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Jesus Christ Superstar is a 1970 rock opera with music by Andrew Lloyd Webber and lyrics by Tim Rice. The musical started as a rock opera concept album before its Broadway debut in 1971. The musical is mostly sung-through, with little spoken dialogue. The story is loosely based on the Gospels' accounts of the last week of Jesus's life, beginning with the preparation for the arrival of Jesus and his disciples in Jerusalem and ending with the crucifixion. It depicts political and interpersonal struggles between Judas Iscariot and Jesus that are not present in the Bible.

Jesus Christ Superstar
Jcs us cover.png
Album cover for the 1970 American release of Jesus Christ Superstar
Music Andrew Lloyd Webber
Lyrics Tim Rice
Productions

The work's depiction offers a free interpretation of the psychology of Jesus and the other characters. A large part of the plot focuses on the character of Judas, who is depicted as a tragic figure dissatisfied with the direction in which Jesus steers his disciples. Contemporary attitudes and sensibilities (as well as slang) pervade the lyrics, and ironic allusions to modern life are scattered throughout the depiction of political events. Stage and film productions accordingly contain many intentional anachronisms.

Contents

PlotEdit

Act IEdit

In the year 30 AD, Judas Iscariot, a sullen member of the 12 apostles, expresses his concern over Jesus's rising popularity as a "king" and the negative repercussions that will have. He strongly criticises Jesus for accepting his followers' unrealistic views, and for not heeding his concerns ("Heaven on Their Minds"). While Judas still loves Jesus, he believes that Jesus is just a man, not God, and worries that Jesus's following will be seen as a threat to the Roman Empire which would then severely punish Jesus, his associates, and possibly the Jewish people as a whole. Judas's warning goes unheeded, as Jesus's followers have their minds set on going to Jerusalem with Jesus. As they ask Jesus for information about his plans for the future, Jesus will not give them any, since whatever will happen is determined by God ("What's the Buzz?").

Recognizing that Jesus is irritated by the badgering and lack of understanding from his followers, Mary Magdalene tries to help Jesus relax. Judas is concerned that Jesus is associating with a woman of "her profession", as if she were a prostitute. It seems to Judas that Jesus is contradicting his own teaching, and he worries that this apparent lack of judgment will be used against Jesus and his followers ("Strange Thing Mystifying"). Jesus tells Judas that Mary is with him now, and unless Judas is without sin he should not judge the character of others. Jesus then reproaches his apostles for being "shallow, thick, and slow" and somewhat bitterly answers that not a single one of them cares about him. Mary Magdalene tries to assure Jesus that everything is alright while anointing him with oil ("Everything's Alright"). Judas angrily insists that the money used to obtain the oil should have been used to help the poor instead. Jesus sadly declines that he and his followers do not have the resources to alleviate poverty and that they should be glad for the privileges they have. He claims that once his followers no longer have him, they will lose their path.

Meanwhile, Caiaphas (the High Priest of Israel), assembles the Pharisees together at the Sanhedrin to talk about Jesus and his disciples. According to the Pharisees, Jesus's growing following consists of Jews unwilling to accept the Romans as their rulers, and the priests believe that Jesus may come to be seen as a threat to the Roman Empire, and to the priesthood's integrity; if the Romans retaliate, many Jews will suffer, even those who are not following Jesus. Caiaphas then concludes that there could be great bloodshed and the stakes are "frighteningly high!". So, for the greater good, he suggests they should "crush him completely! So like John before him, this Jesus must die!", and the Pharisees concur upon his decision ("This Jesus Must Die"). As Jesus and his followers arrive exultantly in Jerusalem, they are confronted by Caiaphas, who demands that Jesus should postpone this parade, which Jesus says would be futile and change nothing, and he proceeds to greet the happy Israelites instead ("Hosanna"). As the crowd cheers him on, they suddenly ask, "Hey JC, JC, won't you die for me?" To this, Jesus visibly reacts with concern. Then, one of his apostles, Simon the Zealot, suggests that Jesus lead his mob in a war against Rome and gain absolute power ("Simon Zealotes"). Jesus rejects this suggestion, stating that none of his followers understand what true power is, nor do they understand his true message ("Poor Jerusalem").

