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Saint Mary Magdalene,[a] sometimes called simply the Magdalene, was a Jewish woman who, according to the four canonical gospels, traveled with Jesus as one of his followers and was a witness to his crucifixion, burial, and resurrection.[2] She is mentioned by name at least twelve times in the canonical gospels, more than most of the apostles.

Mary Magdalene
TINTORETTO - Magdalena penitente (Musei Capitolini, Roma, 1598-1602) - copia.jpg
The Penitent Magdalene (c. 1598)
by Domenico Tintoretto
Apostle to the Apostles
Venerated in Eastern Orthodox Church
Catholic Church
Anglican Communion
Lutheranism
other Protestant churches
Bahá'í Faith
Canonized pre-Congregation
Feast July 22
Attributes

Western: alabaster box of ointment

Eastern: container of ointment (as a myrrhbearer), or holding a red egg (symbol of the resurrection); embracing the feet of Christ after the Resurrection
Patronage Apothecaries; Kawit, Cavite; Atrani, Italy; Arahal, Spain; Casamicciola Terme, Ischia; contemplative life; converts; glove makers; hairdressers; penitent sinners; people ridiculed for their piety; perfumeries; pharmacists; sexual temptation; tanners; women

Mary's epithet Magdalene most likely means that she came from the town of Magdala, a fishing town on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee. The Gospel of Luke 8:2-3 lists Mary as one of the women who traveled with Jesus and helped support his ministry "out of their resources", indicating that she was probably relatively wealthy. The same passage also states that seven demons had been driven out of her, a statement which is repeated in the longer ending of Mark. In all four canonical gospels, she is a witness to the crucifixion of Jesus and, in the Synoptic Gospels, she is also present at his burial. All four gospels identify her, either alone or as a member of a larger group of women, as the first witness to the empty tomb,[2] and the first to testify to Jesus's resurrection.[3] For these reasons, she is known in many Christian traditions as the "apostle to the apostles".

Mary is a central figure in later apocryphal Gnostic Christian writings, including the Dialogue of the Savior, the Pistis Sophia, the Gospel of Thomas, the Gospel of Philip, and the Gospel of Mary, which portray her as Jesus's closest disciple and the only one who truly understood his teachings. In the Gnostic gospels, Mary Magdalene's closeness to Jesus results in tension with the other disciples, particularly Simon Peter. During the Middle Ages, Mary Magdalene was conflated in western tradition with Mary of Bethany and the unnamed "sinful woman" who anoints Jesus's feet in Luke 7:36-50, resulting in the misconception that she was a repentant prostitute or promiscuous woman.[4][2]

Elaborate medieval legends from western Europe tell of Mary Magdalene's purportedly exceptional wealth and beauty and as well as an alleged journey to southern France. Mary Magdalene is considered to be a saint by the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Anglican, and Lutheran churches—with a feast day of July 22. Other Protestant churches honor her as a heroine of the faith. The Eastern Orthodox churches also commemorate her on the Sunday of the Myrrhbearers, the Orthodox equivalent of one of the Western Three Marys traditions. Speculations that Mary Magdalene was Jesus's wife or that she had a sexual relationship with him are regarded by most historians as highly dubious.

Contents

LifeEdit

It is widely accepted among secular historians that, like Jesus, Mary Magdalene was a real historical figure.[5][6] Nonetheless, very little is known about her life.[7] Unlike Paul the Apostle, Mary Magdalene has left behind no writings of her own,[8] nor were any works later forged under her name.[8] She is never mentioned in any of the Pauline epistles or in any of the general epistles.[9] The earliest and most reliable sources about her life are the three Synoptic Gospels of Mark, Matthew, and Luke, which were all written during the first century AD.[10][11][12]

During Jesus's ministryEdit

 
The Conversion of Mary Magdalene (c. 1548) by Paolo Veronese. According to Gospel of Luke 8:2, Jesus exorcized "seven demons" from Mary Magdalene.[13][14][15]

Mary Magdalene's epithet Magdalene (ἡ Μαγδαληνή; literally "the Magdalene") most likely means that she came from Magdala,[16][17][1][b] a village on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee that was primarily known in antiquity as a fishing town.[16][20] Mary was, by far, the most common Jewish given name for females during the first century,[16][c] so it was necessary for the authors of the gospels to call her Magdalene in order to distinguish her from the other women named Mary who followed Jesus.[16] Although the Gospel of Mark, the earliest surviving gospel, does not mention Mary Magdalene until Jesus's crucifixion,[25] the Gospel of Luke 8:2-3 provides a brief summary of her role during his ministry:[26]

Soon afterwards he went on through cities and villages, proclaiming and bringing the good news of the kingdom of God. The twelve were with him, as well as some women who had been cured of evil spirits and infirmities: Mary, called Magdalene, from whom seven demons had gone out, and Joanna, the wife of Herod's steward Chuza, and Susanna, and many others, who provided for them out of their resources.

The statement that Mary had been possessed by seven demons is repeated in Mark 16:9,[27] part of the "longer ending" of that gospel, not found in the earliest manuscripts, and is actually a second-century addition to the original text, possibly based on the Gospel of Luke.[27][28] In the first century, demons were widely believed to be the cause of physical and psychological illness.[29][13][14] Bruce Chilton, a scholar of early Christianity, states that the reference to the number of demons being "seven" may mean that Mary had to undergo seven exorcisms, probably over a long period of time, due to the first six being partially or wholly unsuccessful.[15] Bart D. Ehrman, a New Testament scholar and historian of early Christianity, contends that the number seven may be merely symbolic,[14] since, in Jewish tradition, seven was the number of completion,[14] so the statement that Mary was possessed by seven demons may simply mean she was completely overwhelmed by their power.[14] In either case, Mary must have suffered from severe emotional or psychological trauma in order for an exorcism of this kind to have been perceived as necessary.[13][30] Consequently, her devotion to Jesus on account of this healing must have been very strong.[16][31][32][27] The gospel-writers normally relish giving dramatic descriptions of Jesus's public exorcisms, with the possessed person wailing, thrashing, and tearing his or her clothes in front of a crowd.[33] The fact that Mary's exorcism is given so little attention may indicate that it was either done in private or that it was not seen as particularly dramatic.[33]

Because Mary is listed as one of the women who were supporting Jesus's ministry financially, she must have been relatively wealthy.[16][34] The places where she and the other women are mentioned throughout the gospels strongly indicates that they were central to Jesus's ministry[35][36][37] and the fact that, whenever Mary Magdalene is listed as a member of a group of women in the Synoptic Gospels, she is always listed first indicates that she was seen as the most important out of all of them.[38][39] Carla Ricci notes that, in lists of the disciples, Mary Magdalene occupies a similar position among Jesus's female followers as Simon Peter does among the male apostles.[39] The fact that women played such an active and important role in Jesus's ministry was not entirely radical or even unique;[36][37] inscriptions from a synagogue in Aphrodisias in Asia Minor from around the same time period reveal that many of the major donors to the synagogue were women.[36] Furthermore, it is highly improbable that the historical Jesus ever advocated for complete equality between the sexes,[40][41] especially considering that one of the best-attested facts of his life is that all twelve of his chosen apostles were male.[42] Nonetheless, Jesus's ministry did bring women greater liberation than they would have typically held in mainstream Jewish society.[43][37] Jesus taught that, in the imminent kingdom of God, there would be a reversal of roles and those who had been oppressed would be exalted.[44] According to Ehrman, this idea would have likely been particularly appealing and empowering to women of the time period, such as Mary Magdalene, who may have felt oppressed by traditional patriarchy.[45]

Witness to Jesus's crucifixion and burialEdit

 
The Deposition (1507) by Raphael, showing a distressed, reddish-blond-haired Mary Magdalene dressed in fine clothes clutching the hand of Jesus's body as he is carried to the tomb[46]

All four canonical gospels agree that Mary Magdalene, along with several other women, watched Jesus's crucifixion from a distance.[47] Mark 15:40 lists the names of the women present as Mary Magdalene, Mary, mother of James, and Salome.[47] Matthew 27:55-56 lists Mary Magdalene, Mary mother of James and Joseph, and the unnamed mother of the sons of Zebedee (who may be the same person Mark calls Salome).[47] Luke 23:49 mentions a group of women watching the crucifixion, but does not give any of their names.[47] John 19:25 lists Mary, mother of Jesus, her sister Mary, wife of Cleopas, and Mary Magdalene as witnesses to the crucifixion.[47]

Virtually all reputable historians agree that Jesus really was crucified by the Romans under the orders of Pontius Pilate.[48][49][50][51][52] Nonetheless, the gospels' accounts of Jesus's crucifixion differ considerably[53] and most secular historians agree that some of the details in the accounts have been altered to fit their authors' theological agendas.[53] Ehrman states that the presence of Mary Magdalene and the other women at the cross is probably historical because Christians would have been unlikely to make up that the main witnesses to the crucifixion were women[54] and also because their presence is independently attested in both the Synoptic Gospels and in the Gospel of John.[55] Maurice Casey concurs that the presence of Mary Magdalene and the other women at the crucifixion and burial of Jesus may be recorded as a historical fact.[5] According to E. P. Sanders, the reason why the women watched the crucifixion even after the male disciples had fled may have been because they were less likely to be arrested, because they were braver than the males, or because of some combination thereof.[56]

All four canonical gospels, as well as the apocryphal Gospel of Peter, agree that Jesus's body was taken down from the cross and buried by a man named Joseph of Arimathea.[47] Mark 15:47 lists Mary Magdalene and Mary, mother of Joses as witnesses to the burial of Jesus.[47] Matthew 27:61 lists Mary Magdalene and "the other Mary" as witnesses.[47] Luke 23:55 mentions "the women who had followed him from Galilee", but does not list any of their names.[47] John 19:39–42 does not mention any women present during Joseph's burial of Jesus,[47] but does mention the presence of Nicodemus, a Pharisee with whom Jesus had a conversation near the beginning of the gospel.[47]

Resurrection of JesusEdit

 
Holy Women at Christ's Tomb (c. 1590s) by Annibale Carracci. In Matthew 28:1-10, Mary Magdalene and "the other Mary" encounter an angel at the tomb, who tells them that Christ has risen.[57][58][59]

All four canonical gospels, as well as the apocryphal Gospel of Peter, agree that Mary Magdalene, either alone or as a member of a group, was the first person to discover that Jesus's tomb was empty.[55][60] Nonetheless, the details of the accounts differ drastically.[58] According to Mark 16:1-8, the earliest account of the discovery of the empty tomb, Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James, and Salome went to the tomb just after sunrise a day and half after Jesus's burial and found that the stone had already been rolled away.[61][58][59] They went inside and saw a young man dressed in white, who told them that Jesus had risen from the dead and instructed them to tell the male disciples that he would meet them in Galilee.[57][58][59] Instead, the women ran away and told no one, because they were too afraid.[57][58][59] The original text of the gospel ends here, without the resurrected Jesus ever actually making an appearance to anyone.[57][62][59] Casey argues that the reason for this abrupt ending may be because the Gospel of Mark is an unfinished first draft.[57]

