West End theatre
West End theatre is a common term for mainstream professional theatre staged in the large theatres of "Theatreland" in and near the West End of London. Along with New York City's Broadway theatre, West End theatre is usually considered to represent the highest level of commercial theatre in the English-speaking world. Seeing a West End show is a common tourist activity in London.
In 2013, ticket sales reached a record 14.4 million making West End the largest English speaking audience in the world. Famous screen actors frequently appear on the London stage. Helen Mirren received an award for her performance as the Queen on the West End stage, and then stated, "theatre is such an important part of British history and British culture".
Theatre in London flourished after the English Reformation. The first permanent public playhouse, known simply as The Theatre, was constructed in 1576 in Shoreditch by James Burbage. It was soon joined by The Curtain. Both are known to have been used by William Shakespeare's company. In 1599, the timber from The Theatre was moved to Southwark, where it was used in building the Globe Theatre in a new theatre district formed beyond the controls of the City corporation. These theatres were closed in 1642 due to the Puritans who would later influence the interregnum of 1649.
After the Restoration (1660), two companies were licensed to perform, the Duke's Company and the King's Company. Performances were held in converted buildings, such as Lisle's Tennis Court. The first West End theatre, known as Theatre Royal in Bridges Street, was designed by Thomas Killigrew and built on the site of the present Theatre Royal, Drury Lane. It opened on 7 May 1663 and was destroyed by a fire nine years later. It was replaced by a new structure designed by Christopher Wren and renamed the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane.
Outside the West End, Sadler's Wells Theatre opened in Islington on 3 June 1683. Taking its name from founder Richard Sadler and monastic springs that were discovered on the property, it operated as a "Musick House", with performances of opera; as it was not licensed for plays. In the West End, the Theatre Royal Haymarket opened on 29 December 1720 on a site slightly north of its current location, and the Royal Opera House opened in Covent Garden on 7 December 1732.
The Patent theatre companies retained their duopoly on drama well into the 19th century, and all other theatres could perform only musical entertainments. By the early 19th century, however, music hall entertainments became popular, and presenters found a loophole in the restrictions on non-patent theatres in the genre of melodrama. Melodrama did not break the Patent Acts, as it was accompanied by music. Initially, these entertainments were presented in large halls, attached to public houses, but purpose-built theatres began to appear in the East End at Shoreditch and Whitechapel.
The West End theatre district became established with the opening of many small theatres and halls, including the Adelphi in The Strand on 17 November 1806. South of the River Thames, the Old Vic, Waterloo Road, opened on 11 May 1818. The expansion of the West End theatre district gained pace with the Theatres Act 1843; which relaxed the conditions for the performance of plays, and The Strand gained another venue when the Vaudeville opened on 16 April 1870. The next few decades saw the opening of many new theatres in the West End. The Criterion Theatre opened on Piccadilly Circus on 21 March 1874, and in 1881, two more houses appeared: the Savoy Theatre in The Strand, built by Richard D'Oyly Carte specifically to showcase the comic operas of Gilbert and Sullivan, opened on 10 October (the first theatre to be lit by cooler, cleaner electric lights), and five days later the Comedy Theatre opened as the Royal Comedy Theatre on Panton Street in Leicester Square. It abbreviated its name three years later. The theatre building boom continued until about World War I.
During the 1950s and 1960s, many plays were produced in theatre clubs, to evade the censorship then exercised by the Lord Chamberlain's Office. The Theatres Act 1968 finally abolished censorship of the stage in the United Kingdom.
"Theatreland", London's main theatre district, contains approximately forty venues and is located in and near the heart of the West End of London. It is traditionally defined by The Strand to the south, Oxford Street to the north, Regent Street to the west, and Kingsway to the east, but a few other nearby theatres are also considered "West End" despite being outside the area proper (e.g. The Apollo Victoria Theatre, in Westminster). Prominent theatre streets include Drury Lane, Shaftesbury Avenue, and The Strand. The works staged are predominantly musicals, classic and modern straight plays, and comedy performances.
