the Truth" (truth in the form of articles of faith in Islam), and shirk means devoting "acts of worship to anything beside God" or "the worship of idols and other created beings". So a mushrik may worship other things while also "acknowledging God".
In the QuranEdit
The distinction between those who believe in Islam and those who do not is an essential one in the Quran, the book of Islam. Kafir, and its plural kuf' aar, is used directly 134 times in Quran, its verbal noun "kufr" is used 37 times, and the verbal cognates of kafir are used about 250 times.
By extension of the basic meaning of the root, "to cover", the term is used in the Quran in the senses of ignore/fail to acknowledge and to spurn/be ungrateful. The meaning of "disbelief", which has come to be regarded as primary, retains all of these connotations in the Quranic usage. In the Quranic discourse, the term typifies all things that are unacceptable and offensive to God. Charles Adams writes that the most fundamental sense of kufr in the Quran is "ingratitude", the willful refusal to acknowledge or appreciate the benefits that God bestows on humankind, including clear signs and revealed scriptures.
According to the E. J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913–1936, Volume 4, the term first applied in the Quran to unbelieving Meccans, who endeavoured "to refute and revile the Prophet". A waiting attitude towards the kafir was recommended at first for Muslims; later, Muslims were ordered to keep apart from unbelievers and defend themselves against their attacks; and finally to take the offensive. Most passages in the Quran referring to unbelievers in general talk about their fate on the day of judgement and destination in hell.
According to scholar Marilyn Waldman, as the Quran "progresses" (as the reader goes from the verses revealed first to later ones), the meaning behind the term kafir does not change but "progresses", i.e. "accumulates meaning over time". As the Islamic Prophet Muhammad's views of his opponents change, his use of kafir "undergoes a development". Kafir moves from being one description of Muhammad's opponents to the primary one. Later in the Quran, kafir becomes more and more connected with shirk. Finally, towards the end of the Quran, kafir begins to also signify the group of people to be fought by the mu'minīn (believers).
Types of unbelieversEdit
People of the BookEdit
The status of the People of the Book (ahl al-kitab), particularly Jews and Christians, with respect to the Islamic notions of unbelief is not clearcut. Charles Adams writes that the Quran reproaches the People of the Book with kufr for rejecting Muhammad's message when they should have been the first to accept it as possessors of earlier revelations, and singles out Christians for disregarding the evidence of God's unity. The Quranic verse 5:73 ("Certainly they disbelieve [kafara] who say: God is the third of three"), among other verses, has been traditionally understood in Islam as rejection of the Christian Trinity doctrine, though modern scholarship has suggested alternative interpretations.[note 1] Other Quranic verses strongly deny the deity of Jesus Christ, son of Mary and reproach the people who treat Jesus as equal with God as disbelievers who will be doomed to eternal punishment in Hell. Quran also does not recognize the attribute of Jesus as the Son of God or God himself, it respects Jesus as a prophet and messenger of God sent to children of Israel. Some Muslim thinkers such as Mohamed Talbi have viewed the most extreme Quranic presentations of the dogmas of the Trinity and divinity of Jesus (5:19, 5:75-76, 5:119) as non-Christian formulas that were rejected by the Church.
Cyril Glasse criticizes the use of kafirun [pl. of kafir] to describe Christians as "loose usage". According to the Encyclopedia of Islam, in traditional Islamic jurisprudence, ahl al-kitab are "usually regarded more leniently than other kuffar [pl. of kafir]..." and "in theory" a Muslim commits a punishable offense if he says to a Jew or a Christian: "Thou unbeliever".
Historically, People of the Book permanently residing under Islamic rule were entitled to a special status known as dhimmi, while those visiting Muslim lands received a different status known as musta'min.
Mushrikun (pl. of mushrik) are those who practice shirk, which literally means "association" and refers to accepting other gods and divinities alongside the god of the Muslims - Allah (as God's "associates"). The term is often translated as polytheism. The Quran distinguishes between mushrikun and People of the Book, reserving the former term for idol worshipers, although some classical commentators considered Christian doctrine to be a form of shirk. Shirk is held to be the worst form of disbelief, and it is identified in the Quran as the only sin that God cannot pardon (4:48, 4:116).