According to Matthew 28:1-10, Mary Magdalene and "the other Mary" went to the tomb.[57][58][59] An earthquake occurred and an angel dressed in white descended from Heaven and rolled aside the stone as the women were watching.[57][58][59] The angel told them that Jesus has risen from the dead.[57][58][59] Then the risen Jesus himself appeared to the women as they were leaving the tomb and told them to tell the other disciples that he would meet them in Galilee.[57][58][59] According to Luke 24:1-12 a group of unnamed "women" went to the tomb and found the stone already rolled away, as in Mark.[63][58][59] They went inside and saw two young men dressed in white who told them that Jesus had risen from the dead.[63][58][59] Then they went and told the eleven remaining apostles, who dismissed their story as nonsense.[63][58][59] In Luke's account, Jesus never appears to the women,[64][58][59] but instead makes his first appearance to Cleopas and an unnamed "disciple" on the road to Emmaus.[64][58][59] Luke's narrative also removes the injunction for the women to tell the disciples to return to Galilee and instead has Jesus tell the disciples not to return to Galilee, but rather to stay in the precincts of Jerusalem.[64][65]

 
Appearance of Jesus Christ to Maria Magdalena (1835) by Alexander Andreyevich Ivanov. In John 20:1-13, Mary Magdalene sees the risen Jesus alone[66][62] and he tells her "Don't touch me, for I have not yet ascended to my father."[62]

Mary Magdalene's role in the resurrection narrative is greatly increased in the account from the Gospel of John.[67][60] According to John 20:1-10, Mary Magdalene went to the tomb alone when it was still dark and saw that the stone had already been rolled away.[60][66][68] She did not see anyone, but immediately ran to tell Peter and the "beloved disciple",[60][68] who came with her to the tomb and confirmed that it was empty,[67][60] but returned home without seeing the risen Jesus.[67][60] According to John 20:11-18, Mary, now alone in the garden outside the tomb, saw two angels sitting where Jesus's body had been.[60] Then the risen Jesus approached her.[69][60] She at first mistook him for the gardener,[67][60] but, after she heard him say her name, she recognized him and cried out "Rabbouni!" (which is Aramaic for "teacher").[67][60] She tried to touch him, but he told her, "Don't touch me, for I have not yet ascended to my father."[62] Jesus then sent her to tell the other apostles the good news of his resurrection.[67][60] The Gospel of John therefore portrays Mary Magdalene as the first apostle, the apostle sent to the apostles.[67][60]

Ehrman states that "it appears virtually certain" that the stories of the empty tomb, regardless of whether or not they are accurate, can definitely be traced back to the historical Mary Magdalene,[70] pointing out that, in Jewish society, women were regarded as unreliable witnesses and were forbidden from giving testimony in court,[71] so early Christians would have had no motive to make up a story about a woman being the first to discover the empty tomb.[71] In fact, if they had made the story up, they would have had strong motivation to make Peter, Jesus's closest disciple while he was alive, the discoverer of the tomb instead.[71] He also points out that the story of Mary Magdalene discovering the empty tomb is independently attested in the Synoptics, the Gospel of John, and in the Gospel of Peter.[72] N. T. Wright states that "it is, frankly, impossible to imagine that [the women at the tomb] were inserted into the tradition after Paul's day."[73][5] Casey challenges this consensus, arguing that the women at the tomb are not legal witnesses, but rather heroines in line with a long Jewish tradition.[5] He contends that the story of the empty tomb was invented by either the author of the Gospel of Mark or by one of his sources, based on the historically genuine fact that the women really had been present at Jesus's crucifixion and burial.[5]

Apocryphal early Christian writingsEdit

In apocryphal texts, Mary Magdalene is portrayed as a visionary and leader of the early movement whom Jesus loved more than he loved the other disciples.[74] These texts were largely written long after the death of the historical Mary Magdalene[10][8] and are generally not regarded by scholars as reliable sources of information about her life.[10][8] Nonetheless, they have been frequently promoted in works addressed to popular audiences as though they were reliable, often to support sensationalist claims about Jesus and Mary Magdalene's relationship.[75]

Dialogue of the SaviorEdit

 
Fragment of a fourth-century text of the apocryphal Dialogue of the Savior, in which Mary Magdalene is a central figure[76]

The earliest dialogue between Jesus and Mary Magdalene is probably the Dialogue of the Savior,[27] a badly damaged Gnostic text discovered in the Nag Hammadi library in 1945.[27] The dialogue consists of a conversation between Jesus and three disciples: Judas Thomas, Matthew, and Mary.[77] The fact that the author chose Mary over all the other apostles, including Simon Peter, is highly indicative of her importance for early Gnostic Christians.[77] In saying 53, the Dialogue even attributes to Mary three aphorisms that are attributed to Jesus in the New Testament: "The wickedness of each day [is sufficient]. Workers deserve their food. Disciples resemble their teachers."[77] The narrator commends Mary stating "she spoke this utterance as a woman who understood everything."[77]

Pistis SophiaEdit

The Pistis Sophia, possibly dating as early as the second century, is the best surviving of the Gnostic writings.[78] It was discovered in the eighteenth century in a large volume containing numerous early Gnostic treatises.[79] The document takes the form of a long dialogue in which Jesus answers his followers' questions.[80] Of the sixty-four questions, thirty-nine are presented by a woman who is referred to as Mary or Mary Magdalene. At one point, Jesus tells Mary, "Mary, thou blessed one, whom I will perfect in all mysteries of those of the height, discourse in openness, thou, whose heart is raised to the kingdom of heaven more than all thy brethren".[78] At another point, he tells her, "Well done, Mary. You are more blessed than all women on earth, because you will be the fullness of fullness and the completion of completion."[80] Simon Peter, annoyed at Mary's dominance of the conversation, tells Jesus, "My master, we cannot endure this woman who gets in our way and does not let any of us speak, though she talks all the time."[80] Mary defends herself, saying, "My master, I understand in my mind that I can come forward at any time to interpret what Pistis Sophia [the divine being who gives wisdom] has said, but I am afraid of Peter, because he threatens me and hates our gender."[80] Jesus assures her, "Any of those filled with the spirit of light will come forward to interpret what I say: no one will be able to oppose them."[80]

Gospel of ThomasEdit

 
Last page of the Gospel of Thomas from Nag Hammadi, containing the account of Jesus's reaffirmation of Mary's authority to Peter[81]

The Gospel of Thomas, usually dated to the late first or early second century, was among the ancient texts discovered in the Nag Hammadi library in 1945.[82] The Gospel of Thomas consists entirely of 114 sayings attributed to Jesus.[83] Many of these sayings are similar to ones in the canonical gospels,[84] but others are completely unlike anything found in the New Testament.[83] Some scholars believe that at least a few of these sayings may authentically be traced back to the historical Jesus.[84] Two of the sayings reference a woman named "Mary", who is generally regarded as Mary Magdalene.[83] In saying 21, Mary herself asks Jesus the perfectly innocuous question, "Whom are your disciples like?"[85] Jesus responds, "They are like children who have settled in a field which is not theirs. When the owners of the field come, they will say, 'Let us have back our field.' They (will) undress in their presence in order to let them have back their field and to give it back to them". Following this, Jesus continues his explanation with a parable about the owner of a house and a thief, ending with the common rhetoric, "Whoever has ears to hear let him hear".

Mary's mention in saying 114, however, has generated considerable controversy:[85]

Simon Peter said to them: Let Mary go forth from among us, for women are not worthy of the life. Jesus said: Behold, I shall lead her, that I may make her male, in order that she also may become a living spirit like you males. For every woman who makes herself male shall enter into the kingdom of heaven.[82]

In the ancient world, it was almost universally believed that women were inferior to men[81] and that they were, in essence, "imperfect men" who had not fully developed.[81] When Peter challenges Mary's authority in this saying, he does so on the widely accepted premise that she is a woman and therefore an inferior human being.[86] When Jesus rebukes him for this, he bases his response on the same premise,[86] stating that Mary and all faithful women like her will become men and that salvation is therefore open to all, even those who are presently women.[86]

Gospel of PhilipEdit

 
Text of the Gospel of Philip from Nag Hammadi

The Gospel of Philip, dating from the second or third century, survives in part among the texts found in Nag Hammadi in 1945.[87] In a manner very similar to John 19:25–26, the Gospel of Philip presents Mary Magdalene among Jesus' female entourage, adding that she was his koinônos,[88] a Greek word variously translated in contemporary versions as partner, associate, comrade, companion:[89][88]

There were three who always walked with the Lord: Mary, his mother, and her sister, and Magdalene, who was called his companion. His sister,[90] his mother and his companion were each a Mary.[87]

The Gospel of Philip uses cognates of koinônos and Coptic equivalents to refer to the literal pairing of men and women in marriage and sexual intercourse, but also metaphorically, referring to a spiritual partnership, and the reunification of the Gnostic Christian with the divine realm.[91] The Gospel of Philip also contains another passage relating to Jesus's relationship with Mary Magdalene.[88] The text is badly fragmented, and speculated but unreliable additions are shown in brackets:

And the companion of the saviour was Mary Magdalene. Christ loved Mary more than all the disciples, and used to kiss her often. The rest of the disciples were offended by it and expressed disapproval. They said to him, "Why do you love her more than all of us?" The Saviour answered and said to them, "Why do I not love you like her?"[87]

For early Christians, kissing did not have a romantic connotation and that it was common for Christians to kiss their fellow believers as a way of greeting.[92][93][d] This tradition is still practiced in many Christian congregations today and is known as the "kiss of peace".[88] Ehrman explains that, in the context of the Gospel of Philip, the kiss of peace is used as a symbol for the passage of truth from one person to another[94] and that it is not in any way an act of "divine foreplay".[93]

Gospel of MaryEdit

 
Papyrus Oxyrhynchus L 3525, a fragment of the Greek text of the Gospel of Mary

The Gospel of Mary is the only surviving gospel named after a woman[95] and it provides important information about the role of women in the early church.[96][97] The Gospel of Mary was probably written over a century after the historical Mary Magdalene's death.[8] The gospel does not claim to have been written by her and its author is, in fact, anonymous.[8] Instead, it received its title because it is about her.[8] The main surviving text of the gospel comes from a Coptic translation preserved in a fifth-century manuscript (Berolinensis Gnosticus 8052,1) discovered in Cairo in 1896.[98][97] Due to numerous intervening conflicts, the manuscript was not published until 1955, nearly a full lifetime after its discovery.[95] Roughly half the text of the gospel in this manuscript has been lost;[99][100] the first six pages and four from the middle are missing.[99][100] In addition to this Coptic translation, two brief third-century fragments of the gospel in the original Greek (P. Rylands 463 and P. Oxyrhynchus 3525) have also been discovered, which were published in 1938 and 1983 respectively.[97]

The first part of the gospel deals with Jesus's parting words to his followers after a post-resurrection appearance.[101] Mary first appears in the second part of the gospel,[102] in which she tells the other disciples, who are all in fright for their own lives: "Do not weep or grieve or be in doubt, for his grace will be with you all and will protect you. Rather, let us praise his greatness, for he has prepared us and made us truly human."[102] Unlike in the Gospel of Thomas, where women can only be saved by becoming men, in the Gospel of Mary, they can be saved just as they are.[103] Peter approaches Mary and asks her:[104]