Many theatres in the West End are of late Victorian or Edwardian construction and are privately owned. The majority of them have great character, and the largest and best maintained feature grand neo-classical, Romanesque, or Victorian façades and luxurious, detailed interior design and decoration.
On the other hand, leg room is often cramped, and audience facilities such as bars and toilets are often much smaller than in modern theatres. The protected status of the buildings and their confined urban locations, combined with financial constraints, make it very difficult to make substantial improvements to the level of comfort offered. In 2003, the Theatres Trust estimated that an investment of £250 million over the following 15 years was required for modernisation, and stated that 60% of theatres had seats from which the stage was not fully visible. The theatre owners unsuccessfully requested tax concessions to help them meet the costs.
Several incidents followed from 2004 onwards of falling plasterwork or performances being cancelled because of urgent building repairs being required culminating in the partial collapse of the ceiling of the Apollo Theatre in December 2013. Of these earlier incidents, only one led to people being hurt, but at the Apollo Theatre 76 people needed medical treatment for their injuries.
In 2012, gross sales of £529,787,692 were up 0.27% and attendances also increased 0.56% to 13,992,773-year-on-year In 2013, sales again rose this time by 11% to £585,506,455, with attendances rising to 14,587,276. This was despite slightly fewer performances occurring in 2013.
The length of West End shows depend on ticket sales. The longest-running musical in West End history is Les Misérables. It overtook Andrew Lloyd Webber's Cats, which closed in 2002 after running for 8,949 performances and 21 years, as the longest-running West End musical of all time on 8 October 2006. Other long-runners include Lloyd Webber's The Phantom of the Opera and Willy Russell's Blood Brothers which have also subsequently overtaken Cats. However the non-musical Agatha Christie play The Mousetrap is the longest-running production in the world, and has been performed continuously since 1952.
- The Mousetrap – opened 25 November 1952 at the Ambassadors Theatre, now playing at the St Martin's Theatre – 65th year
- Les Misérables – opened 8 October 1985 at the Barbican, now playing at the Queen's Theatre – 31st year
- The Phantom of the Opera – opened 9 October 1986 at Her Majesty's Theatre – 30th year
- The Woman in Black – opened 15 February 1989 at the Strand Theatre, now playing at the Fortune Theatre – 28th year
- Blood Brothers – opened 27 August 1988 at the Albery Theatre, later transferring to the Phoenix Theatre and closed on 10 November 2012 – 24 years
- Cats – opened 11 May 1981 at the New London Theatre and closed on 11 May 2002 on its 21st anniversary
- Mamma Mia! – opened 6 April 1999 at the Prince Edward Theatre, moving later to the Prince of Wales Theatre and now playing at the Novello Theatre – 18th year
- Starlight Express – opened 27 March 1984 at the Apollo Victoria Theatre and closed on 12 January 2002 – 17 years
- The Lion King – opened 19 October 1999 at the Lyceum Theatre – 17th year
- No Sex Please, We're British – opened 3 June 1971 at the Strand Theatre and closed on 16 January 1987 – 16 years
- Chicago – opened 18 November 1997 at the Adelphi Theatre, transferring later to the Cambridge Theatre and the Garrick Theatre and closed on 1 September 2012 – 15 years
