In Christian theology and ecclesiology, the apostles, particularly the Twelve Apostles (also known as the Twelve Disciples or simply the Twelve), were the primary disciples of Jesus according to the New Testament. During the life and ministry of Jesus in the 1st century AD, the apostles were his closest followers and became the primary teachers of the gospel message of Jesus. There is also an Eastern Christian tradition derived from the Gospel of Luke of there having been as many as seventy apostles during the time of Jesus' ministry.
The commissioning of the Twelve Apostles during the ministry of Jesus is described in the Synoptic Gospels. After his resurrection, Jesus sent eleven of them (as Judas Iscariot by then had died) by the Great Commission to spread his teachings to all nations. This event has been called the dispersion of the Apostles.
In the Pauline epistles, Paul, although not one of the original twelve, described himself as an apostle, saying he was called by the resurrected Jesus himself during his road to Damascus event. He later describes himself as "an apostle to the Gentiles".
The period of early Christianity during the lifetimes of the apostles is called the Apostolic Age. During the first century AD, the apostles established churches throughout the territories of the Roman Empire and, according to tradition, through the Middle East, Africa, and India. Of the tombs of the apostles, all but two are claimed by premises of the Catholic Church, half of them located in the Diocese of Rome.
The term apostle comes from the Greek apóstolos (ἀπόστολος) – formed from the prefix apó- (ἀπό-, 'from') and root stéllō (στέλλω, 'I send, I depart') – originally meaning 'messenger, envoy'. It has, however, a stronger sense than the word messenger, and is closer to a 'delegate'.
Mark 6:7–13 states that Jesus initially sent out these twelve in pairs (cf. Mt 10:5–42, Lk 9:1–6) to towns in Galilee. The text states that their initial instructions were to heal the sick and drive out demons. They are also instructed to "take nothing for their journey, except a staff only: no bread, no wallet, no money in their purse, but to wear sandals, and not put on two tunics," and that if any town rejects them they ought to shake the dust off their feet as they leave, a gesture which some scholars think was meant as a contemptuous threat.[full citation needed]
Later in the Gospel narratives the Twelve Apostles are described as having been commissioned to preach the Gospel to "all the nations," regardless of whether Jew or Gentile. Paul emphasized the important role of the apostles in the church of God when he said that the household of God is "built upon the foundation of apostles and prophets, Christ Jesus himself being the cornerstone."[Ephesians 2:19–20]
Calling by JesusEdit
The three Synoptic Gospels record the circumstances in which some of the disciples were recruited, Matthew only describing the recruitment of Simon, Andrew, James, and John.
Despite Jesus only briefly requesting that they join him, they are all described as immediately consenting and abandoning their nets to do so. The immediacy of their consent has been viewed as an example of divine power, although this is not stated in the text. The more ordinary explanation is that Jesus was friends with them beforehand, as implied by the Gospel of John, which states that Peter (Simon) and Andrew were disciples of John the Baptist, and started following Jesus as soon as Jesus had been baptized.
Albright and Mann extrapolate from Simon and Andrew's abandonment of their nets that Matthew is emphasizing the importance of renunciation by converting to Christianity, since fishing was profitable, although required large start-up costs, and abandoning everything would have been an important sacrifice. Regardless, Simon and Andrew's abandonment of what were effectively their most important worldly possessions has been taken as a model by later Christian ascetics.
Matthew describes Jesus meeting James and John, also fishermen and brothers, very shortly after recruiting Simon and Andrew. Matthew and Mark identify James and John as sons of Zebedee. Luke adds to Matthew and Mark that James and John worked as a team with Simon and Andrew. Matthew states that at the time of the encounter, James and John were repairing their nets, but readily joined Jesus without hesitation.
This parallels the accounts of Mark and Luke, but Matthew implies that the men have also abandoned their father (since he is present in the boat they abandon behind them), and Carter feels this should be interpreted to mean that Matthew's view of Jesus is one of a figure rejecting the traditional patriarchal structure of society, where the father had command over his children; most scholars, however, just interpret it to mean that Matthew intended these two to be seen as even more devoted than the other pair, or that Jesus expected the imminent coming of the kingdom.
