Carlo Marochetti

Baron Pietro Carlo Giovanni Battista Marochetti RA (14 January 1805 – 29 December 1867) was an Italian-born French sculptor who worked in France, Italy and Britain. He completed many public sculptures, often in a neo-classical style, plus reliefs, memorials and large equestrian monuments in bronze and marble. In 1848, Marochetti settled in England, where he received commissions from Queen Victoria. Marochetti received great recognition during his lifetime, being made a baron in Italy and was awarded the Legion of Honour by the French government.

Carlo Marochetti
Carlo Marochetti by Antoine Claudet.jpg
Marochetti by Antoine Claudet
Born
Pietro Carlo Giovanni Battista Marochetti

(1805-01-14)14 January 1805
Turin, Italy
Died29 December 1867(1867-12-29) (aged 62)
Passy, France
NationalityItalian / French
EducationÉcole des Beaux-Arts, Paris
Known forSculpture, Public monuments

BiographyEdit

Early lifeEdit

Carlo Marochetti was born in Turin, where his father, Vincenzo, a former priest, was a local government official and professor of eloquence at Turin University, but after the family moved to Paris, Carlo was brought up as a French citizen.[1] He studied at the Lycée Napoléon and then studied sculpture at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris where his teachers were François Joseph Bosio and Antoine-Jean Gros.[2][3][4] At the Paris Salon in 1827 he exhibited a marble statue of A Young Girl playing with a Dog which won a silver medal.[5] Between 1822 and 1830 Marochetti frequently spent long periods in Rome where his mother was resident and where he collaborated with François-Joseph Duret and Antoine Étex and worked briefly at the studio of the Danish sculptor Bertel Thorvaldsen.[1][2]

Career in FranceEdit

From 1832 to 1848 Marochetti lived in Paris and largely adopted a neo-classical Romantic style of sculpture. He married Camille de Maussion in 1835 and together they had two sons and a daughter.[1] In Paris, Marochetti received two significant commissions. One was for a relief panel of the Battle of Jemappes on the Arc de Triomphe and the other for a large marble statue group, the Elevation of Mary Magdalene for the altar of the Church of La Madeleine.[6] He delayed completing the altar group to create a monumental equestrian statue of Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy which he donated to the city of Turin.[6][4] The king of Sardinia, Charles Albert rewarded Marochetti for his gift by making him a baron of the kingdom of Italy.[6][4] Before being sent to Italy the Philibert statue was displayed in the courtyard of the Louvre Palace during 1838. This effectively established Marochetti's reputation for creating equestrian monuments and led to him being commissioned to create such a statue of Ferdinand, Duke of Orleans, which stood in the courtyard of the Louvre for four years.[6] In 1839 the French government awarded him the Legion of Honour.[5] During 1840 Marochetti was competing to win both the commission for a monument to the Duke of Wellington for the city of Glasgow and for the commission to design the tomb of Napoleon for Les Invalides in Paris.[1] Although he won the Glasgow commission, Marochetti's proposal for the tomb attracted wide-spread public criticism in France and was rejected.[1]

When his father died, Marochetti inherited the family chateau at Vaux-sur-Seine outside of Paris and served as mayor of the town there from 1846.[6] After the fall of the July Monarchy in 1848, and his subsequent failure to win a seat in the National Assembly, Marochetti followed the French king Louis-Philippe into exile in the United Kingdom.[2][1]

Career in LondonEdit

Marochetti spent the greater part of his time from 1848 until his death in London.[7] He lived on Onslow Square, and maintained a large studio and his own foundry in the adjacent Sydney Mews.[2][8] In his studio, Marochetti created an equestrian statue, in plaster, of Richard Coeur de Lion which was displayed at the Great Exhibition during 1851.[6] A public campaign led to a bronze copy being made which was eventually, in 1860, erected in front of the Palace of Westminster on the orders of Prince Albert.[6]