- Stomp – opened 25 September 2002 at the Vaudeville Theatre, later transferring to the Ambassadors Theatre opening on 27 September 2007 – 14th year
- Buddy – The Buddy Holly Story – opened 12 October 1989 at the Victoria Palace Theatre, transferred to the Strand Theatre in October 1995 and closed on 19 May 2002 – 12 years
- We Will Rock You – opened 14 May 2002 and closed on 31 May 2014 at the Dominion Theatre – 12 years
- Billy Elliot the Musical – opened 11 May 2005 at the Victoria Palace Theatre and closed on 9 April 2016 – 10 years
- The Black and White Minstrel Show – opened in 1962 at the Victoria Palace Theatre and closed about 1972 – 10 years
- Miss Saigon – opened 20 September 1989 at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane and closed on 30 October 1999 – 10 years
- Wicked – opened 27 September 2006 at the Apollo Victoria Theatre – 10th year
- The 39 Steps – opened 20 September 2006 at the Criterion Theatre and closed on 5 September 2015 – 9 years
- The Complete Works of William Shakespeare (Abridged) – opened 7 March 1996 at the Criterion Theatre and closed on 3 April 2005 – 9 years
- Jersey Boys – opened 18 March 2008 at the Prince Edward Theatre, transferred to the Piccadilly Theatre on 15 March 2014 and closed on 26 March 2017 – 9 years
- Jesus Christ Superstar – opened 9 August 1972 at the Palace Theatre and closed about 1980 – 8 years
- Me and My Girl (revival) – opened 12 February 1985 at the Adelphi Theatre and closed on 16 January 1993 – 8 years
- The Sound of Music – opened 18 May 1961 at the Palace Theatre and closed about 1968 – 7 years
- Evita – opened 21 January 1978 at the Prince Edward Theatre and closed on 8 February 1986 – 7 years
- Thriller – Live – opened 21 January 2009 at the Lyric Theatre – 7th year
- There's a Girl in My Soup – opened June 1966 at the Globe Theatre. Closed in 1973 after over a thousand performances – 6½ years
- War Horse – opened 3 April 2009 at the New London Theatre and closed on 12 March 2016 – 6½ years
- Oliver! – opened 30 June 1960 at the New Theatre (now the Noël Coward Theatre) and closed about 1966 – 6 years
List of West End theatresEdit
- If no show is currently running, the play listed is the next show planned (dates marked with an *).
- If the next show planned is not announced, the applicable columns are left blank.
|Adelphi Theatre||Strand||1436||Really Useful Theatres||Kinky Boots||Musical||15 September 2015||Open-ended|
|Aldwych Theatre||Aldwych||1176||Nederlander Organization||Beautiful: The Carole King Musical||Musical||24 February 2015||Open-ended|
|Ambassadors Theatre||West Street||450||Stephen Waley-Cohen||Stomp||Physical theatre||4 October 2007||Open-ended|
|Apollo Theatre||Shaftesbury Avenue||658||Nimax Theatres||Travesties||Play||14 February 2017||29 April 2017|
|Apollo Victoria Theatre||Wilton Road||2384||Ambassador Theatre Group||Wicked||Musical||27 September 2006||Open-ended|
|Arts Theatre||Great Newport Street||350||JJ Goodman Ltd.||The Wipers Times||Play||27 March 2017*||13 May 2017|
|Cambridge Theatre||Earlham Street||1283||Really Useful Theatres||Matilda the Musical||Musical||24 November 2011||Open-ended|
|Criterion Theatre||Jermyn Street||591||Criterion Theatre Trust||The Comedy About a Bank Robbery||Play||21 April 2016||Open-ended|
|Dominion Theatre||Tottenham Court Road||2001||Nederlander Organization||An American in Paris||Musical||21 March 2017||Open-ended|
|Duchess Theatre||Catherine Street||494||Nimax Theatres||The Play That Goes Wrong||Play||14 September 2014||Open-ended|