The Synoptic Gospels go on to describe that later in Jesus' ministry he noticed a tax collector in his booth. The tax collector, called Matthew in Matthew 9:9, Levi in Mark 2:14 and Luke 5:27, is asked by Jesus to become one of his disciples. Matthew/Levi is stated to have accepted and then invited Jesus for a meal with his friends. Tax collectors were seen as villains in Jewish society, and the Pharisees are described as asking Jesus why he is having a meal with such disreputable people. The reply Jesus gave is now well known: "it is not the healthy who need a doctor, but the sick. I have not come to call the righteous, but sinners to repentance."
Commissioning of the Twelve ApostlesEdit
The commissioning of the Twelve Apostles is an episode in the ministry of Jesus that appears in the three Synoptic Gospels. It relates the initial selection of the Twelve Apostles among the disciples of Jesus.
Then Jesus summoned his twelve disciples and gave them authority over unclean spirits, to cast them out, and to cure every disease and every sickness. These are the names of the twelve apostles: first, Simon, also known as Peter, and his brother Andrew; James son of Zebedee, and his brother John; Philip and Bartholomew; Thomas and Matthew the tax collector; James son of Alphaeus, and Thaddaeus; Simon the Cananaean, and Judas Iscariot, the one who betrayed him.— Matthew 10:1–4
He went up the mountain and called to him those whom he wanted, and they came to him. And he appointed twelve, whom he also named apostles, to be with him, and to be sent out to proclaim the message, and to have authority to cast out demons. So he appointed the twelve:[b] Simon (to whom he gave the name Peter); James son of Zebedee and John the brother of James (to whom he gave the name Boanerges, that is, Sons of Thunder); and Andrew, and Philip, and Bartholomew, and Matthew, and Thomas, and James son of Alphaeus, and Thaddaeus, and Simon the Cananaean, and Judas Iscariot, who betrayed him.— Mark 3:13–19
One of those days Jesus went out to a mountainside to pray, and spent the night praying to God. When morning came, he called his disciples to him and chose twelve of them, whom he also designated apostles: Simon (whom he named Peter), his brother Andrew, James, John, Philip, Bartholomew, Matthew, Thomas, James son of Alphaeus, Simon who was called the Zealot, Judas son of James, and Judas Iscariot, who became a traitor.— Luke 6:12–16
Lists of the Twelve Apostles in the New TestamentEdit
Each of the four listings of apostles in the New Testament indicate that all the apostles were men. The canonical gospels and the book of Acts give varying names of the Twelve Apostles. The list in the Gospel of Luke differs from Matthew and Mark on one point. It lists "Judas, the son of James" instead of "Thaddaeus".[a]
Unlike the Synoptic Gospels, the Gospel of John does not offer a formal list of apostles. Although it refers to "the Twelve", the gospel does not present any elaboration of who these twelve actually were, and the author of the Gospel of John does not mention them all by name. There is also no separation of the terms "apostles" and "disciples" in John.
|Gospel of Matthew||Gospel of Mark||Gospel of Luke||Gospel of John||Acts of the Apostles|
|Simon ("also known as Peter")||Simon ("to whom he gave the name Peter")||Simon ("whom he named Peter")||Simon Peter / Cephas "which is translated Peter"||Peter|
|Andrew ("his [Peter's] brother")||Andrew||Andrew ("his [Peter's] brother")||Andrew ("Simon Peter's brother")||Andrew|
|James ("son of Zebedee")||James ("son of Zebedee") / one of the "Boanerges"||James||one of the "sons of Zebedee"||James|
|John ("his [James's] brother")||John ("brother of James") / one of the "Boanerges"||John||one of the "sons of Zebedee" / the "disciple whom Jesus loved" [b]||John|
|Thomas||Thomas||Thomas||Thomas ("also called Didymus")||Thomas|
|Matthew ("the publican")||Matthew / Levi||Matthew / Levi||not mentioned||Matthew|
|James ("son of Alphaeus")||James ("son of Alphaeus")||James ("son of Alphaeus")||not mentioned||James ("son of Alphaeus")|
|Thaddaeus (or "Lebbaeus"); called "Judas the Zealot" in some translations||Thaddaeus||Judas ("son of James," referred to as brother in some translations)||Judas ("not Iscariot")||Judas ("son of James," referred to as brother in some translations)|
|Simon ("the Canaanite")||Simon ("the Cananaean")||Simon ("who was called the Zealot")||not mentioned||Simon ("the Zealot")|
|Judas Iscariot||Judas Iscariot||Judas Iscariot||Judas ("son of Simon Iscariot")||(Judas replaced by Matthias)|
Replacement of Judas IscariotEdit
After Judas betrayed Jesus (and then in guilt committed suicide before Christ's resurrection, one Gospel recounts), the apostles numbered eleven. When Jesus had been taken up from them, in preparation for the coming of the Holy Spirit that he had promised them, Peter advised the brethren:
Judas, who was guide to those who took Jesus... For he was numbered with us, and received his portion in this ministry... For it is written in the book of Psalms, "Let his habitation be made desolate, Let no one dwell therein", and, "Let another take his office"... So one of the men who have accompanied us during all the time that the Lord Jesus went in and out among us, beginning from the baptism of John until the day he was taken up from us, must become with us a witness to his resurrection.