Pontius Pilate, the governor of Judea, has had a dream, in which he meets with a Galilean (in the form of Jesus) and that he, Pilate, will receive all of the blame for the man's violent and mournful death, predicting the rise of Christianity ("Pilate's Dream"). Jesus arrives at the Temple in Jerusalem and finds that it has become a haven of sin and debauchery as it is being used for selling everything from usury and weapons to prostitutes and drugs; angered by this, Jesus drives everyone out ("The Temple"). Angry, disconsolate, and tired by his burden, Jesus is confronted by lepers, cripples, and beggars, all wanting to be healed. Even though he heals some, their number increases, and he is overwhelmed. Unable to solve everyone's problems, Jesus screams "HEAL YOURSELVES!!!" until he finds Mary Magdalene by his side, laying him to rest ("Everything's Alright (Reprise)"). While Jesus is asleep, Mary acknowledges that she is unconditionally in love with Jesus, unlike any man she has known before, and it frightens her ("I Don't Know How to Love Him").

Conflicted, Judas seeks out the Pharisees and promises to help them arrest Jesus, while belaboring that he is acting with unselfish motives and that Jesus himself would approve if he knew those motives ("Damned for All Time"). Sustaining his testimony, Caiaphas and Annas ask that Judas reveal the location of Jesus so that the authorities can apprehend him. In exchange for the information, Judas is offered thirty pieces of silver as a "fee" so that he can assuage his conscience by using the money charitably ("Blood Money"). Judas decides that it would be better to turn Jesus in before his popularity leads to the deaths of Jesus and his followers, Judas included. He reveals that on Thursday night, Jesus will be at the Garden of Gethsemane.

Act IIEdit

At what Jesus knows will be the Last Supper, he pours wine and passes bread for his apostles ("The Last Supper"). Very aware of the ordeal he faces, he is stung when the others pay little attention to him; "For all you care this wine could be my blood / For all you care this bread could be my body," he remarks, alluding to (and anticipating) the Christian doctrine of the Eucharist. He asks them to remember him when they eat and drink; he predicts that Peter will deny him three times "in just a few hours" and that one of them will betray him. Judas, believing that Jesus already knows ("cut the dramatics, you know very well who"), admits he is the one and angrily accuses Jesus of acting recklessly and egotistically. Claiming he does not understand Jesus's decisions, he leaves to bring the Roman soldiers.

The remaining apostles fall asleep, and Jesus retreats to the Garden of Gethsemane to pray ("Gethsemane"). He admits to God his doubts, fears, and anger; that he is tired and has done all he can. He asks powerfully if any of it has meaning and implores God not let him suffer the horrible death that portends for him. He feels disillusioned with his quest as the Messiah, does not understand what it has achieved, and wishes to give up. Receiving no answer, Jesus realises that he cannot defy God's will, and surrenders to God. His prayer ends with a request that God take him immediately, "before I change my mind."

Finally, Judas arrives with Roman soldiers and identifies Jesus by kissing him on the cheek ("The Arrest"). While Jesus is being arrested, his apostles attempt to fight the soldiers, Jesus tells them to let the soldiers take him to Caiaphas. On the way, a mob (acting like—and sometimes represented as—modern-day news reporters) asks Jesus what he plans to do, but Jesus declines to comment. When Jesus is brought to trial before the Sanhedrin, Caiaphas demands if he is the King of the Jews. Jesus responds: "That's what you say, you say that I am." This answer is affirmative according to Jewish custom, and that provides enough justification for the Pharisees to bring Jesus to Pilate. Meanwhile, Jesus's apostle Peter is confronted by an old man, a soldier and a maid, and Peter denies to each that he knows Jesus ("Peter's Denial"). Mary asks Peter why he denied Jesus, and Peter responds that he had to do it in order to save himself. Mary wonders how Jesus knew that Peter would deny him three times.