Accusations of shirk have been common in religious polemics within Islam. Thus, in the early Islamic debates on free will and theodicy, Sunni theologians charged their Mu'tazila adversaries with shirk, accusing them of attributing to man creative powers comparable to those of God in both originating and executing his own actions. Mu'tazila theologians, in turn, charged the Sunnis with shirk on the grounds that under their doctrine a voluntary human act would result from an "association" between God, who creates the act, and the individual who appropriates it by carrying it out.
In classical jurisprudence, Islamic religious tolerance applied only to the People of the Book, while mushrikun, based on the Sword Verse, faced a choice between conversion to Islam and fight to the death, which may be substituted by enslavement. In practice, the designation of People of the Book and the dhimmi status was extended even to non-monotheistic religions of conquered peoples, such as Hinduism. Following destruction of major Hindu temples during the Muslim conquests in South Asia, Hindus and Muslims on the subcontinent came to share a number of popular religious practices and beliefs, such as veneration of Sufi saints and worship at Hindu shrines.
Whether a Muslim could commit a sin great enough to become a kafir was disputed by jurists in the early centuries of Islam. The most tolerant view (that of the Murdji'a) was that even those who had committed a major sin (kabira) were still believers and "their fate was left to God". The most strict view (that of Kharidji Ibadis, descended from the Kharijites) was that every Muslim who dies having not repented of his sins was considered a kafir. In between these two positions, the Mu'tazila believed that there was a status between believer and unbeliever called "rejected" or fasiq.
The Kharijites view that the self-proclaimed Muslim who had sinned and "failed to repent had ipso facto excluded himself from the community, and was hence a kafir" (a practice known as takfir) was considered so extreme by the Sunni majority that they in turn declared the Kharijites kafir, following the hadith that declared, "If a Muslim charges a fellow Muslim with kufr, he is himself a kafir if the accusation should prove untrue".
Nevertheless, in Islamic theological polemics kafir was "a frequent term for the Muslim protagonist" holding the opposite view, according to Brill's Islamic Encyclopedia.
Another group that was "distinguished from the mass of kafirun" were the murtad, or apostate ex-Muslims, which were considered renegades and traitors, the concept of freedom of religion not being accepted. Their traditional punishment was death, even, according to some scholars, if they recanted their abandonment of Islam.
Types of disbeliefEdit
- His angels
- His Messengers
- His Revealed Books,
- The Day of Resurrection
- Al-Qadar, Divine Preordainments, i.e. whatever God has ordained must come to pass
According to the Salafi scholar Muhammad Taqi-ud-Din al-Hilali, "kufr is basically disbelief in any of the articles of faith. He also lists several different types of major disbelief, (disbelief so severe it excludes those who practice it completely from the fold of Islam):
- Kufr-at-Takdhib: disbelief in divine truth or the denial of any of the articles of Faith (quran 39:32)
- Kufr-al-iba wat-takabbur ma'at-Tasdiq: refusing to submit to God's Commandments after conviction of their truth (quran 2:34)
- Kufr-ash-Shakk waz-Zann: doubting or lacking conviction in the six articles of Faith. (quran 18:35–38)
- Kufr-al-I'raadh: turning away from the truth knowingly or deviating from the obvious signs which God has revealed. (quran 46:3)
- Kufr-an-Nifaaq: hypocritical disbelief (quran 63:2–3)
Minor disbelief or Kufran-Ni'mah indicates "ungratefulness of God's Blessings or Favours".
According to another source, a paraphrase of the Tafsir by Ibn Kathir,[unreliable source?] there are eight kinds of Al-Kufr al-Akbar (major unbelief), some are the same as those described by Al-Hilali (Kufr-al-I'rad, Kufr-an-Nifaaq) and some different.
- Kufrul-'Inaad: Disbelief out of stubbornness. This applies to someone who knows the Truth and admits to knowing the Truth, and knowing it with his tongue, but refuses to accept it and refrains from making a declaration. God says: Throw into Hell every stubborn disbeliever.
- Kufrul-Inkaar: Disbelief out of denial. This applies to someone who denies with both heart and tongue. God says: They recognize the favors of God, yet they deny them. Most of them are disbelievers.
- Kufrul-Juhood: Disbelief out of rejection. This applies to someone who acknowledges the truth in his heart, but rejects it with his tongue. This type of kufr is applicable to those who call themselves Muslims but who reject any necessary and accepted norms of Islam such as Salaat and Zakat. God says: They denied them (our signs) even though their hearts believed in them, out of spite and arrogance.