 
Memorial to Viscounts William and Frederick Melbourne, St Paul's Cathedral

From his studio and foundry Marochetti, and his workforce, produced numerous statues, memorials and equestrian monuments plus smaller pieces. He also experimented with the use of new materials and the creation of multi-coloured, or polychromic, sculptures.[4] Between 1853 and 1855 Marochetti created three life-size statues, plus busts and garden ornaments, for the Kingston Lacy country mansion in Dorset.[9] His equestrian statues included those of Viscount Combermere in Chester and Sir Mark Cubbon in Bangalore and for Queen Victoria and Prince Albert in Glasgow.[1] Works featuring mourning angels by Marochetti include the monument in St. Paul's Cathedral to Viscounts William and Frederick Melbourne, the Crimean War memorial at the Haydarpaşa Cemetery in Istanbul, dating from 1856–58, and his Angel of the Resurrection for the Cawnpore memorial in India from 1862-65.[1][10][4] From 1864 Marochetti collaborated with Sir Edwin Landseer on the four bronze lions to be placed at the base of Nelson's Column in Trafalgar Square, and cast them at his Sydney Mews foundry.[8] He experimented in using coloured marble following the work of John Gibson and a coloured statuette of Queen Victoria was exhibited at a London studio but is now lost.[1]

Not all of Marochetti's designs were so successful. His proposed design for the tomb of the Duke of Wellington was rejected.[1] Marochetti's equestrian monument to George Washington for the 1855 New York Exhibition was destroyed by fire.[11] In the 1860s he championed a scheme for a set of statues celebrating British engineers to be erected in the churchyard of St Margaret's, Westminster. The scheme was rejected but three of the statues, of Isambard Kingdom Brunel, Robert Stephenson and Joseph Locke were erected separately elsewhere.[1] His monumental statue of Robert Peel in Parliament Square was melted down and the metal used for the smaller model of Peel by Matthew Noble which replaced it.[1][12]

 
Busts of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert

With the support of the exiled Louis-Philippe of France, Marochetti had first met Queen Victoria and Prince Albert in 1849 and subsequently received a number of royal commissions.[1][4] Marochetti's first royal commission in England was for a marble portrait bust of Prince Albert in 1849, which was commercially reproduced in Parian ware by the Mintons company in 1862.[4] That year Queen Victoria commissioned Marochetti to produce a portrait bust of herself as a birthday gift for Prince Albert and that too was reproduced by Mintons for the retail market.[4] Rather than a crown, he depicted her wearing a head piece of various flowers, including roses and shamrocks, to represent the nations of the United Kingdom.[4]

Marochetti designed Victoria's memorial to Princess Elizabeth and a bust of Prince Albert at Newport Minster on the Isle of Wight.[13] He also created the marble recumbent effigies for the tomb of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert in the Royal Mausoleum at Frogmore in Windsor Great Park.[4] He was commissioned to make the seated figure of Albert for the Albert Memorial in Kensington Gardens.[14] However the first version was rejected by the architect of the monument, Sir George Gilbert Scott, and Marochetti died before a satisfactory second version could be completed.[14][15] He was elected an associate of the Royal Academy 1861 and a full academician in 1866.[2]

Marochetti died, suddenly, at Passy in Paris and was buried at the Vaux-sur-Seine cemetery.[6]

Selected public worksEdit

1830-1839Edit

Image Title / subject Location and
coordinates
Date Type Material Dimensions Designation Wikidata Notes
 
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Tommaso grave Père-Lachaise cemetery, Paris Pillar Stone
 
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Grave of Vincenzo Bellini Père-Lachaise cemetery, Paris Obelisk with reliefs Stone Architect: Guillaume-Abel Blouet[6]
 
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Battle of Jemappes East facade of the Arc de Triomphe, Paris 1834 Relief panel Stone 18m x 3.5m [1]
 
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Marochetti tomb Père-Lachaise cemetery, Paris 1838 Tomb Stone
 
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Statue of Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy Piazza San Carlo, Turin 1838 Equestrian statue on pedestal with relief panels Bronze and stone Q3663864 [1]

1840-1849Edit

Image Title / subject Location and
coordinates
Date Type Material Dimensions Designation Wikidata Notes
 
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Théophile Corret de la Tour d'Auvergne Carhaix-Plouguer, Brittany c.1840 Statue on pedestal with relief panels Bronze and stone [6]
 
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Mary Magdalen Exalted by Angels La Madeleine, Paris c.1842 Sculpture group and altar Marble [1]
 
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Claude Louis Berthollet Jardins de I'Europe, Annecy 1843 Statue on pedestal Bronze and stone Q56716583
 
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Statue of Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington Royal Exchange Square, Glasgow 1844 Equestrian statue on pedestal with relief panels Bronze and granite Category A Q7981506 [16]
 
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Ferdinand Philippe, Duke of Orléans Eu, Seine-Maritime, France 1845 Equestrian statue on pedestal Bronze and stone Q20799860

1850-1859Edit

Image Title / subject Location and
coordinates
Date Type Material Dimensions Designation Wikidata Notes
  Memorial to Granville Gower Loch St Paul's Cathedral, London 1853 Relief plaque Marble [17]
 