Later, Pilate asks Jesus if he is the King of the Jews. Jesus gives the same answer that he gave Caiaphas: "that's what you say."[1] Since Jesus is from Galilee, Pilate says that he is not under his jurisdiction and sends him to King Herod ("Pilate and Christ"). As Jesus is dragged away, the chorus asks where Jesus's power has gone. The decadent and flamboyant King Herod persuades Jesus to prove his divinity by performing miracles, offering to free him if he complies ("King Herod's Song (Try It And See)"), but Jesus ignores him. Herod decides that Jesus is just another phony messiah and angrily sends him back to Pilate. Meanwhile, Mary Magdalene, Peter, and the apostles remember when they first began following Jesus, and wish that they could return to a time of peace ("Could We Start Again, Please?")[2]

Later, Judas is horrified upon beholding Jesus's harsh treatment by the authorities. Feeling extreme guilt for this, and panicking that he will be seen as responsible, Judas expresses regret to the pharisees, fearing he will forever be remembered as a traitor. Thankfully, Caiaphas and Annas never believe him, saying that what he has done now will save everyone and that he should not feel remorse for his actions. Although rewarded for a job well done, Judas recognizes that memories of this could haunt the rest of his life, that God chose him to be the one to betray Jesus, and that he has been used as a pawn for the "foul bloody crime". He suffers a mental breakdown during the epiphany, cursing God for his manipulative ways, and in a final attempt to detach himself from his destiny, he commits suicide by hanging himself from a tree ("Judas's Death").

At Jesus's trial, Pilate interrogates Jesus into revealing the whereabouts of his kingdom, but was cut off by a bloodthirsty mob who demands that Jesus should be sentenced to death by crucifixion. In spite of the mob’s behavior,[3] Pilate remembers the dream he had about the mob and the unjust execution of Jesus. Pilate utterly reminds the mob that, while Jesus should be imprisoned, he does not deserve to die. Pilate demands that the crowd give him a reason to condemn Jesus, and the mob answers that Jesus is a blasphemer and has defied the Roman Empire. However, after revealing Jesus as nothing more than a pathetic human being, Pilate calls the crowd hypocrites, as he knows they hate Roman rule. Even so, he decides to satisfy their bloodlust by having Jesus flogged, counting thirty-nine bloody strokes ("Trial Before Pilate, (Including The Thirty-Nine Lashes)"). Pilate, clearly disturbed by the whole ordeal, pleads with Jesus to defend himself, but Jesus says weakly that everything has been determined, by God, and Pilate cannot change it. This angers the mob more, and Pilate recalls his duty to keep the peace. Finally, he reluctantly agrees to crucify Jesus to keep the crowd from getting violent, saying to Jesus: "Don’t let me stop your great self-destruction! Die if you want to, you misguided martyr! I wash my hands of your demolition! Die if you want to, you – innocent puppet...."

As Jesus prepares to be crucified, he is mocked by the ghost of Judas, who questions why Jesus chose to arrive in the manner and time that he did, and if what happened to him was really part of a divine plan, but Judas' questions go unanswered ("Superstar").[4] After reciting his final words and commending his spirit to God, Jesus slowly dies on the cross, his fate coming full circle ("The Crucifixion"). In the end, the Apostles and Mary, mourning the death of their fallen saviour, reflect on the impact he has had on their lives ("John Nineteen: Forty-One").[5]

Principal rolesEdit

Character Voice type Description
Jesus Christ tenor (A2–G5) Title role, leader of the twelve disciples, called the "Son of God" and the "King of the Jews."
Judas Iscariot tenor (D3–D5) One of the twelve apostles of Jesus; concerned for the poor and the consequences of Jesus's fame.
Mary Magdalene mezzo-soprano (F3–E5) A female follower of Jesus who finds herself falling in love with him.
Pontius Pilate tenor (A2–B4) Governor of Judea who foresees the events of Jesus's crucifixion from beginning to aftermath in a dream and finds himself being presented with that very situation.
Caiaphas bass (C2–F4) One of the main antagonists of the show. High priest who sees Jesus as a threat to the nation.
Annas countertenor (G2–D5)
One of the main antagonists of the show. Fellow priest at the side of Caiaphas who is persuaded by Caiaphas into seeing Jesus as a threat.
Peter baritone (A2–G4) One of Jesus's twelve apostles; denies Jesus three times upon the night of Jesus's arrest to save himself.
Simon Zealotes tenor (G3–B4) One of Jesus's twelve apostles; urges Jesus to lead his followers into battle against the Romans.
King Herod baritone (C3–G4) The King of Galilee; Jesus is brought to him for judgment after first being taken to Pilate.