- Kufrul-Nifaaq: Disbelief out of hypocrisy. This applies to someone who pretends to be a believer but conceals his disbelief. Such a person is called a munafiq or hypocrite. God says: Verily the hypocrites will be in the lowest depths of Hell. You will find no one to help them.
- Kufrul-Kurh: Disbelief out of detesting any of God's commands. God says: Perdition (destruction) has been consigned to those who disbelieve and He will render their actions void. This is because they are averse to that which God has revealed so He has made their actions fruitless.
- Kufrul-Istihzaha: Disbelief due to mockery and derision. God says: Say: Was it at God, His signs and His apostles that you were mocking? Make no excuses. You have disbelieved after you have believed.
- Kufrul-I'raadh: Disbelief due to avoidance. This applies to those who turn away and avoid the truth. God says: And who is more unjust than he who is reminded of his Lord's signs but then turns away from them. Then he forgets what he has sent forward (for the Day of Judgement).
- Kufrul-Istibdaal: Disbelief because of trying to substitute God's Laws with man-made laws. God says: Or have they partners with God who have instituted for them a religion that God has not allowed. God says: Say not concerning that which your tongues put forth falsely (that) is lawful and this is forbidden so as to invent a lie against God. Verily, those who invent a lie against God will never prosper.
History of usageEdit
In proper senseEdit
When the Islamic empire expanded, the word "kafir" was used broadly for all pagans and anyone who disbelieved in Islam. Historically, the attitude toward unbelievers in Islam was determined more by socio-political conditions than by religious doctrine. A tolerance toward unbelievers "impossible to imagine in contemporary Christendom" prevailed even to the time of the Crusades, particularly with respect to the People of the Book. However, animosity was nourished by repeated wars with unbelievers, and warfare between Safavid Persia and Ottoman Turkey brought about application of the term kafir even to Persians in Turkish fatwas. During the era of European colonialism, the political decline of Islam impeded organized state action against the pressure from Western nations, and the resulting feeling of impotence contributed to a rise of hatred against unbelievers and its periodic manifestations, such as massacres.
However, there was extensive religious violence in India between Muslims and non-Muslims during the Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire (before the political decline of Islam). In their memoirs on Muslim invasions, enslavement and plunder of this period, many Muslim historians in South Asia used the term Kafir for Hindus, Buddhists, Sikhs and Jains. Raziuddin Aquil states that "non-Muslims were often condemned as kafirs, in medieval Indian Islamic literature, including court chronicles, Sufi texts and literary compositions" and fatwas were issued that justified persecution of the non-Muslims.
Relations between Jews and Muslims in the Arab world and use of the word "kafir" were equally as complex, and over the last century, issues regarding "kafir" have arisen over the conflict in Israel and Palestine. Calling the Jews of Israel, "the usurping kafir", Yasser Arafat turned on the Muslim resistance and "allegedly set a precedent for preventing Muslims from mobilizing against 'aggressor disbelievers' in other Muslim lands, and enabled 'the cowardly, alien kafir' to achieve new levels of intervention in Muslim affairs."
A hadith in which Muhammad states that his father was in hell has become a source of disagreement about the status of Muhammad's parents. Over the centuries, Sunni scholars have dismissed this hadith despite its appearance in the authoritative Sahih Muslim collection. It passed through a single chain of transmission for three generations, so that its authenticity was not considered certain enough to supersede a theological consensus which stated that people who died before a prophetic message reached them—as Muhammad's father had done—could not be held accountable for not embracing it. Shia Muslims scholars likewise consider Muhammad's parents to be in Paradise. In contrast, the Salafi website IslamQA.info argues that Islamic tradition teaches that Muhammad's parents were kuffār (disbelievers) who are in Hell.
By the 15th century, the word Kaffir was used by Muslims in Africa to refer to the non-Muslim African natives. Many of those kufari were enslaved and sold by their Muslims captors to European and Asian merchants, mainly from Portugal, who by that time had established trading outposts along the coast of West Africa. These European traders adopted that Arabic word and its derivatives.
Some of the earliest records of European usage of the word can be found in The Principal Navigations, Voyages, Traffiques and Discoveries of the English Nation by Hakluyt, Richard, 1552–1616. In volume 4, Hakluyt writes: "calling them Cafars and Gawars, which is, infidels or disbelievers. Volume 9 refers to the slaves (slaves called Cafari) and inhabitants of Ethiopia (and they use to go in small shippes, and trade with the Cafars) by two different but similar names. The word is also used in reference to the coast of Africa as land of Cafraria. The 16th century explorer Leo Africanus described the Cafri as "negroes", and one of five principal population groups in Africa. He identified their geographical heartland as being located in remote southern Africa, an area which he designated as Cafraria.