So, between the Ascension of Jesus and the day of Pentecost, the remaining apostles elected a twelfth apostle by casting lots, a traditional Israelite way to determine the will of God (see Proverbs 16:33). The lot fell upon Matthias.
Paul the Apostle, in his First Epistle to the Corinthians, appears to give the first historical reference to the Twelve Apostles: "For I delivered to you as of first importance what I also received: that Christ died for our sins in accordance with the Scriptures, that he was buried, that he was raised on the third day in accordance with the Scriptures, and that he appeared to Cephas, then to the twelve" (1 Cor 3–5).
Other apostles mentioned in the New TestamentEdit
|Person called apostle||Where in Scripture||Notes|
|Andronicus and Junia||Romans 16:7||Paul states that Andronicus and Junia were "of note among the apostles." This has been traditionally interpreted in one of two ways:
If the first view is correct then Paul may be referring to a female apostle – the Greek name (Iounian) is in the accusative and could be either Junia (a woman) or Junias (a man). Later manuscripts add accents to make it unambiguously Junias; however, while "Junia" was a common name, "Junias" was not, and both options are favored by different Bible translations.
In the second view, it is believed that Paul is simply making mention of the outstanding character of these two people which was acknowledged by the apostles.
Historically it has been virtually impossible to tell which of the two views were correct. The second view, in recent years, has been defended from a scholarly perspective by Daniel Wallace and Michael Burer.
|Silas||1 Thes. 1:1, 2:6||Referred to as one along with Timothy and Paul, he also performs the functioning of an apostle as Paul's companion in Paul's second missionary journey in Acts 15:40|
|Timothy||1 Thes. 1:1, 2:6||Timothy is referred to as an apostle along with Silas and Paul. However, in 2 Cor. 1:1, he is only called a "brother" when Paul refers to himself as "an apostle of Christ". Timothy performs many of the functions of an apostle in the commissioning of Paul in first and second Timothy, though in those epistles Paul refers to him as his "son" in the faith.|
|Apollos||1 Cor. 4:9||Included among "us apostles" along with Paul and Cephas (Peter).|
The seventy disciplesEdit
The "seventy disciples" or "seventy-two disciples" (known in the Eastern Christian traditions as the "Seventy Apostles") were early emissaries of Jesus mentioned in the Gospel of Luke. According to Luke, the only gospel in which they appear, Jesus appointed them and sent them out in pairs on a specific mission which is detailed in the text.
In Western Christianity, they are usually referred to as disciples, whereas in Eastern Christianity they are usually referred to as Apostles. Using the original Greek words, both titles are descriptive, as an apostle is one sent on a mission (the Greek uses the verb form: apesteilen) whereas a disciple is a student, but the two traditions differ on the scope of the words apostle and disciple.
Paul, Apostle of the GentilesEdit
Although not one of the apostles commissioned during the life of Jesus, Paul, a Jew named Saul of Tarsus, claimed a special commission from the post-ascension Jesus as "the apostle of the Gentiles",[Romans 11:13] to spread the gospel message after his conversion. In his writings, the epistles to Christian churches throughout the Levant, Paul did not restrict the term "apostle" to the twelve, and often refers to his mentor Barnabas as an apostle.