InstrumentationEdit

2 flutes, clarinet, 2 bassoons, 2 saxophones (one tenor), 6 horns, 4 trumpets, 2 trombones, drum set, percussion set, 6 guitars (1 acoustic, 2 electric), 4 bass guitars, 5 pianos, electric piano, 3 organs, positive organ, and strings. Additional vocals are provided by a choir, a children's choir ("Overture"), and other singers ("Superstar").[6]

Musical numbersEdit


ProductionEdit

The songs were first written and conceived as a concept album, before the musical was created and staged.[7] On the original album, the part of Jesus was sung by Ian Gillan, with Murray Head as Judas, Michael d'Abo as King Herod, Yvonne Elliman as Mary Magdalene, and Barry Dennen as Pilate. In July 1971, the first authorised American concert of the rock opera took place in front of an audience of 13,000 people at Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania's Civic Arena with Jeff Fenholt singing the role of Jesus, Carl Anderson as Judas and Elliman repeating as Mary Magdalene.[8]

Original Broadway productionEdit

The musical opened on Broadway on 12 October 1971, directed by Tom O'Horgan, at the Mark Hellinger Theatre. It starred Jeff Fenholt as Jesus, Ben Vereen as Judas and Bob Bingham as Caiaphas. Dennen and Elliman played the roles that they had sung on the album. Kurt Yaghjian was Annas, and Ted Neeley (as a Christ understudy), Samuel E. Wright and Anita Morris appeared in the cast. Carl Anderson replaced Vereen when he fell ill, and the two performers later took turns playing the role. The show closed on 30 June 1973 after 711 performances. The production received mixed reviews; the bold casting of African-Americans as Judas was lauded, but reviewer Clive Barnes from The New York Times said, "the real disappointment was not in the music ... but in the conception."[9][10] Lloyd Webber said in 2012: "I hugely objected to the original New York production, which was probably the worst night of my life. It was a vulgar travesty."[7] The show was nominated for five Tony Awards, including Best Score, but didn't win any. Lloyd Webber won a Drama Desk Award as "Most Promising Composer", and Vereen won a Theatre World Award.

ControversyEdit

The Broadway show and subsequent productions were condemned by some religious groups. Tim Rice was quoted as saying "It happens that we don't see Christ as God but simply the right man at the right time at the right place."[11][12] Some Christians considered such comments to be blasphemous, the character of Judas too sympathetic and some of his criticisms of Jesus offensive.[13] At the same time, some Jews claimed that it bolstered the antisemitic belief that the Jews were responsible for Jesus' death by showing most of the villains as Jewish (Caiaphas and the other priests, Herod) and showing the crowd in Jerusalem calling for the crucifixion.[14][15] The musical was banned in South Africa for being "irreligious".[16] A 1972 production of the play was banned in the Hungarian People's Republic for "distribution of religious propaganda".[17]

Other 1970s and 1980s productionsEdit

 
Paul Nicholas in Jesus Christ Superstar

Superstar opened at the Palace Theatre in London in 1972, starring Paul Nicholas as Jesus, Stephen Tate as Judas and Dana Gillespie as Mary Magdalene. It was directed by Australian Jim Sharman. This production was much more successful than the original production on Broadway, running for eight years and becoming the United Kingdom's longest-running musical at the time. Dmitri Shostakovich attended this production in London just before his death. He regretted that he could not have composed something like it; he lauded especially a rock band underpinning full symphonic strings, brass and woodwind.[18]