Peter said to Mary, "Sister we know that the Savior loved you more than the rest of woman. Tell us the words of the Savior which you remember which you know, but we do not, nor have we heard them". Mary answered and said, "What is hidden from you I will proclaim to you". And she began to speak to them these words: "I", she said, "I saw the Lord in a vision and I said to Him, Lord I saw you today in a vision".[100]

Mary then proceeds to describe the Gnostic cosmology in depth, revealing that she is the only one who has understood Jesus's true teachings.[105] Andrew challenges Mary, insisting, "Say what you think about what she said, but I do not believe the savior said this. These teachings are strange ideas."[106] Peter responds, saying, "Did he really speak with a woman in private, without our knowledge? Should we all listen to her? Did he prefer her to us?"[106] Andrew and Peter's responses are intended to demonstrate that they do not understand Jesus's teachings[106] and that it is really only Mary who truly understands.[107] The apostle Levi comes to Mary's defense, giving a sharp rebuke to Peter:[106] "Peter, you are always angry. Now I see you arguing against this woman like an adversary. If the savior made her worthy, who are you to reject her? Surely the savior knows her well. That is why he loved her more than us."[108]

Borborite scripturesEdit

The Borborites, also known as the Phibionites, were an early Christian Gnostic sect during the late fourth century AD who had numerous scriptures involving Mary Magdalene,[109][110][111] including The Questions of Mary, The Greater Questions of Mary, The Lesser Questions of Mary, and The Birth of Mary.[109] None of these texts have survived to the present,[109][111] but they are mentioned by the early Christian heretic-hunter Epiphanius of Salamis in his Panarion.[109][112][111][113] Epiphanius claims that the Greater Questions of Mary contained an episode in which, during a post-resurrection appearance, Jesus took Mary to the top of a mountain, where he pulled a woman out of his side and engaged in sexual intercourse with her.[112][113] Then, upon ejaculating, Jesus drank his own semen and told Mary, "Thus we must do, that we may live."[112][110][113] Upon hearing this, Mary instantly fainted, to which Jesus responded by helping her up and telling her, "O thou of little faith, wherefore didst thou doubt?"[112][110][113] This story was supposedly the basis for the Borborite Eucharist ritual in which they allegedly engaged in orgies and drank semen and menstrual blood as the "body and blood of Christ" respectively.[114][110] Ehrman casts doubt on the accuracy of Epiphanius's summary, commenting that "the details of Epiphanius's description sound very much like what you can find in the ancient rumor mill about secret societies in the ancient world".[112]

LegacyEdit

Patristic eraEdit

 
The Magdalene washing the feet of Jesus, surrounded by grisailles of other scenes from the life of the "composite Magdalene", Frans Francken II, 1637

Most of the earliest Church Fathers do not mention Mary Magdalene at all,[115][9] and those who do mention her usually only discuss her very briefly.[115][9] In his anti-Christian polemic The True Word, written between 170 and 180 AD, the pagan philosopher Celsus declared that Mary Magdalene was nothing more than "a hysterical female... who either dreamt in a certain state of mind and through wishful thinking a hallucination due to some mistaken notion (an experience which has happened to thousands), or, which is more likely, wanted to impress others by telling this fantastic tale, and so by this cock-and-bull story to provide a chance for other beggars."[116] The Church Father Origen (c. 184 – c. 253) defended Christianity against this accusation in his apologetic treatise Against Celsus, pointing to Matthew 28:1, which lists Mary Magdalene and "the other Mary" both seeing the resurrected Jesus, thus providing a second witness.[117] Origen also preserves a statement from Celsus that some Christians in his day followed the teachings of a woman named "Mariamme", who is almost certainly Mary Magdalene.[118][119] Origen merely dismisses this, remarking that Celsus "pours on us a heap of names".[118]

Mary Magdalene has the reputation in Western Christianity as being a repentant prostitute or loose woman; however, these claims are not supported by the canonical gospels, which at no point imply that she had ever been a prostitute or in any way notable for a sinful way of life.[2][120][121] The misconception likely arose due to a conflation between Mary Magdalene, Mary of Bethany (who anoints Jesus's feet in John 11:1-12), and the unnamed "sinful woman" who anoints Jesus's feet in Luke 7:36-50.[2][120][122][122] As early as the third century, the Church Father Tertullian (c. 160 – 225) references the touch of "the woman which was a sinner" in effort to prove that Jesus "was not a phantom, but really a solid body."[117] This may indicate that Mary Magdalene was already being conflated with the "sinful woman" in Luke 7:36-50, though Tertullian never clearly identifies the woman of whom he speaks as Mary Magdalene.[117] A sermon attributed to Hippolytus of Rome (c. 170 – 235) refers to Mary of Bethany and her sister Martha seeking Jesus in the garden like Mary Magdalene in John 20, indicating a conflation between Mary of Bethany and Mary Magdalene.[123] The sermon describes the conflated woman as a "second Eve" who compensates for the disobedience of the first Eve through her obedience.[115] The sermon also explicitly identifies Mary Magdalene and the other women as "apostles".[67] The first clear identification of Mary Magdalene as a redeemed sinner comes from Ephrem the Syrian (c. 306 – 373).[124][125] In one of his preserved sayings, Gregory of Nyssa (c. 330 – 395) identifies Mary Magdalene as "the first witness to the resurrection, that she might set straight again by her faith in the resurrection, what was turned over in her transgression."[126] Saint Ambrose (c. 340 – 397), by contrast, not only rejected the conflation of Mary Magdalene, Mary of Bethany, and the anointing sinner,[127] but even tried to argue that the authentic Nary Magdalene herself was, in fact, two separate people:[127] one woman named Mary Magdalene who discovered the empty tomb and a different Mary Magdalene who saw the risen Christ.[127]

Early Middle AgesEdit

 
Guido Reni, Penitent Magdalene, c. 1635 (Walters Art Museum). In art, Mary Magdalene is usually shown with long flowing hair, worn down over her shoulders. The length possibly to allow her to cover her nakedness in the desert and to dry the feet of Jesus after washing them.[128]

The anonymous "sinful woman" in Luke 7:36-50 is never identified as a prostitute[129] and, in Jewish society at the time the gospel was written, "sinful" could have simply meant that she "did not assiduously observe the law of Moses".[129] The notion of Mary Magdalene specifically being a former prostitute or loose woman dates to a claim by Pope Gregory I ("Gregory the Great") made in an influential homily in around 591,[124][130][121] in which he not only identifies Magdalene with the anonymous sinner with the perfume in Luke's gospel and with Mary of Bethany, the sister of Martha and Lazarus,[121] but also, for the first time, explicitly identifies her sins as ones of a sexual nature:[121]

She whom Luke calls the sinful woman, whom John calls Mary, we believe to be the Mary from whom seven devils were ejected according to Mark. What did these seven devils signify, if not all the vices? It is clear, that the woman previously used the unguent to perfume her flesh in forbidden acts. What she therefore displayed more scandalously, she was now offering to God in a more praiseworthy manner. She had coveted with earthly eyes, but now through penitence these are consumed with tears. She displayed her hair to set off her face, but now her hair dries her tears. She had spoken proud things with her mouth, but in kissing the Lord's feet, she now planted her mouth on the Redeemer's feet. For every delight, therefore, she had had in herself, she now immolated herself. She turned the mass of her crimes to virtues, in order to serve God entirely in penance.

— Pope Gregory the Great (homily XXXIII)[130]

In Pope Gregory's interpretation, the seven demons expelled from Mary Magdalene by Jesus are transformed into the seven deadly sins of medieval Catholicism,[122] leading Mary "to be condemned not only for lust, but for pride and covetousness as well."[122] The aspect of the repentant sinner became almost equally significant as the disciple in her persona as depicted in Western art and religious literature, fitting well with the great importance of penitence in medieval theology. In subsequent religious legend, Mary's story became conflated with that of Saint Mary of Egypt, a repentant prostitute who then lived as a hermit. With that, Mary’s image was, according to Susan Haskins, author of Mary Magdalene: Myth and Metaphor, "finally settled...for nearly fourteen hundred years,"[131] although in fact the most important late medieval popular accounts of her life describe her as a rich woman whose life of sexual freedom is purely for pleasure.[132] This composite depiction of Mary Magdalene was carried into the Mass texts for her feast day: in the Tridentine Mass, the collect explicitly identifies her as Mary of Bethany by describing Lazarus as her brother, and the Gospel is the story of the penitent woman anointing Jesus' feet.[133]

 
Adolfo Tommasi (Livorno 1851 - Firenze 1933), Penitent Magdalene, 1893. Oil on canvas, cm. 85x58 Private collection

The "composite Magdalene" was never accepted by the Eastern Orthodox churches, who saw only Mary the disciple, and believed that after the Resurrection she lived as a companion to the Virgin Mary, and not even in the West was it universally accepted. The Benedictine Order always celebrated Mary of Bethany together with Martha and Lazarus of Bethany on 29 July, while Mary Magdalene was celebrated on 22 July.[134] Not only John Chrysostom in the East (Matthew, Homily 88), but also Ambrose (De virginitate 3,14; 4,15) in the West, when speaking of Mary Magdalene after the resurrection of Jesus Christ, far from calling her a harlot, suggest she was a virgin.[135] Starting in around the eighth century, Christian sources record mention of a church in Magdala purported to have been built on the site of Mary Magdalene's house, where Jesus exorcized her of the seven demons.[136]

High and Late Middle AgesEdit

 
International Gothic Elevation of Mary Magdalene with angels raising her in SS. Johns' Cathedral in Toruń

Starting in early High Middle Ages, writers in western Europe began developing elaborate fictional biographies of Mary Magdalene's life, in which they heavily embellished upon the vague details given in the gospels.[137][138] Stories about noble saints were popular during this time period;[137] accordingly, tales of Mary Magdalene's wealth and social status became heavily exaggerated.[139][138] In the tenth century, Odo of Cluny (c. 880 – 18 November 942) wrote a sermon in which he described Mary as an extraordinarily wealthy noblewoman of royal descent.[139][140] Some manuscripts of the sermon record that Mary's parents were named Syrus and Eucharia[141] and one manuscript goes into great detail describing her family's purported land holdings in Bethany, Jerusalem, and Magdala.[141]

The theologian Honorius Augustodunensis (c. 1080 – c. 1151) embellished this tale even further, reporting that Mary was a wealthy noblewoman who was married in "Magdalum",[141] but that she committed adultery, so she fled to Jerusalem and became a "public sinner" (vulgaris meretrix).[141] Honorius mentions that, out of love for Jesus, Mary repented and withdrew into a life of quiet isolation.[141] Under the influence of stories about other female saints, such as Saint Mary of Egypt and Saint Pelagia,[141] painters in Italy during the ninth and tenth centuries gradually began to develop the image of Mary Magdalene living alone in the desert as a penitent ascetic.[141] This portrayal became so popular that it quickly spread to Germany and England.[141] From the twelfth century, Abbot Hugh of Semur (died 1109), Peter Abelard (died 1142), and Geoffrey of Vendome (died 1132) all referred to Mary Magdalene as the sinner who merited the title apostolorum apostola (Apostle to the Apostles), with the title becoming commonplace during the 12th and 13th centuries.[142]