By the late 19th century the word was in use in English-language newspapers and books. One of the Union-Castle Line ships operating off the South African coast was named SS Kafir. In the early twentieth century, in his book The Essential Kafir, Dudley Kidd writes that the word "kafir" had come to be used for all dark-skinned South African tribes. Thus, in many parts of South Africa, "kafir" became synonymous with the word, "native". Currently in South Africa, however, the word kaffir is regarded as a racial slur, applied pejoratively or offensively to blacks.
The song "Kafir" by American technical death metal band Nile from their sixth album Those Whom the Gods Detest uses as subject matter the violent attitudes that Muslim extremists have toward Kafirs.
The Nuristani people were formally known as Kaffirs of Kafiristan before the Afghan Islamization of the region. Moreover, their native name was Kapir, due to the lack of a "P" in Arabic, they coincidentally were called Kafirs, which was incorrect but again correct since they were polytheists, moreover Henotheists.
- Kafirun (Sura)
- Ahl al-Fatrah
- Apostasy in Islam
- Divisions of the world in Islam
- Islamic view of the Trinity
- That this verse criticizes a deviant form of Trinitarian belief which overstressed distinctiveness of the three persons at the expense of their unity. Modern scholars have also interpreted it as a reference to Jesus, who was often called "the third of three" in Syriac literature and as an intentional over-simplification of Christian doctrine intended to highlight its weakness from a strictly monotheistic perspective.
- Bunt, Gary (2009). Muslims. The Other Press. p. ccxxiv. Retrieved 27 August 2015.
- Glasse, Cyril (1989). The New Encyclopedia of Islam (Revised 2001 ed.). NY: Altamira Press. p. 247. ISBN 0759101892.
- Adapted from Ibn Kathir. "Types of Kufr (Disbelief)". SunnaOnline.com. Retrieved 3 January 2016.
- Ahmed Affi, Hassan Affi Contemporary Interpretation of Islamic Law Troubador Publishing Ltd 2014 ISBN 978-1-783-06759-6 page 12
- J. I. Laliwala Islamic Philosophy of Religion: Synthesis of Science Religion and Philosophy Sarup & Sons 2005 ISBN 978-8-176-25476-2 page 86
- Asghar Ali Engineer Islam in Contemporary World Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd 2007 ISBN 978-1-932-70569-0 xvi
- Ejaz Naqvi The Quran: With Or Against the Bible? : a Topic-by-topic Review for the Investigative Mind iUniverse 2012 ISBN 978-1-475-90774-2 page 254
- Rajan, Julie (30 January 2015). Al Qaeda’s Global Crisis: The Islamic State, Takfir and the Genocide of Muslims. Routledge. p. cii. Retrieved 27 August 2015.
- Pruniere, Gerard (1 January 2007). Darfur: The Ambiguous Genocide. Cornell University Press. p. xvi. Retrieved 27 August 2015.
- Emmanuel M. Ekwo Racism and Terrorism: Aftermath of 9/11 Author House 2010 ISBN 978-1-452-04748-5 page 143
- Shaykh Muhammad Saalih al-Munajjid. "Islam Question and Answer". Retrieved 11 June 2015.
- "kafir". OxfordDictionaries.com. Archived from the original on 2015-05-12.
- Swartz, Merlin (30 January 2015). A medieval critique of Anthropomorphism. Brill. p. 96. Retrieved 27 July 2017.
- (أَعْجَبَ الْكُفَّارَ نَبَاتُهُ) Surah 57 Al-Hadid (Iron) Ayah 20
- Goldziher, Ignác (1877). Mythology among the Hebrews. p. 193. Retrieved 2015-06-28.
- "Islamic terminology". Retrieved 11 June 2015.
- Mansour, Ahmed (24 September 2006). "Ahl al-Quran". Retrieved 11 June 2015.
- Kepel, Gilles (2002). Jihad: The Trail of Political Islam. Harvard University Press. p. 31. Retrieved 11 June 2015.
- Michael Berenbaum and Fred Skolnik, ed. (2007). "Kipper" Encyclopaedia Judaica (2nd ed.). Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA. pp. 180–83. Retrieved 26 September 2013.