|Duke of York's Theatre||St. Martin's Lane||650||Ambassador Theatre Group||The Glass Menagerie||Play||2 February 2017||29 April 2017|
|Fortune Theatre||Russell Street||440||Ambassador Theatre Group||The Woman in Black||Play||7 June 1989||Open-ended|
|Garrick Theatre||Charing Cross Road||718||Nimax Theatres||The Miser||Play||13 March 2017||3 June 2017|
|Gielgud Theatre||Shaftesbury Avenue||889||Delfont Mackintosh Theatres||The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-Time||Play||8 July 2014||3 June 2017|
|Harold Pinter Theatre||Panton Street||796||Ambassador Theatre Group||Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?||Play||9 March 2017||27 May 2017|
|Her Majesty's Theatre||Haymarket||1161||Really Useful Theatres||The Phantom of the Opera||Musical||9 October 1986||Open-ended|
|London Palladium||Argyll Street||2286||Really Useful Theatres||The Wind in the Willows||Musical||29 June 2017*||9 September 2017|
|Lyceum Theatre||Wellington Street||2100||Ambassador Theatre Group||The Lion King||Musical||19 October 1999||Open-ended|
|Lyric Theatre||Shaftesbury Avenue||915||Nimax Theatres||Thriller – Live||Musical||21 January 2009||Open-ended|
|New London Theatre||Drury Lane||1108||Really Useful Theatres||School of Rock||Musical||14 November 2016||Open-ended|
|Noël Coward Theatre||St. Martin's Lane||872||Delfont Mackintosh Theatres||Half a Sixpence||Musical||17 November 2016||Open-ended|
|Novello Theatre||Aldwych||1143||Delfont Mackintosh Theatres||Mamma Mia!||Musical||6 September 2012||Open-ended|
|Palace Theatre||Shaftesbury Avenue||1400||Nimax Theatres||Harry Potter and the Cursed Child||Play||30 July 2016||Open-ended|
|Phoenix Theatre||Charing Cross Road||1000||Ambassador Theatre Group||The Girls||Musical||21 February 2017||Open-ended|
|Piccadilly Theatre||Denman Street||1200||Ambassador Theatre Group||Annie||Musical||5 June 2017*||Open-ended|
|Playhouse Theatre||Craven Street||786||Ambassador Theatre Group||My Family: Not the Sitcom||Play||28 March 2017*||3 June 2017|
|Prince Edward Theatre||Old Compton Street||1618||Delfont Mackintosh Theatres||Aladdin||Musical||15 June 2016||Open-ended|
|Prince of Wales Theatre||Coventry Street||1160||Delfont Mackintosh Theatres||The Book of Mormon||Musical||21 March 2013||Open-ended|
|Queen's Theatre||Shaftesbury Avenue||1099||Delfont Mackintosh Theatres||Les Misérables||Musical||12 April 2004||Open-ended|
|Savoy Theatre||Strand||1158||Ambassador Theatre Group||Dreamgirls||Musical||14 December 2016||Open-ended|
|Shaftesbury Theatre||Shaftesbury Avenue||1400||The Theatre of Comedy Company||Motown: The Musical||Musical||8 March 2016||Open-ended|
|St Martin's Theatre||West Street||550||Stephen Waley-Cohen||The Mousetrap||Play||25 March 1974||Open-ended|
|Theatre Royal, Drury Lane||Catherine Street||2196||Really Useful Theatres||42nd Street||Musical||4 April 2017*||Open-ended|
|Theatre Royal Haymarket||Haymarket||888||Crown Estate||The Goat, or Who Is Sylvia?||Play||5 April 2017*||24 June 2017|
|Trafalgar Studios||Whitehall||380||Ambassador Theatre Group||The Philanthropist||Play||20 April 2017*||22 July 2017|
|Vaudeville Theatre||Strand||681||Nimax Theatres||Stepping Out||Play||14 March 2017||17 June 2017|
|Victoria Palace Theatre||Victoria Street||1517||Delfont Mackintosh Theatres||Hamilton||Musical||December 7, 2017*||Open-ended|
|Wyndham's Theatre||St. Martin's Court||750||Delfont Mackintosh Theatres||Don Juan in Soho||Play||28 March 2017*||10 June 2017|
The following have been announced as future West End productions. The theatre in which they will run is either not yet known or currently occupied by another show.