The most famous account of Mary Magdalene's legendary life comes from The Golden Legend, a collection of medieval saints stories compiled in around the year 1260 by the Italian writer Jacobus de Voragine.[143][144] In this account, Mary Magdalene is, in Ehrman's words, "fabulously rich, insanely beautiful, and outrageously sensual",[143] but she gives up her life of wealth and sin to become a devoted follower of Jesus.[143] Fourteen years after Jesus's crucifixion, some pagans throw Mary, Lazarus (who, in this account, is her brother due to her conflation with Mary of Bethany), and a group of other Christians onto a rudderless boat in the Mediterranean Sea to die.[143] Miraculously, however, the boat washes ashore at Marseille in southern France.[143] Mary persuades the governor of the city not to offer sacrifices to a pagan god[143] and later persuades him to convert to Christianity after she proves the Christian God's power by successfully praying to Him to make the governor's wife pregnant.[143] The governor and his wife sail for Rome to meet the apostle Peter in person,[143] but their ship is struck by a storm, which causes the wife to go into labor.[143] The wife dies in childbirth and the governor leaves her on an island with the still-living infant at her breast.[143] The governor spends two years with Peter in Rome[143] and, on his way home, he stops at the same island to discover that, due to Mary Magdalene's miraculous long-distance intercession, his child has survived for two years on his dead mother's breast milk.[145] Then the governor's wife rises from the dead and tells him that Mary Magdalene has brought her back.[9] The whole family returns to Marseille, where they meet Mary again in person.[9]

Most of the later legends speak of a Mary who after the Ascension of Jesus lived as a hermit in a cave for thirty years, communicating with angels.[146] Single "portrait" figures of the Magdalene typically depicted her as the "Penitent Magdalene" in this period of her life (see above). In the words of William Caxton's English translation of the Golden Legend:

...the blessed Mary Magdalene, desirous of sovereign contemplation, sought a right sharp desert, and took a place which was ordained by the angel of God, and abode there by the space of thirty years without knowledge of anybody. In which place she had no comfort of running water, ne solace of trees, ne of herbs. And that was because our Redeemer did do show it openly, that he had ordained for her refection celestial, and no bodily meats. And every day at every hour canonical she was lifted up in the air of angels, and heard the glorious song of the heavenly companies with her bodily ears. Of which she was fed and filled with right sweet meats, and then was brought again by the angels unto her proper place, in such wise as she had no need of corporal nourishing.[147]

The elaborately detailed (and conflicting) legends that brought Mary to Western Europe after Jesus's life on earth were very widely accepted in the Western church,[148] though not at all by Eastern Orthodoxy, which had her retiring with the Virgin Mary, and dying in Ephesus. In the Golden Legend the "right sharp desert" where Mary retires to repent is located near Aix-en-Provence in the South of France.[147]

 
13th century Romanesque capital showing Jesus and Mary Magdalene (Noli me tangere)

The monk and historian Domenico Cavalca (c. 1270–1342), citing Jerome, suggested that Mary Magdalene was betrothed to Saint John the Evangelist: "I like to think that the Magdalene was the spouse of John, not affirming it... I am glad and blythe that St Jerome should say so".[149] They were sometimes thought to be the couple at the Wedding at Cana, though the Gospel accounts say nothing of the ceremony being abandoned. The Dominican friar Jacobus de Voragine (c. 1230–1298) in his Golden Legend dismisses talk of John and Mary being betrothed and that John had left his bride at the altar to follow Jesus.[147]

The 13th-century Cistercian monk and chronicler Peter of Vaux de Cernay claimed it was part of Catharist belief that the earthly Jesus Christ had a relationship with Mary Magdalene, described as his concubine:

Further, in their secret meetings they said that the Christ who was born in the earthly and visible Bethlehem and crucified at Jerusalem was "evil", and that Mary Magdalene was his concubine – and that she was the woman taken in adultery who is referred to in the Scriptures; the "good" Christ, they said, neither ate nor drank nor assumed the true flesh and was never in this world, except spiritually in the body of Paul. I have used the term "the earthly and visible Bethlehem" because the heretics believed there is a different and invisible earth in which – according to some of them – the "good" Christ was born and crucified.[150]

A document, possibly written by Ermengaud of Béziers, undated and anonymous and attached to his Treatise against Heretics,[151] makes a similar statement.[152]

Also they [the Cathars] teach in their secret meetings that Mary Magdalene was the wife of Christ. She was the Samaritan woman to whom He said, "Call thy husband". She was the woman taken into adultery, whom Christ set free lest the Jews stone her, and she was with Him in three places, in the temple, at the well, and in the garden. After the Resurrection, He appeared first to her.[153]

In 1449, King René d'Anjou gave to Angers Cathedral the amphora from Cana in which Jesus changed water to wine, acquiring it from the nuns of Marseilles, who told him that Mary Magdalene had brought it with her from Judea, relating to the legend where she was the jilted bride at the wedding after which John the Evangelist received his calling from Jesus.[154]

ReformationEdit

In 1518, on the brink of the Protestant Reformation, the leading French Renaissance humanist Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples wrote arguing against the conflation of Mary Magdalene, Mary of Bethany and the unnamed sinner in Luke. There was a flurry of books and pamphlets, most opposing Lefèvre d'Étaples, but others supporting him. In 1521 his views were formally condemned by the theology faculty of the Sorbonne, and debate died down, overtaken by the larger issues raised by Martin Luther.[135] Although Protestant theologians and biblical commentators such as John Calvin rejected the composite Magdalene.[155] for Luther and Zwingli Mary Magdalene is the composite Magdalene of medieval tradition,[156] Luther, whose views on sexuality were much more liberal than those of his fellow reformers,[157] reportedly once joked to a group of friends that "even pious Christ himself" had committed adultery three times: once with Mary Magdalene, once with the Samaritan woman at the well, and once with the adulteress he had let off so easily.[158]

Modern eraEdit

The common identification of Mary Magdalene with other New Testament figures was omitted in the 1969 revision of the General Roman Calendar, with the comment regarding her liturgical celebration on 22 July: "No change has been made in the title of today's memorial, but it concerns only Saint Mary Magdalene, to whom Christ appeared after his resurrection. It is not about the sister of Saint Martha, nor about the sinful woman whose sins the Lord forgave (Luke 7:36–50)."[159] Elsewhere it said of the Roman liturgy of 22 July that "it will make mention neither of Mary of Bethany nor of the sinful woman of Luke 7:36–50, but only of Mary Magdalene, the first person to whom Christ appeared after his resurrection".[160] Mary of Bethany's feast day and that of her brother Lazarus is now on 29 July, the memorial of their sister Martha.[161]

It was because of this association of Saint Mary Magdalene having been a prostitute that she became the patroness of "wayward women", and Magdalene asylums became established to help save women from prostitution.[162]

In 2012, scholar Karen L. King published the "Gospel of Jesus' Wife", a purported Coptic papyrus fragment, which presents Jesus as speaking of his wife: "My wife ... she will be able to be my disciple." The overwhelming consensus of scholars, including King herself, is that the fragment is a modern forgery.[163][164][165] If genuine, the papyrus would have dated to sometime between the sixth and ninth centuries AD. Although the fragment does not contain the name of Mary Magdalene, some authors speculated that she was the woman referred to.[166]

In Western artEdit

Ascension of Mary Magdalene by Tilman Riemenschneider (1490–92)
A depiction of Mary Magdalene with thick body hair
Mary Magdalene (c. 1480-1487), altarpiece in International Gothic style by Carlo Crivelli showing her with long, blond hair

The early notion of Mary Magdalene as a sinner and adulteress was reflected in Western medieval Christian art, where she was the most commonly depicted female figure after the Virgin Mary. She may be shown either as very extravagantly and fashionably dressed, unlike other female figures wearing contemporary styles of clothes, or alternatively as completely naked but covered by very long blonde or reddish-blonde hair. The latter depictions represent the Penitent Magdalene, who according to medieval legend (details in next section) had spent a period of repentance as a desert hermit after leaving her life as a follower of Jesus. Her story became conflated in the West with that of Saint Mary of Egypt, a 4th-century prostitute turned hermit, whose clothes wore out and fell off in the desert.[148] In medieval depictions Mary's long hair entirely covers her body and preserves her modesty (supplemented in some German versions such as one by Tilman Riemenschneider by thick body hair), but from the 16th century some depictions, like those by Titian, show part of her naked body, the amount of nudity tending to increase in successive periods. Even if covered, she often wears only a drape pulled around her, or an undergarment. In particular, Mary is often shown naked in the legendary scene of her "Elevation", where she is sustained in the desert by angels who raise her up and feed her heavenly manna, as recounted in the Golden Legend (quoted below).[167]

Mary Magdalene at the foot of the cross during the Crucifixion appears in an 11th-century English manuscript "as an expressional device rather than a historical motif", intended as "the expression of an emotional assimilation of the event, that leads the spectator to identify himself with the mourners".[168] Other isolated depictions occur, but from the 13th century additions to the Virgin Mary and John as the spectators at the Crucifixion become more common, with Mary Magdalene as the most frequently found, either kneeling at the foot of the cross clutching the shaft, sometimes kissing Christ's feet, or standing, usually at the left and behind Mary and John, with her arms stretched upwards towards Christ in a gesture of grief, as in a damaged painting by Cimabue in the upper church at Assisi of c.1290. A kneeling Magdalene by Giotto in the Scrovegni Chapel (c. 1305) was especially influential.[169] As Gothic painted crucifixions became crowded compositions the Magdalene became a prominent figure, with a halo and identifiable by her long unbound blonde hair, and usually a bright red dress. As the swooning Virgin Mary became more common, generally occupying the attention of John, the unrestrained gestures of Magdalene increasingly represented the main display of the grief of the spectators.[170]

According to Robert Kiely, "No figure in the Christian Pantheon except Jesus, the Virgin Mary, and John the Baptist has inspired, provoked, or confounded the imagination of painters more than the Magdalene".[171] Apart from the Crucifixion, Mary was often shown in scenes of the Passion of Jesus, when mentioned in the Gospels, such as the Crucifixion, Christ Carrying the Cross and Noli me Tangere, but usually omitted in other scenes showing the Twelve Apostles, such as the Last Supper. As Mary of Bethany, she is shown as present at the Resurrection of Lazarus, her brother, and in the scene with Jesus and her sister Martha, which began to be depicted often in the 17th century, as in Christ in the House of Martha and Mary by Velázquez.[172]

Religious viewsEdit

Eastern Orthodox traditionEdit

 
Eastern Orthodox icon of Mary Magdalene as a Myrrhbearer

The Eastern Orthodox Church maintains that Mary Magdalene, distinguished from Mary of Bethany and the "sinful woman" who anoints Jesus in Luke,[Lk 7:36–50] had been a virtuous woman all her life, even before her conversion. They have never celebrated her as a penitent. This view finds expression both in her written life (βίος or vita) and in the liturgical service in her honor that is included in the Menaion and performed on her annual feast-day. There is a tradition that Mary Magdalene led so chaste a life that the devil thought she might be the one who was to bear Christ into the world, and for that reason he sent the seven demons to trouble her.