One of the earliest foreign productions was a five-day run in Sweden at Scandinavium in Gothenburg, opening on 18 February 1972 and playing to 74,000 people (a record at the time). Starring as Mary Magdalene was Agnetha Fältskog. On 16 March 1972 an oratorio version was performed at Memorial Drive Park in Adelaide, South Australia as part of the Adelaide Festival of the Arts.[19] This was followed in May by the first full Australian production, at the Capitol Theatre, Sydney, later moving to the Palais Theatre in Melbourne.[20] Sharman again directed, and the cast included Trevor White as Jesus, Jon English as Judas, and Michele Fawdon (1972–1973) and Marcia Hines (1973–1974) as Mary Magdalene. Hines was the first black woman to play the role. Other cast members included Reg Livermore, John Paul Young, Stevie Wright, and Graham Russell and Russell Hitchcock, who met during the production and subsequently formed the band Air Supply. The production ran until February 1974.[citation needed] In June 1972 the show opened in Belgrade, Yugoslavia, in Atelje 212 theatre, in adaptation by Jovan Ćirilov.[21] The role of Jesus Christ was played by Korni Grupa vocalist Zlatko Pejaković, the role of Mary Magdalene by Azra Halinović and the role of Pontius Pilate by Branko Milićević.[21] The premiere was directly broadcast by Radio Television of Belgrade.[21] Bora Đorđević[22] and Srđan Marjanović, at the time a little known musicians, also participated as members of the choir.[23] The production was praised by the Yugoslav public.[21]

In 1973, the show opened in Paris at the Théâtre de Chaillot in a French adaptation by Pierre Delanoë. The title role was sung by Daniel Beretta, and Mary Magdalena was Anne-Marie David. The critics were unimpressed, and the production stopped after 30 performances.[citation needed] In the same year, Noel Pearson produced the show at the Gaiety Theatre, Dublin, Republic of Ireland, with Luke Kelly giving a critically acclaimed performance as King Herod.[24] In 1974, first Spanish-language production ran in Mexico with the title "Jesucristo Super Estrella". Julissa played Mary Magdalen. The musical was seen in 1974 in Peru and Singapore.[25]

Robert Stigwood launched two road touring companies in 1971 to cover North America, with Robert Corff and Tom Westerman as Jesus, respectively.[citation needed] The first major US National Tour, however began In 1976, managed by Laura Shapiro Kramer. The tour continued until 1980. In 1977, the show had its first Broadway revival, running from 23 November 1977 to 12 February 1978. It was directed by William Daniel Grey, with choreography by Kelly Carrol and starred William Daniel Grey as Jesus, Patrick Jude as Judas, and Barbara Niles as Mary Magdalene.[26] Regional productions followed.[citation needed]

In 1981, Emilio de Soto directed an English-language version in Venezuela, with 163 actors.[citation needed] From 1982 to 1984, an Australian production toured Australia and South-East Asia, directed by Trevor White, who also reprised his role of Jesus. The cast included Doug Parkinson as Judas and Marcia Hines (reprising her role as Mary Magdalene).[citation needed]

1990s and 2000sEdit

The North American touring revival of Superstar in 1992 starred Neeley and Anderson reprising their respective Broadway and 1973 film roles as Jesus and Judas, receiving positive reviews for their performances. This production also starred both Dennis DeYoung as Pilate, and Syreeta and Irene Cara sharing Mary Magdalene. Originally expected to run for three to four months, the tour ended up running for five years. Replacements in this tour included Jason Raize as Pontius Pilate and Simone as the Maid by the Fire and understudy for Mary. In 1994, a New Zealand production starred Darryl Lovegrove as Jesus, Jay Laga'aia as Judas and Frankie Stevens as Caiaphas. Also in 1994, a stage version titled Jesus Christ Superstar: A Resurrection was performed in Atlanta, Austin and Seattle featuring Amy Ray as Jesus, Emily Saliers as Mary Magdalene and Michael Lorant as Judas.

In 1996, the musical was revived in London at the Lyceum Theatre and ran for a year and a half. Directed by Gale Edwards, it starred Steve Balsamo and Zubin Varla as Jesus and Judas, and Joanna Ampil as Mary Magdalene and Alice Cooper as King Herod. The production was nominated for a Olivier Award for Best Musical Revival but did not win. It was followed by a UK tour. This production was revived on Broadway at the Ford Center for the Performing Arts in 2000, starring Glenn Carter as Jesus and Tony Vincent as Judas. It opened to mixed reviews and ran for 161 performances.[27] It was nominated for a Tony Award for Best Revival of a Musical but did not win. In 2002, a national tour starred Sebastian Bach as Jesus and Anderson once again as Judas. Bach received mixed reviews while Anderson was again praised. In April 2003, Bach was replaced by Eric Kunze. Anderson left the show later in 2003 after being diagnosed with leukaemia and died in 2004. The tour closed shortly after Anderson's departure.