- Dick Whittington, London Palladium
- Cat on a Hot Tin Roof, Apollo Theatre
- Judy!, Arts Theatre
- Kite Runner, Playhouse Theatre
- Lady Day at Emerson's Bar and Grill, Wyndham's Theatre
- Our Ladies of Perpetual Succour, Duke of York's Theatre
- Queen Anne, Theatre Royal, Haymarket
- The Ferryman, Gielgud Theatre
London's non-commercial theatresEdit
The term "West End theatre" is generally used to refer specifically to commercial productions in Theatreland. However, the leading non-commercial theatres in London enjoy great artistic prestige. These include the Royal National Theatre, the Barbican Centre, Shakespeare's Globe, the Old Vic, and the Regent's Park Open Air Theatre. These theatres stage a high proportion of straight drama, Shakespeare, other classic plays and premieres of new plays by leading playwrights. Successful productions from the non-commercial theatres sometimes transfer to one of the commercial West End houses for an extended run.
The Royal Opera House is widely regarded as one of the greatest opera houses in the world, comparable with the Palais Garnier, La Scala and the Metropolitan Opera House. Commonly known simply as Covent Garden due to its location, it is home to the Royal Opera, Royal Ballet and a resident symphony orchestra, and hosts guest performances from other leading opera, ballet and performance companies from around the world.
Likewise, the London Coliseum is the resident home to the English National Opera. The theatre is also the London base for performances by the English National Ballet, who perform regular seasons throughout the year when not on tour.
The Peacock Theatre is located on the edge of the Theatreland area. Now owned by the London School of Economics and Political Science, it is used in the evenings for dance performances by Sadler's Wells, who manage the theatre on behalf of the school.
Other London theatresEdit
There are a great number of theatre productions in London outside the West End. Much of this is known as fringe theatre which is the equivalent of Off-Broadway theatre in New York. Among these are the Bush Theatre and the Donmar Warehouse. Fringe venues range from well-equipped small theatres to rooms above pubs, and the performances range from classic plays, to cabaret, to plays in the languages of London's ethnic minorities. The performers range from emerging young professionals to amateurs.
There are many theatres located throughout Greater London, such as the Lyric Hammersmith, Rose Theatre, Kingston, New Wimbledon Theatre, the Rudolf Steiner Theatre in Westminster, the Ashcroft Theatre in Croydon, Secombe Theatre in Sutton and the Churchill Theatre in Bromley.
There are a number of annual awards for outstanding achievements in London theatre:
- Christopher Innes, "West End" in The Cambridge Guide to Theatre (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998), pp. 1194–1195, ISBN 0-521-43437-8
- Singh, Anita (23 June 2015). "West End audiences hit record high thanks to Twitter". The Daily Telegraph. London.
- "Stars on stage". London theatre. Retrieved 23 June 2015
- "Dame Helen Mirren wins Standard award for The Audience". BBC. 13 November 2016.
- "London's Vibrant West End Theatre SCENE". TheatreHistory.com. Retrieved 17 January 2010.
- "London pub trivia – Ten oldest London theatres". Timeout London. 12 December 2006. Retrieved 17 January 2010.
- "London's Lost Tea-Gardens: I". Story of London. Retrieved 17 January 2010.
- "Sadler's Wells Theatre". LondonTown.com. Retrieved 17 January 2010.
- "1.8 million views of Lion King". Theatre Views Newsletter. October 2011. Retrieved 9 May 2012.
- Michael Billington "Snooty about musicals? Sheila Hancock should change her tune", The Guardian. (blog), 16 March 2001
- Giles Worsley "Falling Houses", The Daily Telegraph, 6 December 2003
- Michael Billington "Crisis in the West End", The Guardian, 2 August 2007
- Sarah Jane Griffiths "How safe is London's Theatreland?", BBC News, 20 December 2013
- At the Theatre Royal Haymarket in 2004, 15 people were injured when part of the ceiling fell on to them, see the Sarah Jane Griffiths article above.