Mary Magdalene is honored as one of the first witnesses of the Resurrection of Jesus, and received a special commission from him to tell the Apostles of his resurrection.[Jn 20:11–18] She is often depicted on icons bearing a vessel of ointment, not because of the anointing by the "sinful woman", but because she was among those women who brought ointments to the tomb of Jesus. For this reason, she is called a Myrrhbearer.

According to Eastern traditions, she retired to Ephesus with the Theotokos (Mary, the Mother of God) and there she died. Her relics were transferred to Constantinople in 886 and are preserved there.

Roman Catholic traditionsEdit

Connection with GaulEdit

Gregory of Tours, writing in Tours in the 6th century,[173] supported the tradition of the eastern Church that she retired to Ephesus, with no mention of any connection to Gaul. But for most of the Middle Ages, the Western church believed that, after her period as a disciple of Jesus, Mary Magdalene had travelled to the south of France and died there. This legend had varying forms and a number of rival sites claiming a connection grew up.

How a cult of Saint Mary Magdalene first arose in Provence has been summed up by Victor Saxer[174] in the collection of esss in La Magdaleine, VIIIe – XIIIe siècle[175] and by Katherine Ludwig Jansen, drawing on popular devotions, sermon literature and iconology.[176] In Provence, Mary is said to have spent her last years alone in the wilderness, fasting and engaging in acts of penitential self-discipline, behavior that was rewarded with experiences of ecstatic union with the divine. Depictions of the Penitent Magdalen became enormously popular in preaching and art (see above).[177]

Saint Mary Magdalene's relics were first venerated at the Abbey of la Madaleine, Vézelay in Burgundy from about 1050.[178] Jacobus de Voragine gives the common account of the transfer of the relics of Mary Magdalene from her sepulchre in the oratory of Saint Maximin at Aix-en-Provence to the newly founded Vézelay;[179] the transportation of the relics is entered as undertaken in 771 by the founder of the abbey, identified as Gerard, Duke of Burgundy.[147] The earliest mention of this episode is the notice of the chronicler Sigebert of Gembloux (died 1112), who asserts that the relics were removed to Vézelay through fear of the Saracens.

On December 9, 1279, an excavation ordered by Charles II, King of Naples at Saint-Maximin-la-Sainte-Baume, Provence, led to the discovery of another purported burial of Mary Magdalene.[180] The shrine was found intact, with an explanatory inscription stating why the relics had been hidden.[181] Charles II commissioned the building of a new Gothic basilica on the site and, in return for providing accommodation for pilgrims, the town's residents were exempt from taxes.[182] Saint-Maximin-la-Sainte-Baume gradually displaced Vézelay in popularity and acceptance.[181]

 
Mary Magdalene attributed to Gregor Erhart (d. 1525)

PenitentEdit

During the Counter Reformation and Baroque periods (late 16th and 17th centuries), the cult of Mary Magdalene saw a great, new popularity as the Catholic Church publicized her as an attractive, persuasive model of repentance and reform, in keeping with the goals of the reform Council of Trent (1545–63). Numerous works of art and theater featuring the tearful penitent Magdalene appeared in the 17th century.[183] As part of this new attention to the cult of the Magdalene, in 1600, her relics were placed in a sarcophagus commissioned by Pope Clement VIII, the head being placed in a separate reliquary. The relics and free-standing images were scattered and destroyed at the Revolution. In 1814, the church of La Sainte-Baume, also wrecked during the Revolution, was restored. In 1822, the grotto was consecrated afresh. The head of the saint now lies there and has been the centre of many pilgrimages.[citation needed]

In that period, the description "penitent" was added to the indication of her name on her feast day, 22 July. It had not yet been added at the time of the Tridentine Calendar of 1569 and is no longer found in the present General Roman Calendar but, once added, it remained until the General Roman Calendar of 1960. Mary Magdalene thus became a symbol of repentance from the vanities of the world.[184] The Gospel reading in the Tridentine Mass was Luke 7:36–50 (the sinful woman anointing the feet of Jesus), while in the present version of the Roman Rite of Mass it is John 20:1–2, 11–8 (meeting of Mary Magdalene with Jesus after his resurrection).[185][186][187] St. Mary Magdalene was the patron of Magdalen College, Oxford, and Magdalene College, Cambridge (both colleges pronounce her name as "maudlin"). In contrast, her name was also used for the Magdalen Asylums, institutions for "fallen women".

Apostle to the apostlesEdit

 
The Three Marys at the Tomb by Peter Paul Rubens, with Mary Magdalene in red

Mary Magdalene, who according to John 20:17–18 and Mark 16:9–1 was commissioned by the risen Jesus to inform the disciples of his resurrection, has been merited the title "Apostle to the apostles" by the Roman Catholic Church.

Matthew 28:1–8 and Luke 24:10 speak of women (in the plural), including Mary Magdalene, carrying out this function. An early Christian commentary on the Song of Songs, perhaps by Hippolytus of Rome (170–235), has Christ speak of two women, whom it calls Mary and Martha, as apostles to the apostles: "Christ showed himself to the (male) apostles and said to them: ... 'It is I who appeared to these women and I who wanted to send them to you as apostles.'"[188][189]

Use of the actual term "apostle to the apostles" or "apostle of the apostles" is first attested much later than the time of Hippolytus. According to Darrell Bock, it first appears in the 10th century,[189] but Katherine Ludwig Jansen says she found no reference to it earlier than the 12th, by which time it was already commonplace.[190] She mentions in particular Hugh of Cluny (1024–1109), Peter Abelard (1079–1142), and Bernard of Clairvaux (1090–1153) among those who gave Mary Magdalene the title of apostolorum apostola (apostle of the apostles). Jane Schaberg adds Geoffrey of Vendôme (c. 1065/70–1132).[191]

It is claimed that the equivalent of the phrase apostolorum apostola appeared already in the 9th century. Chapter XXVII of the Life of Mary Magdalene claiming to be written by Rabanus Maurus (c. 780 – 4 February 856) is headed: Ubi Magdalenam Christus ad apostolos mittit apostolam (Wherein Christ sends Magdalene as an apostle to the apostles).[192] The same chapter says she did not delay in exercising the office of apostolate with which he had been honoured (apostolatus officio quo honorata fuerat fungi non distulit).[193] Raymond E. Brown, commenting on this fact, remarks that Rabanus Maurus frequently applies the word "apostle"[194] to Mary Magdalene in this work.[195] However the work is actually no earlier than the 12th Century [196]

Because of Mary Magdalene's position as an apostle, though not one of those who became official witnesses to the resurrection, the Catholic Church honoured her by reciting the Gloria on her feast day, the only woman to be so honoured apart from Mary, the mother of Jesus.[197]

In his apostolic letter Mulieris Dignitatem ("On the dignity and vocation of women", parts 67–69) dated 15 August 1988, Pope John Paul II dealt with the Easter events in relation to the women being present at the tomb after the Resurrection, in a section entitled 'First Witnesses of the Resurrection':

The women are the first at the tomb. They are the first to find it empty. They are the first to hear 'He is not here. He has risen, as he said.'[Mt 28:6] They are the first to embrace his feet.[cf. Mt 28:9] The women are also the first to be called to announce this truth to the Apostles.[Mt 28:1–10] [Lk 24:–11] The Gospel of John (cf. also Mk 16:9 emphasizes the special role of Mary Magdalene. She is the first to meet the Risen Christ. [...] Hence she came to be called "the apostle of the Apostles". Mary Magdalene was the first eyewitness of the Risen Christ, and for this reason she was also the first to bear witness to him before the Apostles. This event, in a sense, crowns all that has been said previously about Christ entrusting divine truths to women as well as men.

— John Paul II[198]

On 10 June 2016, the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments issued a decree which elevated Mary's liturgical commemoration from an obligatory memorial to a feast day, like that of most of the Apostles (Peter and Paul are commemorated with a solemnity). The Mass and Liturgy of the Hours (Divine Office) remained the same as they were, except that a specific preface was added to the Mass to refer to her explicitly as the "Apostle to the Apostles".[199]

Protestant traditionEdit

 
Icon of Saint Mary Magdalene depicted as one of the Myrrhbearers with the words "Christ is Risen" in Greek at the top, depicting her discovery of the empty tomb

The 1549 Book of Common Prayer had on July 22 a feast of Saint Mary Magdalene, with the same Scripture readings as in the Tridentine Mass and with a newly composed collect: "Merciful father geue us grace, that we neuer presume to synne through the example of anye creature, but if it shall chaunce vs at any tyme to offende thy dyuine maiestie: that then we maye truly repent, and lament the same, after the example of Mary Magdalene, and by lyuelye faythe obtayne remission of all oure sinnes: throughe the onely merites of thy sonne oure sauiour Christ." The 1552 edition omitted the feast of Saint Mary Magdalene, which was restored to the Book of Common Prayer only after some 400 years.[200]

Among the leaders of the Protestant Reformation, for Luther and Zwingli, Mary Magdalene is the composite Magdalene of medieval tradition, but Calvin distinguishes between her, Mary of Bethany, and the sinful woman.[156]

Modern Protestants honor her as a disciple and friend of Jesus.[201] Anglican Christians refer to her as a saint and may follow her example of repentance;[202] While some interpret the Thirty-Nine Articles as forbidding them to call upon her for intercession,[203] other Anglicans, citing the Episcopal burial service, say they can ask the saint to pray for them.[204] The Evangelical Lutheran Church in America honors Mary Magdalene on July 22 as an Apostle, albeit as a Lesser Festival.[205] The rationale for this change versus the previous worship book of the ELCA is not explained, nor is it clear that an authoritative council of the ELCA approved this change in any organized fashion, other than by adopting the new worshipbook.

Tradition regarding Easter eggsEdit

For centuries, it has been the custom of many Christians to share dyed and painted eggs, particularly on Easter Sunday. The eggs represent new life, and Christ bursting forth from the tomb. Among Eastern Orthodox Christians this sharing is accompanied by the proclamation "Christ is risen!"