In his writings, Paul, although not one of the original twelve, described himself as an apostle. He was called by the resurrected Jesus himself during his Road to Damascus event. With Barnabas, he was allotted the role of apostle in the church.[Acts 13:2]
Since Paul claimed to have received a gospel not from teachings of the Twelve Apostles but solely and directly through personal revelations from the post-ascension Jesus, after Jesus's death and resurrection (rather than before like the twelve), Paul was often obliged to defend his apostolic authority (1 Cor. 9:1 "Am I not an apostle?") and proclaim that he had seen and was anointed by Jesus while on the road to Damascus.
Paul considered himself perhaps inferior to the other apostles because he had originally persecuted Christ's followers[1 Cor. 15:9] while thinking he was not in the least inferior to those "super-apostles" and not lacking in "knowledge".[2 Cor. 11:5–6]
Paul referred to himself as the apostle of the Gentiles.[Rom 11:13] According to Paul's account in his Epistle to the Galatians, James, Peter and John in Jerusalem accepted the "grace" given to Paul and agreed that Paul and Barnabas should go to the Gentiles (specifically those not circumcised) and the three Apostles who "seemed to be pillars" to the circumcised.[Gal 2:7–9] Despite the Little Commission of Matthew 10, the Twelve Apostles did not limit their mission to solely Jews as Cornelius the Centurion is widely considered the first Gentile convert and he was converted by Peter, and the Great Commission of the resurrected Jesus is specifically to "all nations".
As the Catholic Encyclopedia states, "It is at once evident that in a Christian sense, everyone who had received a mission from God, or Christ, to man could be called 'Apostle'"; thus extending the original sense beyond the twelve.
Of the Twelve Apostles to hold the title after Matthias' selection, Christian tradition has generally passed down that all of the Twelve Apostles except one were martyred, with only John surviving into old age. However, only the death of James, son of Zebedee is described in the New Testament. (Acts 12:1–2)
Matthew 27:5 says that Judas Iscariot threw the silver he received for betraying Jesus down in the Temple, then went and hanged himself. Acts 1:18 says that he purchased a field, then "falling headlong he burst open in the middle and all his bowels gushed out".
According to the 18th-century historian Edward Gibbon, early Christians (second half of the second century and first half of the third century) believed that only Peter, Paul, and James, son of Zebedee, were martyred. The remainder, or even all, of the claims of martyred apostles do not rely upon historical or biblical evidence, but only on late legends.
Relics and burial sitesEdit
The relics of the apostles are claimed by various churches, many in Italy.
- Andrew: buried in Cathedral of Saint Andrew, Patras, Greece
- Bartholomew: buried in the Basilica of Benevento, Italy, or Basilica of St. Bartholomew on the Island, Rome, Italy
- James the Great: buried in Santiago de Compostela Cathedral in Santiago de Compostela, Galicia, Spain
- James, the son of Alpheus: buried in the Cathedral of St. James in Jerusalem or the Church of the Holy Apostles in Rome.
- John: no relics. The opening of his tomb (in the Basilica of St. John, Ephesus) during Constantine the Great's reign yielded no bones, giving rise to the belief that his body was assumed into heaven.
- Judas Iscariot: buried at Akeldama near Jerusalem (per the Gospel of Matthew and Acts of the Apostles).
- Jude Thaddeus: buried in St. Peter's Basilica under the St. Joseph altar with St. Simon; two bones (relics) located at National Shrine of St. Jude in Chicago; other relics claimed by Rheims Cathedral and Toulouse Cathedral.
- Matthew: buried in the Salerno Cathedral, Italy.
- Matthias: buried in the St. Matthias' Abbey in Trier, Germany.
- Paul: relics located in the Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls in Rome; the skull located in the Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran, alongside the skull of St. Peter.
- Peter: buried in St. Peter's Basilica in Vatican City, Rome, Italy; the skull located in the Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran, alongside the skull of St. Paul.
- Philip: buried in the Church of the Holy Apostles in Rome or possibly Hierapolis, modern Turkey.
- Simon: buried in St. Peter's Basilica in Rome under the St. Joseph altar with St. Jude.
- Thomas: buried in the San Thome Basilica in Chennai, India or in the Basilica of St. Thomas the Apostle in Ortona, Italy.