- Alice Philipson, and Andrew Marszal "Apollo Theatre ceiling in London's West End collapses: scores injured", The Daily Telegraph, 20 December
- Singh, Anita (29 January 2014). "West End audiences hit record high thanks to Twitter". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 29 January 2014.
- "West End Theatre Ticket Sales at Record High". Sky (United Kingdom). 29 January 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2014.
- "West End Has Another Record Year, With Increases in Both Attendance and Revenue". Playbill. 29 January 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2014.
- "The Mousetrap London theatre tickets and information". Thisistheatre.com. Retrieved 17 January 2010.
- "Les Miserables – information on the show". WestEndTheatre.com. Retrieved 15 May 2013.
- "Phantom of The Opera London – information on the theatre show". Thisistheatre.com. Retrieved 17 January 2010.
- "The Woman in Black – information on the show". WestEndTheatre.com. Retrieved 15 May 2013.
- "Blood Brothers London – information on the show". WestEndTheatre.com. Retrieved 15 May 2013.
- "Long Runs – Broadway, Off Broadway, London, Toronto & Other Major Cities". World-theatres.com. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
- "Mamma Mia! – information on the theatre show". WestEndTheatre.com. Retrieved 15 May 2013.
- "Disney's The Lion King – information on the theatre show". WestEndTheatre.com. Retrieved 15 May 2013.
- "Stomp – information on the show". WestEndTheatre.com. Retrieved 15 May 2013.
- "We Will Rock You – information on the show". WestEndTheatre.com. Retrieved 15 May 2013.
- "Billy Elliot The Musical – information on the show". WestEndTheatre.com. Retrieved 15 May 2013.
- "Wicked – information on the show". WestEndTheatre.com. Retrieved 15 May 2013.
- "The 39 Steps – information on the show". WestEndTheatre.com. Retrieved 15 May 2013.
- "Jersey Boys – information on the show". WestEndTheatre.com. Retrieved 15 May 2013.
- "Thriller Live – information on the show". WestEndTheatre.com. Retrieved 20 January 2014.
- "War Horse – information on the show". Retrieved 6 April 2014.
- "Apollo Theatre". nimaxtheatres.com. Retrieved 2 July 2013.
- "Travesties by Tom Stoppard transfers to the West End's Apollo Theatre". londontheatre.co.uk. 28 October 2016. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
- "Arts Theatre". artstheatrewestend.co.uk. Retrieved 2 July 2013.
- "Ian Hislop and Nick Newman's The Wipers Times transfers to the Arts Theatre". londontheatre.co.uk. London Theatre. 1 December 2016. Retrieved 1 December 2016.
- "Technical Overview". Criterion Theatre Trust. Retrieved 2 July 2013.
- "Play That Goes Wrong team launches new West End show". The Stage. 3 December 2015. Retrieved 4 December 2015.
- "An American in Paris show to dance into West End in 2017". bbc.co.uk/news. BBC News. 22 April 2016. Retrieved 22 April 2016.
- "Duchess Theatre". nimaxtheatres.com. Retrieved 2 July 2013.
- "Cherry Jones leads West End revival of The Glass Menagerie at the Duke of York's Theatre". londontheatre.co.uk. London Theatre. 21 October 2016. Retrieved 22 October 2016.
- "Garrick Theatre". nimaxtheatres.com. Retrieved 2 July 2013.
- "Reece Shearsmith and Griff Rhys Jones to return to the West End". whatsonstage.com. 25 May 2016. Retrieved 25 May 2016.
- "Imelda Staunton to star in Albee's Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? in London's West End". londontheatre.co.uk. 22 September 2016. Retrieved 22 September 2016.
- "The Wind In The Willows musical confirms West End dates". WhatsOnStage.com. Retrieved 2016-11-08.