One tradition concerning Mary Magdalene says that following the death and resurrection of Jesus, she used her position to gain an invitation to a banquet given by the Roman Emperor Tiberius. When she met him, she held a plain egg in her hand and exclaimed, "Christ is risen!" The Emperor laughed, and said that Christ rising from the dead was as likely as the egg in her hand turning red while she held it. Before he finished speaking, the egg in her hand turned a bright red and she continued proclaiming the Gospel to the entire imperial house.[206]

Another version of this story can be found in popular belief, mostly in Greece. It is believed that after the Crucifixion, Mary Magdalene and the Virgin Mary put a basket full of eggs at the foot of the cross. There, the eggs were painted red by the blood of the Christ. Then, Mary Magdalene brought them to Tiberius Caesar.[citation needed]

Bahá'í traditionEdit

There are many references to Mary Magdalene in the sacred writings of the Bahá'í Faith, where she enjoys an exalted status as a heroine of faith and the "archetypal woman of all cycles".[207] `Abdu'l-Bahá, the son of the founder of the religion, said that she was "the channel of confirmation" to Jesus' disciples, a "heroine" who "re-established the faith of the apostles" and was "a light of nearness in his kingdom".[208] `Abdu'l-Bahá also wrote that "her reality is ever shining from the horizon of Christ", "her face is shining and beaming forth on the horizon of the universe forevermore" and that "her candle is, in the assemblage of the world, lighted till eternity".[209] `Abdu'l-Bahá considered her to be the supreme example of how women are completely equal with men in the sight of God and can at times even exceed men in holiness and greatness.[210] Indeed he claimed that she surpassed all the men of her time,[211] and that "crowns studded with the brilliant jewels of guidance" were upon her head.[212]

The Bahá'í writings also expand upon the scarce references to her life in the canonical Gospels, with a wide array of extra-canonical stories about her and sayings which are not recorded in any other extant historical sources. `Abdu'l-Bahá claimed that Mary traveled to Rome and spoke before the Emperor Tiberius, which is presumably why Pilate was later recalled to Rome for his cruel treatment of the Jews (a tradition also attested to in the Eastern Orthodox Church).[213] According to the memoirs of Juliet Thompson, `Abdu'l-Bahá also compared Mary to Juliet, one of his most devoted followers, claiming that she even physically resembled her and that Mary Magdalene was Juliet Thompson's "correspondence in heaven".

Bahá'ís have noted parallels between Mary Magdalene and the Babí heroine-poet Tahirih. The two are similar in many respects, with Mary Magdalene often being viewed as a Christian antecedent of the latter, while Tahirih in her own right could be described as the spiritual return of the Magdalene; especially given their common, shared attributes of "knowledge, steadfastness, courage, virtue and will power", in addition to their importance within the religious movements of Christianity and the Bahá'í Faith as female leaders.[214]

SpeculationsEdit

"Beloved Disciple" in the Gospel of JohnEdit

In 1998, Ramon K. Jusino proposed an unprecedented argument that the "Beloved Disciple" of the Gospel of John is Mary Magdalene. Jusino based his argument largely on the Nag Hammadi Gnostic books, rejecting the view of Raymond E. Brown that these books were later developments, and maintaining instead that the extant Gospel of John is the result of modification of an earlier text that presented Mary Magdalene as the Beloved Disciple.[215] Richard J. Hooper does not make the Jusino thesis his own, but says: "Perhaps we should not altogether reject the possibility that some Johannine Christians considered Mary Magdalene to be 'the disciple whom Jesus loved'."[216] Esther A. de Boer likewise presents the idea as "one possibility among others", not as a definitive solution to the problem of the identity of the anonymous disciple.[217] A theological interpretation of Mary as the Magdala, The Elegant Tower and certain churches honor her as a heroine of the faith in their teachings.[218]

Relationship with JesusEdit

Ehrman states that the historical sources reveal absolutely nothing about Jesus's sexuality[219] and that there is no evidence whatsoever to support the idea that Jesus and Mary Magdalene were married or that they had any kind of sexual or romantic relationship.[219] None of the canonical gospels imply such a thing[220] and, even in the late Gnostic gospels, where Mary is shown as Jesus's closest disciple,[220] the love between them is not sexual.[220] The extremely late Greater Questions of Mary, which is not extant, allegedly portrayed Mary, not as Jesus's wife or partner, but rather as an unwilling voyeur.[99] Furthermore, Ehrman points out that the Essenes, a contemporary Jewish sect who shared many views with Jesus, and the apostle Paul, Jesus's later follower, both lived in unmarried celibacy,[221] so it is not unreasonable to conclude that Jesus did as well.[221]

Furthermore, according to Mark 12:25, Jesus taught that marriage would not exist at all in the coming kingdom of God.[222] Since Jesus taught that people should live as though the kingdom had already arrived, this teaching implied a life of unmarried celibacy.[223] Finally, Ehrman points out that, if Jesus had been married to Mary Magdalene, the authors of the gospels would definitely have mentioned it, since they mention all his other family members, including his mother Mary, his father Joseph, his four brothers, and his at least two sisters.[224] Casey rejects the idea of Mary Magdalene as Jesus's wife as nothing more than wild popular sensationalism.[225] Kripal writes that "the historical sources are simply too contradictory and simultaneously too silent" to make absolute declarations regarding Jesus' sexuality.[226]

DepictionsEdit

In historical fictionEdit

Edgar Saltus's historical fiction novel Mary Magdalene: A Chronicle (1891) depicts her as a heroine living in a castle at Magdala, who moves to Rome becoming the "toast of the tetrarchy", telling John the Baptist she will "drink pearls... sup on peacock's tongues".[227][228]

Ki Longfellow's novel The Secret Magdalene (2005) draws on the Gnostic gospels and other sources to portray Mary as a brilliant and dynamic woman who studies at the fabled library at Alexandria, and shares her knowledge with Jesus.[229]

GalleryEdit

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ /ˈmæɡdəlɪn, -ln/; Hebrew: מרים המגדלית‎; original Biblical Greek: Μαρία ἡ Μαγδαληνή María hē Magdalēnē, literally "Mary the Magdalene",[1]
  2. ^ In Hebrew Migdal (מגדל) means "tower", "fortress"; in Aramaic, "Magdala" means "tower" or "elevated, great, magnificent".[18] Interpreters since the time of Saint Jerome have suggested that Mary was called Magdalene because of her stature and faith, i.e. because she was like a tower: "Mary Magdalene received the epithet 'fortified with towers' because of her earnestness and strength of faith, and was privileged to see the rising of Christ first even before the apostles" (letter of St. Jerome translated by Susan Haskin, Mary Magdalen: Myth and Metaphor, p. 406). Other interpreters have seen Magdalene as referring to a kind of hairstyle. This translation stems from certain passages in uncensored versions of the Talmud, where a woman, esoterically identified as Jesus's mother, is called "hamegadela se’ar nasha", which has been translated "Miriam, the dresser of women's hair", possibly a euphemism for "prostitute". See R.T. Herford, Christianity in Talmud and Midrash, pp. 40f. The Talmudic passages are at tractate Sanhedrin 67a and tractate Hagigah 4b of the Babylonian Talmud; cf. tractate Shabbat 104b. The English theologian John Lightfoot (1602-1675) noted these passages and commented: "Whence she was called Magdalene, doth not so plainly appear; whether from Magdala, a town on the lake of Gennesaret, or from the word which signifies a plaiting or curling of the hair, a thing usual with harlots." (Commentary on the New Testament from the Talmud and Hebraica, chapter "Exercitations upon the Gospel of St. Matthew".)[19]
  3. ^ Mary Magdalene's name is mostly given as Μαρία (Maria), but in Matthew 28:1 as Μαριάμ (Mariam),[21][22] both of which are regarded as Greek forms of Miriam, the Hebrew name for Moses' sister. The name was extremely popular during the first century due to its connections to the ruling Hasmonean and Herodian dynasties.[23] In the Gospel of John, Mary Magdalene is also referred to simply as "Mary" at least twice.[24]
  4. ^ See, for instance, Mark 14:43–45, Matthew 26:47-50, Luke 22:48, and 1 Peter 5:14