Paul's epistles were accepted as scripture, and two of the four canonical gospels were associated with apostles, as were other New Testament works. Various Christian texts, such as the Didache and the Apostolic Constitutions, were attributed to the apostles. The Apostles' Creed, popular in the West, was alleged to have been composed by the apostles themselves.
Bishops traced their lines of succession back to individual apostles, who were said to have dispersed from Jerusalem and established churches across great territories. Christian bishops have traditionally claimed authority deriving, by apostolic succession, from the Twelve Apostles.
Comparison with the QuranEdit
The Quranic account of the disciples (Arabic: الحواريون al-ḥawāriyyūn) of Jesus does not include their names, numbers, or any detailed accounts of their lives. Muslim exegesis, however, more-or-less agrees with the New Testament list and says that the disciples included Peter, Philip, Thomas, Bartholomew, Matthew, Andrew, James, Jude, John and Simon the Zealot. Scholars generally draw a parallel with the disciples of Jesus and the companions of Muhammad, who followed Muhammad during his lifetime.
- ""Apostle", Britannica.com". Archived from the original on 3 June 2020. Retrieved 24 May 2020.
- Romans 1:1
- Romans 11:13
- "Apostle." Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005. ISBN 0-19-280290-9.
- "Catholic Encyclopedia: Apostles". Archived from the original on 23 January 2018. Retrieved 7 January 2005.
- Miller 26
- Mt 28:19, Mk 13:10, and 16:15
- Cf. also Acts 15:1–31, Galatians 2:7–9, Acts 1:4–8, and Acts 10:1–11:18.
- Jn 1:40–42
- Mt 4:21
- Meier, John P. (1994). Marginal Jew, II. Doubleday. ISBN 978-0385469920.
- Mark 2:17.
- Riley, Harold. 1992. The First Gospel. ISBN 0-86554-409-3. p. 47.
- Mills, Watson E., and Roger Aubrey Bullard. 1998. Mercer Dictionary of the Bible. ISBN 0-86554-373-9. p. 48
- Strauss, David Friedrich. 1860. The Life of Jesus. Published by Calvin Blanchard. p. 340.
- Matthew 10:1–4
- Mark 3:13–19
- Luke 6:12–16
- Mark 3:13–19, Matthew 10:1–4, Luke 6:12–16, and Acts 1:13
- John 6:67–71
- Matt 10:1–4
- Mark 3:13–19
- Luke 6:12–16
- Acts 1:13
- John 6:67–71
- John 1:42
- John 11:16John 20:24John 21:2
- Bruce M. Metzger. A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament, Revised edition, Peabody, Massachusetts: Hendrickson Publishers, 2005 ISBN 978-1598561647, p. 21.
- John 14:22
- Acts 14:14
- Rom 16:7
- May, Herbert G. and Bruce M. Metzger. The New Oxford Annotated Bible with the Apocrypha. 1977.
- Crossan, J. D. and Reed, J. L., In Search of Paul, Harper San Francisco (2004), pp. 115–16. ISBN 978-0-06-051457-0.
- Ehrman, Bart. Peter, Paul, and Mary Magdalene: The Followers of Jesus in History and Legend. Oxford University Press, US. 2006. ISBN 978-0-19-530013-0.
- CBMW "A Female Apostle?" Archived 21 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine, 26 June 2007
- See Daniel B. Wallace and Michael H. Burer, "Was Junia Really an Apostle?" NTS 47 (2001): 76–91.
- 1 Thes. 1:1, 2:6
- Acts 15:40ff.
- 2 Cor. 1:1
- 1 Cor. 4:9
- see also: 4:6, 3:22, and 3:4–6
- Luke 10:1–24
- Catholic Encyclopedia: Disciple Archived 24 January 2018 at the Wayback Machine: "The disciples, in this disciples, in this context, are not the crowds of believers who flocked around Christ, but a smaller body of His followers. They are commonly identified with the seventy-two (seventy, according to the received Greek text, although several Greek manuscripts mention seventy-two, as does the Vulgate) referred to (Luke 10:1) as having been chosen by Jesus. The names of these disciples are given in several lists (Chronicon Paschale, and Pseudo-Dorotheus in Migne, P.G., XCII, 521–24; 543–45; 1061–65); but these lists are unfortunately worthless."
- "Synaxis of the Seventy Apostles". oca.org. Archived from the original on 27 September 2012. Retrieved 18 January 2018.