- Ibn Baaz. "What is the Difference between Kufr and Shirk? [Fatawa Ibn Baaz]". Quran Sunnah Educational Programs. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
- Campo, Juan Eduardo (2009). Encyclopedia of Islam. Infobase Publishing. pp. 420–22. ISBN 9781438126968.
- Adang, Camilla (2006). "Belief and Unbelief". In Jane Dammen McAuliffe. Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān. Brill. (Subscription required (. ))
- Charles Adams (rev. by A. Kevin Reinhart) (2009). "Kufr". In John L. Esposito. The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (Subscription required (. ))
- Houtsma, M. Th. (ed.). E. J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913–1936, Volume 4. Brill. p. 619. Retrieved 29 June 2015.
- Waldman, Marilyn (Jul–Sep 1968). "The Development of the Concept of Kufr in the Qur'an". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 88 (3): 442–55. doi:10.2307/596869. JSTOR 596869.
- Thomas, David (2006). "Trinity". In Jane Dammen McAuliffe. Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān. Brill. (Subscription required (. ))
- Joseph, Jojo, Qur’an-Gospel Convergence: The Qur’an’s Message To Christians, Journal of Dharma, 1 (January-March 2010), pp. 55-76
- Mazuz, Haggai (2012) Christians in the Qurʾān: Some Insights Derived from the Classical Exegetic Approach, Journal of Dharma 35, 1 (January-March 2010), 55-76
- Schirrmacher, Christine, The Islamic view of Christians: Qur’an and Hadith, http://www.worldevangelicals.org
- Carré, Olivier (2003). Mysticism and Politics: A Critical Reading of Fī Ẓilāl Al-Qurʼān by Sayyid Quṭb. Boston: Brill. pp. 63–64.
- Björkman, W. (2012). "Kāfir". In P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. Encyclopaedia of Islam (2nd ed.). Brill. (Subscription required (. ))
- Gimaret, D. (2012). "S̲h̲irk". In P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. Encyclopaedia of Islam (2nd ed.). Brill. (Subscription required (. ))
- Wael B. Hallaq (2009). Sharī'a: Theory, Practice, Transformations. Cambridge University Press (Kindle edition). p. 327.
- Lewis, Bernard (1995). The Middle East, A Brief History of the Last 2000 Years. Touchstone. p. 230. ISBN 0684832801.
- Lapidus, Ira M. (2014). A History of Islamic Societies. Cambridge University Press (Kindle edition). pp. 391, 396. ISBN 978-0-521-51430-9.
- Ruthven, Malise (April 2002). "The Eleventh of September and the Sudanese mahdiya in the Context of Ibn Khaldun's Theory of Islamic History". International Affairs. 78 (2): 344–45. doi:10.1111/1468-2346.00254.
- Lewis, Bernard (1995). The Middle East, A Brief History of the Last 2000 Years. Touchstone. p. 230. ISBN 0684832801.
Tolerance may in no circumstances be extended to the apostate, the renegade Muslim, whose punishment is death. Some authorities allow the remission of this punishment if the apostate recants. Others insist on the death penalty even then. God may pardon him the world to come; the law must punish him in this world.
- "Six Articles of the Islamic Faith". Religion Facts. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
- Quran 2:285
- Taqi-ud-Din Al-Hilali, Muhammad; Khan, Muhammad Muhsin. The Holy Quran Translation. ideas4islam. pp. 901–02. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
- Ali, Abdullah Yusuf (2001). The Qur'an. Tahrike Tarsile Qur'an. verse 50:24.
- Ali, Abdullah Yusuf (2001). The Qur'an. Tahrike Tarsile Qur'an. verse 16:83.
- Ali, Abdullah Yusuf (2001). The Qur'an. Tahrike Tarsile Qur'an. verse 27:14.
- Ali, Abdullah Yusuf (2001). The Qur'an. Tahrike Tarsile Qur'an. verse 4:145.
- Ali, Abdullah Yusuf (2001). The Qur'an. Tahrike Tarsile Qur'an. verse 47:8–9.
- Ali, Abdullah Yusuf (2001). The Qur'an. Tahrike Tarsile Qur'an. verse 9:65–66.
- Ali, Abdullah Yusuf (2001). The Qur'an. Tahrike Tarsile Qur'an. verse 18:57.