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Μαρία η Μαγδαληνή in Matt 27:56; 27:61; 28:1; Mark 15:40; 15:47; 16:1; 16:9 replaces "η" with "τη" because of the case change. Luke 8:1 says "Μαρία ... η Μαγδαληνή" and 24:10 says "η Μαγδαληνή Μαρία". John 19:25, 20:1 and 20:18 all say "Μαρία η Μαγδαληνή".
  2. ^ a b c d e "Mary Magdalene, the clichés". BBC, Religions, 2011-07-20.
  3. ^ Thompson, Mary R. Mary of Magdala, Apostle and Leader. New York: Paulist Press, 1995. ISBN 0-8091-3573-6
  4. ^ Meyers, Carol, ed. (2000). "Named Women: Mary 3 (Magdalene)". Women in Scripture. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co. p. 122. ISBN 0-395-70936-9. 
  5. ^ a b c d e Casey 2010, p. 475.
  6. ^ Ehrman 2006, pp. 185-187.
  7. ^ Ehrman 2006, pp. 185-187, 247.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g Ehrman 2006, p. 247.
  9. ^ a b c d e Ehrman 2006, p. 185.
  10. ^ a b c Casey 2010, pp. 543–544.
  11. ^ Ehrman 2006, pp. 185-187, 218.
  12. ^ Larry Hurtado, Lord Jesus Christ: Devotion to Jesus in Earliest Christianity. 260.
  13. ^ a b c Casey 2010, pp. 192–193.
  14. ^ a b c d e Ehrman 2006, pp. 206-207.
  15. ^ a b Chilton 2005, pp. 25–28.
  16. ^ a b c d e f Casey 2010, p. 193.
  17. ^ Ehrman 2006, p. 197.
  18. ^ See Marvin Meyer, with Esther A. de Boer, The Gospels of Mary: The Secret Traditions of Mary Magdalene the Companion of Jesus (Harper San Francisco) 2004;Esther de Boer provides an overview of the source texts excerpted in an essay "Should we all turn and listen to her?': Mary Magdalene in the spotlight". pp. 74–96.
  19. ^ "New Testament names – some Jewish notes". Oztorah.com. Retrieved 2013-05-07. 
  20. ^ Ehrman 2006, pp. 197-198.
  21. ^ "Maria or Mariam". Bible Hub. Retrieved 2014-08-06. 
  22. ^ "SBL Greek New Testament (SBLGNT)". Biblegateway.com. Retrieved 2014-08-06. 
  23. ^ Mariam, the Magdalen, and the Mother, Deirdre Good, editor, Indiana University Press, Bloomington, IN 47404-3797. Pages 9–10.
  24. ^ John 20:11 and John 20:16.
  25. ^ Casey 2010, p. 194.
  26. ^ Casey 2010, p. 192.
  27. ^ a b c d e Ehrman 2006, p. 207.
  28. ^ May, Herbert G. and Bruce M. Metzger. The New Oxford Annotated Bible with the Apocrypha. 1977.
  29. ^ Kelly 2006, p. 95.
  30. ^ Ehrman 2006, pp. 206–207.
  31. ^ Chilton 2005, pp. 28–30.
  32. ^ Schaberg 2004, pp. 79-80.
  33. ^ a b Chilton 2005, p. 26.
  34. ^ Ehrman 2006, pp. 195, 198.
  35. ^ Casey 2010, pp. 192–195.
  36. ^ a b c Ehrman 2006, p. 196.
  37. ^ a b c Haag 2016.
  38. ^ Casey 2010, pp. 194–195.
  39. ^ a b Ricci, Carla and Paul Burns. Mary Magdalene and Many Others. Augsburg Fortress, 1994. ISBN 0-8006-2718-0
  40. ^ Ehrman 2006, pp. 199-200.
  41. ^ Schaberg 2004, p. 84.
  42. ^ Ehrman 2006, p. 200.
  43. ^ Ehrman 2006, pp. 195–196.
  44. ^ Ehrman 2006, pp. 196–200.
  45. ^ Ehrman 2006, pp. 196–205.
  46. ^ Jones & Penny 1983, pp. 46-47.
  47. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Ehrman 2006, p. 223.
  48. ^ Herzog 2005, pp. 1–6.
  49. ^ Powell 1998, p. 168.
  50. ^ Jesus Remembered by James D. G. Dunn 2003 ISBN 0-8028-3931-2 p. 339 states of baptism and crucifixion that these "two facts in the life of Jesus command almost universal assent".
  51. ^ Crossan 1995, p. 145.
  52. ^ Levine, Allison & Crossan 2006, p. 4.
  53. ^ a b Ehrman 2006, pp. 217-223.
  54. ^ Ehrman 2006, pp. 225-226.
  55. ^ a b Ehrman 2006, p. 226.
  56. ^ Sanders 1993, p. 276.
  57. ^ a b c d e f g h i Casey 2010, p. 462.
  58. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Ehrman 2006, pp. 227-229.
  59. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Sanders 1993, pp. 276-280.
  60. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Hinkle 2003, p. 446.
  61. ^ Casey 2010, pp. 461-462.
  62. ^ a b c d Ehrman 2006, p. 228.
  63. ^ a b c Casey 2010, p. 463.
  64. ^ a b c Casey 2010, pp. 463-464.
  65. ^ Ehrman 2006, pp. 226-227.
  66. ^ a b Casey 2010, p. 464.
  67. ^ a b c d e f g h Ehrman 2006, p. 253.
  68. ^ a b Ehrman 2006, pp. 227, 253.
  69. ^ Ehrman 2006, pp. 253, 228.
  70. ^ Ehrman 2006, p. 229.
  71. ^ a b c Ehrman 2006, p. 255.
  72. ^ Ehrman 2006, pp. 226-227, 255-256.
  73. ^ Wright 2003, p. 607.
  74. ^ King, Karen L. "Women In Ancient Christianity: The New Discoveries". Frontline: The First Christians. Web: 2 November 2009.
  75. ^ Casey 2010, p. 544.
  76. ^ Ehrman 2006, pp. 207-208.
  77. ^ a b c d Ehrman 2006, p. 208.
  78. ^ a b Hurtak, J.J.; Desiree Hurtak (1999). Pistis Sophia: A Coptic Text of Gnosis with Commentary. Los Gatos, CA: Academy for Future Science.
  79. ^ Ehrman 2006, pp. 208-209.
  80. ^ a b c d e Ehrman 2006, p. 209.
  81. ^ a b c Ehrman 2006, pp. 211-213.
  82. ^ a b Meyer, Marvin (2004). The Gospel of Thomas: The Hidden Sayings of Jesus. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-065581-5.
  83. ^ a b c Ehrman 2006, pp. 210-211.
  84. ^ a b Ehrman 2006, p. 210.
  85. ^ a b Ehrman 2006, p. 211.
  86. ^ a b c Ehrman 2006, p. 213.
  87. ^ a b c The Old and New Testament and Gnostic contexts and the text are discussed by Robert M. Grant, "The Mystery of Marriage in the Gospel of Philip". Vigiliae Christianae 15.3 (September 1961:129–140).
  88. ^ a b c d Ehrman 2006, p. 215.
  89. ^ Thayer and Smith. "Greek Lexicon entry for Koinonos". The New Testament Greek Lexicon". http://www.biblestudytools.com
  90. ^ This confusing reference is already in the original manuscript. It is not clear, if the text refers to Jesus' or his mother's sister, or whether the intention is to say something else.
  91. ^ Marjanen, Antti (1996). The Woman Jesus Loved: Mary Magdalene in the Nag Hammadi Library and Related Documents. Leiden: Brill. pp. 151–60 et passim. ISBN 9004106588. 
  92. ^ The Christ Files: How Historians Know What They Know About Jesus, John Dickson, p. 95 (Sydney South: Blue Bottle Books, 2006). ISBN 1-921137-54-1
  93. ^ a b Ehrman 2006, p. 216.
  94. ^ Ehrman 2006, pp. 215-216.
  95. ^ a b Ehrman 2006, p. 238.
  96. ^ Ehrman 2006, p. 239.
  97. ^ a b c "Gospel of Mary". Earlychristianwritings.com. Retrieved 2013-05-07. 
  98. ^ Ehrman 2006, pp. 238-249.
  99. ^ a b c Ehrman 2006, p. 249.
  100. ^ a b c De Boer, Esther A., The Gospel of Mary Listening to the Beloved Disciple. London: Continuum, 2006 (2005).
  101. ^ Ehrman 2006, pp. 239-242.
  102. ^ a b Ehrman 2006, p. 242.
  103. ^ Ehrman 2006, pp. 242-243.
  104. ^ Ehrman 2006, p. 243.
  105. ^ Ehrman 2006, pp. 243-245.
  106. ^ a b c d Ehrman 2006, p. 245.
  107. ^ Ehrman 2006, pp. 245-246.
  108. ^ Ehrman 2006, p. 246.
  109. ^ a b c d Kim 2015, pp. 37–39.
  110. ^ a b c d DeConick 2011, p. 139.
  111. ^ a b c Strong & Strong 2008, p. 90.
  112. ^ a b c d e Ehrman 2006, p. 235.
  113. ^ a b c d Epiphanius of Salamis 26.8.1-3 [1]
  114. ^ Ehrman 2006, pp. 234–235.
  115. ^ a b c Schaberg 2004, p. 86.
  116. ^ Schaberg 2004, pp. 84–85.
  117. ^ a b c Schaberg 2004, p. 85.
  118. ^ a b Schaberg 2004, p. 87.
  119. ^ Ehrman 2006, p. 256.
  120. ^ a b Doyle, Ken. "Apostle to the apostles: The story of Mary Magdalene". Catholic Times. Archived from the original on 16 April 2012. Retrieved 29 November 2016. 
  121. ^ a b c d Ehrman 2006, pp. 189-190.
  122. ^ a b c d Morrow, Carol Ann. "St. Mary Magdalene: Redeeming Her Gospel Reputation". Liguori Publications [2]
  123. ^ Schaberg 2004, pp. 85–86.
  124. ^ a b Richard J. Hooper, The Crucifixion of Mary Magdalene (Sanctuary Publications 2008 ISBN 978-0-9746995-4-7), p. 81. Books.google.com. 2005. ISBN 9780974699547. Retrieved 2014-08-06. 
  125. ^ Marcella Althaus-Reid, Liberation Theology and Sexuality (Hymns Ancient and Modern 2009 ISBN 978-0-334-04185-6), p. 86. Books.google.com. 2009. ISBN 9780334041856. Retrieved 2014-08-06. 
  126. ^ Schaberg 2004, pp. 86–87.
  127. ^ a b c Maisch 1998, p. 44.
  128. ^ "The Penitent Magdalene". The Walters Art Museum. 
  129. ^ a b Ehrman 2006, p. 189.
  130. ^ a b Carroll, James (June 2006). "Who Was Mary Magdalene?". Smithsonian. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 2013-05-07. 
  131. ^ Haskins, Susan. Mary Magdalene: Myth and Metaphor. Konecky (1993) ISBN 978-1-56852-496-2
  132. ^ Johnston, 64; the accounts are the Life in the Golden Legend, French Passion Plays, and her main subject, the Vie de La Magdaleine by François Demoulins de Rochefort, written 1516–17 (see p. 11)
  133. ^ Missale Romanum. New York: Benzinger Brothers. 1962. 
  134. ^ "SS Mary, Martha and Lazarus". Ibenedictines.org. Retrieved 2014-08-06. 
  135. ^ a b Hufstader, 32–40, and throughout the rest of the article
  136. ^ Pringle 1998, p. 28.
  137. ^ a b Maisch 1998, p. 46.
  138. ^ a b Ehrman 2006, pp. 183-184.
  139. ^ a b Maisch 1998, pp. 46-47.
  140. ^ Ingrid Maisch, Th.D. (1998). Mary Magdalene: The Image of a Woman Through the Centuries. Liturgical Press. pp. 49–. ISBN 978-0-8146-2471-5. Retrieved 15 November 2012. 
  141. ^ a b c d e f g h Maisch 1998, p. 47.
  142. ^ Jane Schaberg, The Resurrection of Mary Magdalene: Legends, Apocrypha and The Christian Testament, page 88 (New York: The Continuum International Publishing Group, Inc., 2002). ISBN 0-8264-1645-4
  143. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Ehrman 2006, p. 184.
  144. ^ Maisch 1998, p. 48.
  145. ^ Ehrman 2006, pp. 184-185.
  146. ^ Thomas F. Head (2001). Medieval Hagiography: An Anthology. Taylor & Francis Group. pp. 659–. ISBN 978-0-415-93753-5. Retrieved 16 November 2012. 
  147. ^ a b c d Golden Legend
  148. ^ a b Witcombe, 279
  149. ^ Katherine Ludwig Jansen, The Making of The Magdalen: Preaching and Popular Devotion In The Later Middle Ages, page 151, footnote 20 (Princeton University Press, 2000). ISBN 0-691-08987-6. Citing Cavalca, Vita, 329; Life, 2–3.
  150. ^ W. A. Sibly, M. D. Sibly, The History of the Albigensian Crusade: Peter of les Vaux-de-Cernay's "Historia Albigensis" (Boydell, 1998). ISBN 0-85115-658-4.
  151. ^ Christian Churches of God. "The Treatise of Ermengaudus (No. B8)". Ccg.org. Retrieved 2012-08-13. 
  152. ^ Anne Bradford Townsend, The Cathars of Languedoc as heretics: From the Perspectives of Five Contemporary Scholars, page 147 (UMI Microform, ProQuest, 2008). Ph.D. dissertation
  153. ^ Walter L. Wakefield, Austin P. Evans, Heresies of the High Middle Ages: Translated with Notes, page 234 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1991). ISBN 0-231-02743-5. The authors speculate on page 230 that this could have been the source used by Peter of Vaux de Cernay.
  154. ^ Katherine Ludwig Jansen, citing Jacques Levron, Le bon roi René (Paris: Arthaud, 1972).
  155. ^ Haskins, 250
  156. ^ a b Henderson (2004), pp. 8–14
  157. ^ Roper 2016, pp. 295-296.
  158. ^ Roper 2016, p. 295.
  159. ^ Calendarium Romanum (Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1969), p. 131
  160. ^ Calendarium Romanum (1969), p. 98
  161. ^ Martyrologium Romanum (Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2001, ISBN 978-88-209-7210-3), p. 398
  162. ^ John Trigilio, Jr., Kenneth Brighenti, Saints For Dummies, pages 52–53 (Wiley Publishing, Inc., 2010). ISBN 978-0-470-53358-1
  163. ^ Andrew Brown. "Gospel of Jesus's Wife is fake, claims expert | World news". theguardian.com. Retrieved 2014-08-06. 
  164. ^ LAURIE GOODSTEIN. "Fresh Doubts Raised About Papyrus Scrap Known as 'Gospel of Jesus' Wife'". The New York Times. 
  165. ^ "NT Blog: More evidence of forgery in the Jesus' Wife Sister Fragment". Ntweblog.blogspot.com.au. 2014-05-01. Retrieved 2014-08-06. 
  166. ^ Sam Masters (2014-04-11). "Jesus had a wife, say scientists, as ancient papyrus scroll verified – Americas – World". The Independent. Retrieved 2014-08-06. 
  167. ^ Witcombe, 282
  168. ^ Schiller, II, 116
  169. ^ Schiller, II, 152–154
  170. ^ Schiller, II, 154–158
  171. ^ Kiely, Robert (6 September 2010). "Picturing the Magdalene: How Artists Imagine the Apostle to the Apostles". Commonweal. Retrieved 29 November 2016. 
  172. ^ Schiller, Gertud, Iconography of Christian Art, Vol. I, pp. 158–159, 1971 (English trans from German), Lund Humphries, London, ISBN 0-85331-270-2
  173. ^ Gregory of Tours, De miraculis, I, xxx.
  174. ^ Saxer, La culte de St. Marie Magdalene en occident (1959).
  175. ^ Ecole française de Rome, (1992).
  176. ^ Jansen 2000.
  177. ^ See Franco Mormando, "Virtual Death in the Middle Ages: The Apotheosis of Mary Magdalene in Popular Preaching", in Death and Dying in the Middle Ages, ed. Edelgard DuBruck and Barbara I. Gusick, New York, Peter Lang, 1999, pp. 257–74.
  178. ^ See Johnston, 111–115 on the rise and fall of Vézelay as a cult centre
  179. ^ "the Abbey of Vesoul" in William Caxton's translation.
  180. ^ Rebecca Lea McCarthy (18 January 2010). Origins of the Magdalene Laundries: An Analytical History. McFarland. p. 50. ISBN 978-0-7864-5580-5. 
  181. ^ a b Susan Haskins (30 September 2011). Mary Magdalen: Truth and Myth. Random House. pp. 129–132. ISBN 978-1-4464-9942-9. 
  182. ^ Linda Kay Davidson; David Martin Gitlitz (1 January 2002). PilgrFile: From the Ganges to Graceland : an Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 562. ISBN 978-1-57607-004-8. 
  183. ^ See Franco Mormando, "Teaching the Faithful to Fly: Mary Magdalene and Peter in Baroque Italy" in Saints and Sinners: Caravaggio and the Baroque Image, Chestnut Hill, MA, McMullen Museum of Art, 1999, pp. 107–135.
  184. ^ "Deborah Rose, "So, Really ... Who was She?"". Magdalineage.com. Retrieved 2014-08-06. 
  185. ^ "Patricia Kasten, "A great saint with a big case of mistaken identity"". Thecompassnews.org. 2007-07-20. Retrieved 2014-08-06. 
  186. ^ "John Rivera, "Restoring Mary Magdalene" in "Worldwide Religious News", The Baltimore Sun, April 18, 2003". Wwrn.org. 2003-04-18. Retrieved 2014-08-06. 
  187. ^ Mclaughlin, Lisa and David Van Biema. "Mary Magdalene Saint or Sinner?" timeonline.com, August 11, 2003. Accessed 7 June 2009
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  189. ^ a b Darrell L. Bock, Breaking The Da Vinci Code (Thomas Nelson 2004 ISBN 978-1-4185-1338-2), pp. 143–144. Books.google.com. 2004-04-21. ISBN 9781418513382. Retrieved 2014-08-06. 
  190. ^ Katherine Ludwig Jansen, The Making of the Magdalen (Princeton University Press 2001 ISBN 978-0-691-08987-4), p. 63. Books.google.com. 2001-07-22. ISBN 0691089876. Retrieved 2014-08-06. 
  191. ^ Jane Schaberg, The Resurrection of Mary Magdalene (Bloomsbury 2004 ISBN 978-1-4411-4175-0), p. 88. Books.google.com. 2004-08-31. ISBN 9781441141750. Retrieved 2014-08-06. 
  192. ^ "Patrologia Latina, vol. 112, col. 1474B". Archive.org. Retrieved 2014-08-06. 
  193. ^ PL 112, 1475A
  194. ^ In the text of Rabanus Maurus, the word used is apostola, the feminine form of apostolus.
  195. ^ Raymond Edward Brown, The Community of the Beloved Disciple (Paulist Press 1979 ISBN 978-0-8091-2174-8), p. 190. Books.google.com. 1979. ISBN 9780809121748. Retrieved 2014-08-06. 
  196. ^ "Pseudo-Rabanus Maurus' Life of Mary Magdalene and her sister Martha – Magdalen College Oxford". Magdalen College, University of Oxford. 22 July 2014. Retrieved 29 November 2016. 
  197. ^ Brown (1979), pp. 189–190
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  199. ^ Holy See Press Office (10 June 2016). "The liturgical memory of Mary Magdalene becomes a feast, like that of the other apostles, 10.06.2016". The Holy See. Retrieved 10 June 2016. 
  200. ^ "J. Frank Henderson, "The Disappearance of the Feast of Mary Magdalene from the Anglican Liturgy" (2004), pp. 1–4" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-08-06. 
  201. ^ H.D. Egan, An Anthology of Christian mysticism, Pueblo Publishing Co. (1992), pp.407ff.; cf. also, C. Bourgeault,The Meaning of Mary Magdalene: Discovering the Woman at the Heart of Christianity, Shambhala Publ. (2010), passim.
  202. ^ T. Coletti, Mary Magdalene and the Drama of Saints, University of Pennsylvania Press (2004); E. De Boer, Mary Magdalene: Beyond the Myth, SCM Press (1997), pp.94ff.
  203. ^ "39 Articles of Religion – XXII. Of Purgatory". Retrieved 29 November 2016. 
  204. ^ "Liturgical Life Principles". google.com. 
  205. ^ Evangelical Lutheran Worship, Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, 2006, p. 57
  206. ^ Abernethy and Beaty, The Folklore of Texan Cultures, Denton University of North Texas Press, 2000, p. 261.
  207. ^ Juliet Thompson, I, Mary Magdalene, Foreword
  208. ^ `Abdu'l-Bahá, The Promulgation of Universal Peace, p. 420
  209. ^ `Abdu'l-Bahá, Bahá'í World Faith - `Abdu'l-Bahá Section, p. 385
  210. ^ `Abdu'l-Bahá in London, p. 105
  211. ^ `Abdu'l-Bahá, Divine Philosophy, p. 50
  212. ^ `Abdu'l-Bahá, Tablets of the Divine Plan, pp. 39–40
  213. ^ `Abdu'l-Bahá, Tablets of `Abdu'l-Bahá Vol.2, p. 467
  214. ^ Mazal, Peter (2003-10-21). "Selected Topics of Comparison in Christianity and the Bahá'í Faith". bahai-library.org. Retrieved 2006-06-25. 
  215. ^ Jusino, Ramon K (1998). "Mary Magdalene: Author of the Fourth Gospel?". Ramon K. Jusino. Retrieved 2014-12-30. 
  216. ^ "The Crucifixion of Mary Magdalene". google.com. 
  217. ^ "The Gospel of Mary". google.com. 
  218. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20120314224852/http://ct.dio.org/comment-and-dialogue/question-corner/apostle-to-the-apostles-the-story-of-mary-magdalene.html
  219. ^ a b Ehrman 2006, p. 248.
  220. ^ a b c Ehrman 2006, pp. 248-249.
  221. ^ a b Ehrman 2006, pp. 249-150.
  222. ^ Ehrman 2006, p. 250.
  223. ^ Ehrman 2006, pp. 250-251.
  224. ^ Ehrman 2006, p. 251.
  225. ^ Casey 2010, pp. 544-545.
  226. ^ Jeffrey John Kripal, The Serpent's Gift: Gnostic Reflections on the Study of Religion, p. 52 (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2007). ISBN 0-226-45380-4 ISBN 0-226-45381-2
  227. ^ Robert Kiefer Webb, Richard J. Helmstadter (editors), Religion and Irreligion in Victorian Society: Essays in Honor of R.K. Webb, page 119 (London: Routledge, 1991). ISBN 0-415-07625-0
  228. ^ Edgar Saltus, Mary Magdalene: A Chronicle (New York, Belford company, 1891). Available from Open Library [3].
  229. ^ "The Secret Magdalene". The Secret Magdalene. Retrieved 2013-05-07. 