In 2004 a year-long UK tour began, directed by Bob Tomson and Bill Kenwright. Carter reprised his role as Jesus, with James Fox as Judas. In 2005, a successful Scandinavian tour starred Australian Peter Murphy (Jesus), American Kristen Cummings (Mary), Englishman Jon Boydon née Stokes (Judas), Frenchman Jérôme Pradon (King Herod) and Australian Michael-John Hurney (Pilate). A US tour starring Neeley, reprising his role as Jesus and Corey Glover as Judas, began in 2006 and played for five years. A Chilean heavy metal version has played annually in Santiago since 2004.[28] In Boston, Gary Cherone portrayed Jesus in productions in 1994, 1996 and 2003 and Judas in 2000.

2010sEdit

A new production of Jesus Christ Superstar was mounted at the Stratford Shakespeare Festival, in Stratford, Ontario, in 2011. Directed by Des McAnuff, the cast starred Paul Nolan as Jesus, Josh Young as Judas, Brent Carver as Pilate, Chilina Kennedy as Mary Magdalene, Bruce Dow as Herod and Melissa O'Neil as Martha. This moved to La Jolla Playhouse later in the year and transferred to the Neil Simon Theatre on Broadway in 2012, with Tom Hewitt taking over the role of Pilate.[29] Reviews were mixed.[30][31] The revival was nominated for two Tonys: Best Revival and, for Young, Best Actor.[32] Neither award was won, but Young won a Theatre World Award. The revival closed after 116 performances and 24 previews.[33]

Through a 2012 ITV competition TV show called Superstar, produced by Andrew Lloyd Webber, the UK public chose Ben Forster for the role of Jesus in an arena tour of the musical, beginning at O2 in September 2012.[34][7] The production also starred Tim Minchin as Judas, Melanie C as Mary Magdalene and Chris Moyles as King Herod.[35] Lloyd Webber stated, "The funny thing is that Jesus Christ Superstar [as a rock concert] is what we actually intended it to be. When it is done in a conventional proscenium theatre production it feels shoe-horned in. That is why I wanted to do this."[7] The tour resumed in March 2013 in the UK, and an Australian leg of the tour commenced in Perth in May 2013.[36] Andrew O'Keefe played King Herod in Australia, with Jon Stevens as Pilate. Stevens had played Judas in an Australian arena tour in 1992.[37][38]

In 2016, celebrating 45 years since the musical debuted on Broadway, Jesus Christ Superstar returned to London at Regent's Park Open Air Theatre, directed by Timothy Sheader. The production won the BBC Radio 2 Audience Award for Best Musical at the Evening Standard Theatre Awards,[39] and a Laurence Olivier Award for Best Musical Revival.[40] The production returned to the Open Air Theatre as part of the 2017 season, running from 11 August 2017 to 23 September.[41] Additionally, the Lyric Opera of Chicago is hosting a run of the opera from late April 2018 to late May 2018. [42]

Notable international productionsEdit

 
2011 production of Jesus Christ Superstar at The Doon School, India
 
2013 production in Rotterdam, Netherlands

Two notable Jesuses were Takeshi Kaga, in the 1976 Japanese production, and Camilo Sesto in the 1975 Spanish production[why?]. Mary Magdalene was Rocío Banquells in a 1981 production in Mexico. A Czech version premiered in 1994 in Prague's Spirála Theatre and ran until 1998, with 1288 performances.[43] In the 2000s, a Venezuelan production ran for two years (2006–2008), directed by Michel Hausmann. A Spanish production produced by Stage Entertainment ran from 2007 to 2009, followed by long-running productions in Italy and Sweden (featuring Ola Salo) and Norway.