- "Lyric Theatre". nimaxtheatres.com. Retrieved 2 July 2013.
- "The West End Enrolls in School of Rock: Tony-Nominated Tuner Sets London Dates & Theater". broadway.com. Retrieved 19 May 2016.
- "Cameron Mackintosh brings hit musical Half A Sixpence to West End". 2016-08-31. Retrieved 2016-08-31.
- "Seating". palacetheatrelondon.org. Retrieved 2 July 2013.
- "Harry Potter and the Cursed Child play to open in West End in 2016". The Guardian. 26 June 2015. Retrieved 26 June 2015.
- "Gary Barlow's The Girls Musical opens in London and cast is announced tomorrow". londontheatre.co.uk. 15 September 2016. Retrieved 15 September 2016.
- "Miranda Hart gears up for Annie role". BBC News. 2017-02-16. Retrieved 2017-02-16.
- "David Baddiel's My Family: Not the Sitcom transfers to the Playhouse Theatre". londontheatre.co.uk. London Theatre. 18 January 2017. Retrieved 18 January 2017.
- "Disney's Aladdin coming to West End summer 2016?". Retrieved 3 October 2015.
- "Amber Riley to star in West End Dreamgirls – Savoy". londontheatre.co.uk. 5 February 2016. Retrieved 5 February 2016.
- "BAZ BAMIGBOYE: That's a lot of legs!". Retrieved 5 August 2016.
- "Damian Lewis to star in Albee's The Goat, or Who is Sylvia? at the Theatre Royal Haymarket". londontheatre.co.uk. 14 October 2016. Retrieved 14 October 2016.
- "Simon Callow to direct new production of The Philanthropist at Trafalgar Studios". londontheatre.co.uk. London Theatre. 22 February 2017. Retrieved 23 February 2017.
- "Vaudeville Theatre". nimaxtheatres.com. Retrieved 2 July 2013.
- "Amanda Holden stars in Stepping Out at the Vaudeville Theatre in London". londontheatre.co.uk. 23 September 2016. Retrieved 24 September 2016.
- "David Tennant makes West End return in Patrick Marber's Don Juan in Soho - Tickets now on sale". londontheatre.co.uk. London Theatre. 2 November 2016. Retrieved 2 November 2016.
- "Dates for Young Frankenstein West End run announced". WhatsOnStage.com. Retrieved 2017-02-09.
- "Dick Whittington at the London Palladium". londontheatre.co.uk. London Theatre. 22 December 2016. Retrieved 7 January 2017.
- "Sienna Miller and Jack O'Connell star in Cat on a Hot Tin Roof at the Apollo Theatre". londontheatre.co.uk. London Theatre. 24 February 2017. Retrieved 24 February 2017.
- "Judy! a new play with music about the life of Judy Garland to run at the Arts Theatre". londontheatre.co.uk. London Theatre. 3 March 2017. Retrieved 4 March 2017.
- "The Kite Runner transfers to The Playhouse Theatre in London's West End". londontheatre.co.uk. London Theatre. 24 March 2017. Retrieved 24 March 2017.
- "Audra McDonald to star in Lady Day at the Wyndham's Theatre". londontheatre.co.uk. London Theatre. 3 February 2017. Retrieved 3 February 2017.
- "Our Ladies of Perpetual Succour transfers to the Duke of York's Theatre". londontheatre.co.uk. London Theatre. 26 January 2017. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
- "RSC's Queen Anne transfers to the Theatre Royal Haymarket". londontheatre.co.uk. 1 February 2017. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- "Jez Butterworth's The Ferryman transfers to The Gielgud Theatre". londontheatre.co.uk. London Theatre. 8 February 2017. Retrieved 8 February 2017.
- Solutions, Powder Blue Internet Business. "Tape Face announces West End run : News 2016 : Chortle : The UK Comedy Guide". www.chortle.co.uk. Retrieved 2016-11-15.