BibliographyEdit

Further readingEdit

  • Acocella, Joan. "The Saintly Sinner: The Two-Thousand-Year Obsession with Mary Magdalene". The New Yorker, February 13 & 20, 2006, p. 140–49. Prompted by controversy surrounding Dan Brown's The Da Vinci Code.
  • Brock, Ann Graham. Mary Magdalene, The First Apostle: The Struggle for Authority. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 2003. ISBN 0-674-00966-5. Discusses issues of apostolic authority in the gospels and the Gospel of Peter the competition between Peter and Mary, especially in chapter 7, "The Replacement of Mary Magdalene: A Strategy for Eliminating the Competition".
  • Burstein, Dan, and Arne J. De Keijzer. Secrets of Mary Magdalene. New York: CDS Books, 2006. ISBN 1-59315-205-1.
  • De Boer Esther A., Mary Magdalene, beyond the Myth (SCM Press London, 1997).
  • Jurgen Moltmann and E. Moltmann-Wendel, Humanity in God (London: SCM, 1984).
  • Jacobovici, Simcha and Barrie Wilson, "The Lost Gospel" (New York: Pegasus, 2014).
  • Jansen, Katherine Ludwig. The Making of the Magdalen: Preaching and Popular Devotion in the Later Middle Ages. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2000. ISBN 0-691-05850-4.
  • Kripal, Jeffrey John. (2007). The Serpent's Gift: Gnostic Reflections on the Study of Religion. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-45380-4  ISBN 0-226-45381-2.
  • Pearson, Birger A. "Did Jesus Marry?". Bible Review, Spring 2005, pp 32–39 & 47. Discussion of complete texts.
  • Picknett, Lynn, and Clive Prince. The Templar Revelation. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1997. ISBN 0-593-03870-3. Presents a hypothesis that Mary Magdalene was a priestess who was Jesus' partner in a sacred marriage.
  • Shoemaker, Stephen J. "Rethinking the ‘Gnostic Mary’: Mary of Nazareth and Mary of Magdala in Early Christian Tradition". in Journal of Early Christian Studies, 9 (2001) pp 555–595.
  • Thiering, Barbara. Jesus the Man: Decoding the Real Story of Jesus and Mary Magdalene. New York: Simon & Schulster (Atria Books), 2006. ISBN 1-4165-4138-1.
  • Wellborn, Amy. De-coding Mary Magdalene: Truth, Legend, and Lies. Huntington, Indiana: Our Sunday Visitor, 2006. ISBN 1-59276-209-3. A straightforward accounting of what is well-known of Mary Magdalene.

External linksEdit