Concerts of the show have been mounted in Vienna, Austria, since 1981, including one on Easter of 2015 starring Drew Sarich in the title role.[44]

In 2010, an Australian production presented by Harvest Rain Theatre Company was directed by Tim O'Connor. Luke Kennedy appeared as Jesus, Naomi Price as Mary, Tod Strike as Judas, and Steven Tandy as Herod. A 2017 Professional Australian Production was staged at the Arts Centre Melbourne and starred Rob Mills as Jesus.

A 2014 production in São Paulo, Brazil starred Igor Rickli as Jesus. Negra Li was Mary Magdalene.[45] A 2014 production in Lima, Peru, at the Sarita Colonia prison, as part of a rehabilitation program for inmates, received some press.[46] Eighty prisoners mounted the production, directed by inmate Freddy Battifora, who also played the role of Jesus.[47] The Catholic Church approved of the production.[47]

Recordings and radio broadcastsEdit

The original 1970 concept album was very popular; its 1971 release topped the US Billboard Pop Albums.[48] The 1972 and 1992 Australian cast recordings were also both highly successful.[49]

In 1994, a studio recording under the name of Jesus Christ Superstar: A Resurrection was released.

A 1996 radio production for BBC Radio 2 starred Tony Hadley as Jesus, Roger Daltrey as Judas, Frances Ruffelle as Mary Magdalene and Julian Clary as King Herod; this production was re-broadcast on BBC Radio 4 Extra on 6 August 2016.[50]

FilmsEdit

A film adaptation of Jesus Christ Superstar was released in 1973 and was the eighth highest-grossing film of that year. The film, directed by Norman Jewison, was shot in Israel[51] and other Middle Eastern locations. Ted Neeley, Carl Anderson and Yvonne Elliman were each nominated for a Golden Globe Award for their portrayals of Jesus, Judas and Mary Magdalene, respectively. Bob Bingham (Caiaphas) and Barry Dennen (Pilate) also reprised their roles. Though it attracted criticism from some religious groups, the film was generally well received.[citation needed] A new song, called "Then We Are Decided" and phrased as a dialogue between Caiaphas and Annas, was written and composed for this adaptation.

A second adaptation was filmed in 1999, and released around the world on video in 2000 and 2001.[52] It starred Glenn Carter as Jesus, Jérôme Pradon as Judas, Reneé Castle as Mary Magdalene, and Rik Mayall as Herod, and was directed by Gale Edwards and Nick Morris. It was released on video in the UK in October 2000.[53] In the U.S. it was released on VHS and DVD in March 2001, and aired on PBS's Great Performances series in April 2001.[54] It won the International Emmy Award for Best Performing Arts Film in November 2001.[55] The style of the film is more like the stage version than the location-based 1973 adaptation, and it used many of the ideas from the 1996–1999 UK production.[52]

TelevisionEdit

On Easter Sunday, April 1, 2018, NBC aired a live concert version of the show featuring John Legend as Jesus, Sara Bareilles as Mary Magdalene, Brandon Victor Dixon as Judas, Alice Cooper as King Herod, Norm Lewis as Caiaphas, Ben Daniels as Pilate, Jin Ha as Annas, Erik Grönwall as Simon Zealotes and Jason Tam as Peter.[56]

Principal roles and casting historyEdit

Character Concept Album
(1970)[57]
Broadway
(1971)[58]
West End
(1972)[59]
Film
(1973)[60]
Broadway Revival
(1977)[61]
West End Revival
(1996)[62]
Broadway Revival
(2000)[63]
Broadway Revival
(2012)[64]
Regent's Park Open Air Theatre
(2016)[65]
Live in Concert
(2018)[66]
Jesus Christ Ian Gillan Jeff Fenholt Paul Nicholas Ted Neeley William Daniel Grey Steve Balsamo Glenn Carter Paul Alexander Nolan Declan Bennett John Legend
Judas Iscariot Murray Head Ben Vereen Stephen Tate Carl Anderson Patrick Jude Zubin Varla Tony Vincent Josh Young Tyrone Huntley Brandon Victor Dixon
Mary Magdalene
Yvonne Elliman
Dana Gillespie Yvonne Elliman Barbara Niles Joanna Ampil Maya Days Chilina Kennedy Maimuna Memon Sara Bareilles
Caiaphas Victor Brox Bob Bingham George Harris Bob Bingham Christopher Cable Peter Gallagher Frederick B. Owens Marcus Nance Phillip Browne Norm Lewis
Pontius Pilate
Barry Dennen
John Parker Barry Dennen Randy Wilson David Burt Kevin Gray Tom Hewitt David Thaxton Ben Daniels
Annas Brian Keith Kurt Yaghjian Jimmy Cassidy Kurt Yaghjian Steve Schochet Martin Callaghan Ray Walker Aaron Walpole Sean Kingsley Jin Ha
Simon Zealotes John Gustafson Dennis Buckley Derek James Larry Marshall Bobby London Glenn Carter Michael K. Lee Lee Siegel Tim Newman Erik Grönwall
Peter Paul Davis Michael Jason Richard Barnes Philip Toubus Randy Martin Jonathan Hart Rodney Hicks Mike Nadajewski Phil King Jason Tam
King Herod Mike d'Abo Paul Ainsley Paul Jabara Josh Mostel Mark Syers Nick Holder
(Alice Cooper in cast recording)
Paul Kandel Bruce Dow Peter Caulfield Alice Cooper

