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An aphorism (from Greek ἀφορισμός: aphorismos, "delimitation", "distinction", "definition") can be a terse saying, expressing a general truth or principle, or it can be an astute observation.
The term was first used in the Aphorisms of Hippocrates, a long series of propositions concerning the symptoms and diagnosis of disease and the art of healing and medicine. The oft-cited first sentence of this work (see Ars longa, vita brevis) is:
Life is short, art long, opportunity fleeting, experience deceptive, judgment difficult.
It was later applied to maxims of physical science, then statements of all kinds of philosophical, moral, or literary principles. In modern usage, an aphorism is generally understood to be a concise statement containing a subjective truth or observation, cleverly and pithily written.
Aphorisms should not be confused with axioms. Aphorisms came into being as the result of experience, whereas axioms are self-evident truths, requiring no proof. Aphorisms have been especially used in dealing with subjects to which no methodical or scientific treatment was applied till later, such as art, agriculture, medicine, jurisprudence and politics.
A well-known example is:
Power tends to corrupt, and absolute power corrupts absolutely.
Aphoristic collections, sometimes known as wisdom literature, have a prominent place in the canons of several ancient societies, such as the Sutra literature of India, the Biblical Ecclesiastes, Islamic hadiths, the golden verses of Pythagoras, Hesiod's Works and Days, the Delphic maxims, and Epictetus' Handbook. Aphoristic collections also make up an important part of the work of some modern authors. A 1559 oil–on–oak-panel painting, Netherlandish Proverbs (also called The Blue Cloak or The Topsy Turvy World) by Pieter Bruegel the Elder, artfully depicts a land populated with literal renditions of Flemish aphorisms (proverbs) of the day.
The aphoristic genre developed together with, or alongside literacy, and after the invention of printing, aphorisms were collected and published in book form. The first noted published collection of aphorisms is Adagia by Erasmus. Other important early aphorists were Baltasar Gracián, François de La Rochefoucauld and Blaise Pascal.
Two influential collections of aphorisms published in the twentieth century were The Uncombed Thoughts by Stanisław Jerzy Lec (in Polish), and Itch of Wisdom by Mikhail Turovsky (in Russian and English).
Misquoted or misadvised aphorisms are frequently used as a source of humour; for instance, wordplays of aphorisms appear in the works of P. G. Wodehouse, Terry Pratchett and Douglas Adams. Aphorisms being misquoted by sports players, coaches, and commentators form the basis of Private Eye's Colemanballs section.
- Lucius Annaeus Seneca, Roman stoic philosopher.
- Sakya Pandita. A Tibetan spiritual leader and Buddhist scholar of the 13th century. He is best known for his works such as the Treasury of Logic on Valid Cognition (Tshad ma rigs pa'i gter) and the Discrimination of the Three Vows (sDom-gsum rab-dbye).
- Shota Rustaveli. A 12th-13th-century Georgian poet. He is one of the greatest contributors to Georgian literature. He is author of The Knight in the Panther's Skin (ვეფხისტყაოსანი, Vepxist'q'aosani), the Georgian national epic poem.
- Juan Manuel, Prince of Villena. A Spanish medieval writer. The second, third and fourth parts of his famous work El Conde Lucanor are collections of aphorisms.
- François de La Rochefoucauld is a noted French author of maxims and memoirs. It is said[by whom?] that his world-view was clear-eyed and urbane, and that he neither condemned human conduct nor sentimentally celebrated it.
- Oscar Wilde
- Friedrich Nietzsche
- George Bernard Shaw
- Nicolás Gómez Dávila
- Dorothy Parker
- Stanisław Jerzy Lec
- Karl Kraus
- Emil Cioran
- Edmond Jabès
- Malcolm de Chazal
- Andrzej Majewski
- Alexander Woollcott
- Faina Ranevskaya
- Lao Tze
- Georges Bataille
- Jean Baudrillard
- Lev Shestov
- Desiderius Erasmus
- Benjamin Franklin
- Theodor W. Adorno, Minima Moralia: Reflections From Damaged Life (German: Minima Moralia: Reflexionen aus dem beschädigten Leben) is a 1951 collection of aphorisms and reflections written while in exile in the United States during World War II.
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- Definition of aphorism from the Online Etymology Dictionary
- One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Aphorism". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 165.
- Заголовок: (2003-06-30). ЗАЛОЖНИК ВЕЧНОСТИ Михаил Туровский/ЗАЛОЖНИК ВЕЧНОСТИ Михаил Туровский (in Russian). Peoples.ru. Retrieved 2013-10-15.
- The Government of Tibet in Exile. The Sakya Tradition. Retrieved September 26, 2007.
- Morley, John (1887). Aphorisms — an address delivered before the Edinburgh Philosophical Institution, November 11, 1887. London: MacMillan & Co.
- Geary, James (2005). The World in a Phrase: A Brief History of the Aphorism, November 2, 2005. New York: Bloomsbury USA. p. 240. ISBN 9781608197620.