- cf. Gal 1:12; Acts 9:3–19, 9:26–27, 22:6–21, 26:12–23
- "Relics of the Passion". www.relictour.com. Archived from the original on 24 March 2018. Retrieved 25 March 2018.
- Mark A. Lamport (1 June 2018). Encyclopedia of Christianity in the Global South. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 27. ISBN 978-1-4422-7157-9.
- Gibbon, Edward (1826). "Chapter XVI. The Conduct of the Roman Government toward the Christians, from the Reign of Nero to that of Constantine". The history of the decline and fall of the Roman empire. Vol. II. New York: J. & J. Harper for Collins & Hanney. p. 20.
27. In the time of Tertullian and Clemens of Alexandria the glory of martyrdom was confined to St. Peter, St. Paul and St. James. It was gradually bestowed on the rest of the apostles by the more recent Greeks, who prudently selected for the theatre of their preaching and sufferings some remote country beyond the limits of the Roman empire. See Mosheim, p. 81. and Tillemont, Memoires Ecclesiastiques, tom. i. part 3.
- "Were the Disciples Martyred for Believing the Resurrection? A Blast From the Past". The Bart Ehrman Blog. Archived from the original on 2 April 2019. Retrieved 13 June 2019.
- Wills, Garry (10 March 2015). The Future of the Catholic Church with Pope Francis. Penguin Publishing Group. p. 49. ISBN 978-0-698-15765-1.
(Candida Moss marshals the historical evidence to prove that "we simply don't know how any of the apostles died, much less whether they were martyred.")6Citing Moss, Candida (5 March 2013). The Myth of Persecution: How Early Christians Invented a Story of Martyrdom. HarperCollins. p. 136. ISBN 978-0-06-210454-0.
- H, Patti. "Patras, Greece: The Basilica of Saint Andrew the Apostle".
- "Crux". Cruxnow.com. Retrieved 21 February 2022.
- "Jerusalem's Saint James Cathedral". 13 April 2021.
- Rasmussen, Kaare Lund; van der Plicht, Johannes; La Nasa, Jacopo; Ribechini, Erika; Colombini, Maria Perla; Delbey, Thomas; Skytte, Lilian; Schiavone, Simone; Kjær, Ulla; Grinder-Hansen, Poul; Lanzillotta, Lautaro Roig (29 January 2021). "Investigations of the relics and altar materials relating to the apostles St James and St Philip at the Basilica dei Santi XII Apostoli in Rome". Heritage Science. 9 (1): 14. doi:10.1186/s40494-021-00481-9. S2CID 231727909 – via BioMed Central.
- "The Biblical Archaeologist". American Schools of Oriental Research. 7 March 1974 – via Google Books.
- "St. Jude Thaddeus and St. Simon the Zealot, Apostles". Catholic News Agency.
- "What is a relic? | The National Shrine of Saint Jude". 3 November 2018.
- "Region #3: St Peter's Basilica".
- "Salerno Cathedral and the Tomb of St. Matthew - Pilgrim-info.com". www.pilgrim-info.com.
- "St Matthias Abbey – Trier". History Hit.
- Cuming, H. Syer (December 1870). "Notes on a group of reliquaries". Journal of the British Archaeological Association.
- "Tomb of the Apostle St.Philip in Hierapolis (Asia Minor, Turkey)". www.hierapolis-info.ru.
- "Sts Simon and Jude".
- "115 Relics of Apostles & Saints".
- "Relics of the Apostle St. Thomas". Atlas Obscura.
- Wheeler, A–Z of Prophets in Islam and Judaism, Disciples of Jesus, p. 86
- Wheeler, A–Z of Prophets in Islam and Judaism, Disciples of Jesus, p. 86.
- Boring, M. Eugene (2006). Mark: A Commentary. Presbyterian Publishing Corp. ISBN 978-0-664-22107-2.
- Burkett, Delbert (2002). An introduction to the New Testament and the origins of Christianity. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-00720-7. Archived from the original on 16 April 2019. Retrieved 9 February 2019.
- Harrington, Daniel J. (1991). The Gospel of Matthew. Liturgical Press. ISBN 978-0814658031.
- Ehrman, Bart D. (2005). Lost Christianities: The Battles for Scripture and the Faiths We Never Knew. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195182491.