Awards and nominationsEdit

Original Broadway productionEdit

Year Award ceremony Category Nominee Result
1972 Tony Award Best Performance by a Featured Actor in a Musical Ben Vereen Nominated
Best Original Score Andrew Lloyd Webber and Tim Rice Nominated
Best Scenic Design Robin Wagner Nominated
Best Costume Design Randy Barceló Nominated
Best Lighting Design Jules Fisher Nominated
Drama Desk Award Most Promising Composer Andrew Lloyd Webber Won
Theatre World Award Ben Vereen Won

1996 London revivalEdit

Year Award ceremony Category Nominee Result
1997 Laurence Olivier Award Best Musical Revival Nominated

2000 Broadway revivalEdit

Year Award ceremony Category Nominee Result
2000 Tony Award Best Revival of a Musical Nominated

2012 Broadway revivalEdit

Year Award Category Nominee Result
2012 Tony Award Best Revival of a Musical Nominated
Best Performance by a Featured Actor in a Musical Josh Young Nominated
Drama Desk Award Outstanding Revival of a Musical Nominated
Outstanding Sound Design Steve Canyon Kennedy Nominated
Theatre World Award Josh Young Won

2016 London revivalEdit

Year Award ceremony Category Nominee Result
2016 Evening Standard Theatre Awards Best Musical Won
Emerging Talent Tyrone Huntley Won
2017 Whatsonstage.com Awards Best Musical Revival Nominated
Best Supporting Actor in a Musical Tyrone Huntley Nominated
Best Choreography Drew McOnie Nominated
2017 Laurence Olivier Awards Best Musical Revival Won
Best Actor in a Musical Tyrone Huntley Nominated
Best Theatre Choreographer Drew McOnie Nominated
Best Lighting Design Lee Curran Nominated
Best Sound Design Nick Lidster for Autograph Nominated
Outstanding Achievement in Music The band and company for creating the gig-like rock vibe of the original concept album of Jesus Christ Superstar Nominated

Further readingEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ This is the text in the original recording
  2. ^ This scene originally was added to the original Broadway production; it was included in the film and subsequent productions.
  3. ^ In the Broadway production, a stanza is added where Pilate admonishes the crowd for their sudden respect for Caesar, as well as for how they "produce Messiahs by the sackful"; this was kept for the film and subsequent productions.
  4. ^ As Jesus is nailed to the cross some productions show Judas suffering a stigmata-like effect, indicating that he is paying for his sin.
  5. ^ The title of the instrumental number "John Nineteen: Forty-One" is a reference to a verse in the Gospel of John about Jesus being laid in the tomb.
  6. ^ Credits listing on the original album.
  7. ^ a b c d Theatre Features. "Andrew Lloyd Webber interview: the second coming of Jesus Christ Superstar". Telegraph. Retrieved 21 November 2013. 
  8. ^ Entertainment Weekly, 19 July 1996
  9. ^ "The 'Splainer: The stormy, surprising history of 'Jesus Christ Superstar' - Religion News ServiceReligion News Service". Religionnews.com. 2018-03-29. Retrieved 2018-04-05. 
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