- Ali, Abdullah Yusuf (2001). The Qur'an. Tahrike Tarsile Qur'an. verse 42:8.
- Ali, Abdullah Yusuf (2001). The Qur'an. Tahrike Tarsile Qur'an. verse 16:116.
- Engineer, Ashghar Ali (13–19 February 1999). "Hindu-Muslim Problem: An Approach". Economic and Political Weekly. 37 (7): 397. doi:10.2307/4407649. JSTOR 4407649.
- Elliot and Dowson, Tarikh-i Mubarak-Shahi, The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians – The Muhammadan Period, Vol 4, Trubner London, p. 273
- Gaborieau, Marc (June 1985). "From Al-Beruni to Jinnah: Idiom, Ritual and Ideology of the Hindu-Muslim Confrontation in South Asia". Anthropology Today. Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. 1 (3): 7–14. doi:10.2307/3033123. JSTOR 3033123.
- Holt et al., The Cambridge History of Islam - The Indian sub-continent, south-east Asia, Africa and the Muslim west, ISBN 978-0521291378
- Scott Levi (2002), Hindu beyond Hindu Kush: Indians in Central Asian Slave Trade, Journal of Royal Asiatic Society, Vol 12, Part 3, pp. 281–83
- Elliot and Dowson, Tabakat-i-Nasiri, The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians – The Muhammadan Period, Vol 2, Trubner London, pp. 347–67
- Elliot and Dowson, Tarikh-i Mubarak-Shahi, The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians – The Muhammadan Period, Vol 4, Trubner London, pp. 68–69
- Raziuddin Aquil (2008), On Islam and Kufr in the Delhi Sultanate, in Rethinking a Millennium: Perspectives on Indian History (Editor: Rajat Datta), ISBN 978-8189833367, Chapter 7, pp. 168–85
- Taji-Farouki, Suha (October 2000). "Islamists and the Threat of Jihad: Hizb al-Tahrir and al-Muhajiroun on Israel and the Jews". Middle Eastern Studies. 36 (4): 26. doi:10.1080/00263200008701330. JSTOR 4284112.
- Brown, Jonathan A.C. (2015). Misquoting Muhammad: The Challenge and Choices of Interpreting the Prophet's Legacy. Oneworld Publications (Kindle edition). pp. Loc. 4042.
- alhassanain. The Nasibis Kufr Fatwa - that the Prophet (s)'sparents were Kaafir (God forbid)
- Shia Pen. Chapter Four – The pure monotheistic lineage of Prophets and Imams (as)
- Richard Gauvain (2013). Salafi Ritual Purity: In the Presence of God. Routledge. p. 335. ISBN 9780710313560.
- islamqa.info. 47170: Are the parents of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) in Paradise or in Hell?
- Campo, Juan Eduardo (2009). Encyclopedia of Islam. Infobase Publishing. p. 422. ISBN 0-8160-5454-1.
- Works by Richard Hakluyt at Project Gutenberg
- Africanus, Leo (1526). The History and Description of Africa. Hakluyt Society. pp. 20, 53 & 65. Retrieved 27 July 2017.
- "Barnato a Suicide; The Kafir King Leaps Overboard..." New York Times. 1897. Retrieved 23 October 2008.
- "Kafir Band in Jail and Mighty Glad, Too". New York Times. 1905-10-18. Retrieved 2008-10-23.
- "The Autobiography of Lieutenant-General Sir Harry Smith". Retrieved 23 October 2008.
- "Union Steamship Company". Archived from the original on 22 September 2008. Retrieved 23 October 2008.
- Kidd, Dudley (1925). The Essential Kafir. New York: The MacMillan Company. pp. v.
- Theal, Georg McCall (1970). Kaffir (Xhosa) Folk-Lore: A Selection from the Traditional Tales Current among the People Living on the Eastern Border of the Cape Colony with Copious Explanatory Notes. Westport, CT: Negro Universities.
- "Song Lyrics". Sound Media; Tone Media. Retrieved 4 December 2012.
- "Nuristan, The Hidden Land of Hindu Kush, The Land of Light". Blogger. Retrieved 5 December 2012.
- Welker, Glenn. "Kalash Kafirs of Chitral". Indigenous Peoples' Literature. Archived from the original on 12 April 2012. Retrieved 5 December 2012.
- "Collins Spanish Dictionary, entry for cafre".
|Look up kafir in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|