- Harris, Stephen L. (2006). Understanding the Bible (7th ed.). McGraw-Hill. ISBN 978-0-07-296548-3. Archived from the original on 18 November 2018. Retrieved 9 February 2019.
- Nolland, John (2005). The Gospel of Matthew: A Commentary on the Greek Text. Eerdmans.
- Perkins, Pheme (1998). "The Synoptic Gospels and the Acts of the Apostles: Telling the Christian Story". In Barton, John (ed.). The Cambridge companion to biblical interpretation. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 978-0-521-48593-7.
- Perkins, Pheme (2009). Introduction to the Synoptic Gospels. Eerdmans. ISBN 978-0-8028-6553-3.
- Reddish, Mitchell (2011). An Introduction to The Gospels. Abingdon Press. ISBN 978-1426750083.
- Sanders, E.P. (1995). The Historical Figure of Jesus. Penguin UK. ISBN 978-0141928227.
- Theissen, Gerd; Merz, Annette (1998) . The historical Jesus: a comprehensive guide. Translated by Bowden, John. Eerdmans.
- The Navarre Bible. (RSV, Catholic Edition), Dublin: Four Courts Press, 1999.
- Albright, W.F. and C.S. Mann. "Matthew." The Anchor Bible Series. New York: Doubleday & Company, 1971.
- Pope Benedict XVI, The Apostles. Full title is The Origins of the Church – The Apostles and Their Co-Workers. published 2007, in the US: ISBN 978-1-59276-405-1; different edition published in the UK under the title: Christ and His Church – Seeing the face of Jesus in the Church of the Apostles, ISBN 978-1-86082-441-8.
- Carson, D.A. "The Limits of Functional Equivalence in Bible Translation – and other Limits Too." in The Challenge of Bible Translation: Communicating God's Word to the World. edited by Glen G Scorgie, Mark L. Strauss, Steven M. Voth.
- Carter, Warren. "Matthew 4:18–22 and Matthean Discipleship: An Audience-Oriented Perspective." Catholic Bible Quarterly. Vol. 59. No. 1. 1997.
- Clarke, Howard W. The Gospel of Matthew and its Readers: A Historical Introduction to the First Gospel. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2003.
- "Fishers of Men." A Dictionary of Biblical Tradition in English Literature. David Lyle Jeffrey, general editor. Grand Rapids: W.B. Eerdmans, 1992.
- France, R.T. The Gospel According to Matthew: an Introduction and Commentary. Leicester: Inter-Varsity, 1985.
- Karrer, Martin. "Apostle, Apostolate." In The Encyclopedia of Christianity, edited by Erwin Fahlbusch and Geoffrey William Bromiley, 107–08. Vol. 1. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans, 1999. ISBN 0-8028-2413-7
- Knecht, Friedrich Justus (1910). . A Practical Commentary on Holy Scripture. B. Herder.
- Mack, Burton L., The Lost Gospel – The Book of Q & Christian Origins. HarperCollins 1994.
- Manek, Jindrich. "Fishers of Men." Novum Testamentum. 1958 p. 138
- Schweizer, Eduard. The Good News According to Matthew. Atlanta: John Knox Press, 1975.
- Wuellner, Wilhelm H. The Meaning of "Fishers of Men". Westminster Press, 1967.
- Apostle article from Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge
- Texts on Wikisource:
- "Apostle". Encyclopedia Americana. 1920.
- "Apostle". Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 2 (11th ed.). 1911. pp. 196–99.
- "Apostles". The New Student's Reference Work. 1914.
- Coppieters, Honoré-Joseph (1913). "Apostles". Catholic Encyclopedia.
- "Apostle". New International Encyclopedia. 1905.
- "Apostle". Easton's Bible Dictionary. 1897.
- Liddell & Scott
- Strong's G652
- Apostle and Apostleship article from Jewish Encyclopedia
- The Twelve Apostles The Biographies of The Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ, the son of God.
- Apostles.com Biographies of Christ's Apostles
- Cast Your Nets: Fishing at the Time of Jesus
- The Fishing Economy in Galilee
- Apostle article from OrthodoxWiki
- Christian History: The Twelve Apostles
- Quorum of the Twelve Apostles of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.
- "The Twelve Apostles" at the Christian Iconography website