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Queen Victoria George Square, Glasgow 1854 Equestrian statue on pedestal with relief panels Bronze and granite Category A Q17567473 First equestrian statue of a woman in Britain.[18][19]
 
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Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington Woodhouse Moor, Leeds 1854, erected 1858 Statue on pedestal Bronze and granite Grade II Q26656015 [14][20]
  Sir John Bankes Kingston Lacy, Dorset 1853-55 Bust Bronze One of two busts, plus a life size statue, of Bankes which Marochetti created for Kingston Lacey[9]
  King Charles I Kingston Lacy, Dorset 1853-55 Statue on stand Bronze [9]
  Mary Bankes 1598-1661 Kingston Lacy, Dorset 1853-55 Statue on stand Bronze [9]
 
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Memorial to Viscounts William and Frederick Melbourne St. Paul's Cathedral, London After 1853 False door flanked by two statues White & black marble and gilded bronze [10]
 
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James Oswald George Square, Glasgow 1855 Statue on pedestal Bronze and granite Category B Q17792900 [21]
 
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Statue of Richard Coeur de Lion Palace of Westminster, London 1856 Equestrian statue on pedestal Bronze and granite Grade II Q7324819 [14][22][12]
  Crimean War memorial Haydarpaşa Cemetery, Istanbul 1856-58 Obelisk with supporting statues on pedestal Stone [1][10]

1860 and laterEdit

Image Title / subject Location and
coordinates
Date Type Material Dimensions Designation Wikidata Notes
 
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Clive of India The Square, Shrewsbury c. 1860 Statue on pedestal Bronze and granite Grade II Q26546539 [14][23]
 
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Cavalry Division Crimean War memorial St Paul's Cathedral, London 1860-65 Tripartite curved relief plaque Marble [24]
  Major General Sir Arthur Wellesley Torrens St Paul's Cathedral, London 1860-65 Relief plaque Marble [25]
 
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Coldstream Guards Battle of Inkerman memorial St Paul's Cathedral, London 1860-1865 Deep relief plaque Stone [26]
 
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Charles Albert of Sardinia Piazza Carlo Alberto, Turin 1861 Equestrian statue on pedestal with statues at base Bronze and stone Q21141719
 
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Sidney Herbert, 1st Baron Herbert of Lea Victoria Park, Salisbury 1863 Statue on pedestal Bronze and stone Grade II Q26536005 [14][27]
 
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George Cornewall Lewis St Peter's Square, Hereford c. 1864 Statue on pedestal Bronze and granite Grade II Q47472418 [14][28]
 
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Angel of the Resurrection, Siege of Cawnpore memorial Cawnpore, India 1862-65 Statue with cross on pedestal Stone [1][10][29][4]
 
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Statue of Viscount Combermere Grosvenor Road, Chester 1865 Equestrian statue on pedestal Bronze and granite 7.1m tall Grade II* Q15978984 [14][30]
  Albert, Prince Consort Union Terrace, Aberdeen 1865 Statue on pedestal Bronze and granite Category B Q17770085 [31]
 
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William Makepeace Thackeray Poets' Corner, Westminster Abbey, London 1865 Bust Marble [32]
 
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Albert, Prince Consort George Square, Glasgow 1866 Equestrian statue on pedestal Bronze and granite Category A Q17567468 [33]
  Statue of Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington The Wellington Monument, Stratfield Saye House, Hampshire 1866 Statue on column Bronze Grade II Q26384539 [14][34]
  Statue of Mark Cubbon Cubbon Park, Bangalore 1866 Equestrian statue on pedestal Bronze and stone Q97183425 [35][29]
  Joseph Locke Locke Park, Barnsley 1866 Statue on pedestal with balustrade Bronze, granite and Portland stone Grade II Q26443938 [14][36]
 
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Colin Campbell, 1st Baron Clyde Waterloo Place, London 1867 Statue on piller with statues at base Bronze and red granite Grade II Q27083599 [12][37]
 
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Statue of Robert Stephenson Euston station, London Erected 1870 Statue on pedestal Bronze and granite 2.7m tall Grade II Q27084501 [14][12][38]
 
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Statue of Isambard Kingdom Brunel Victoria Embankment, London c.1877 Statue on pedestal with surrounding screen Bronze and Portland stone 2.5m tall Grade II Q20829598 Pedestal by Richard Norman Shaw.[12][39]
 
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Jonas Webb High Street, Babraham, Cambridgeshire Late 19th century Statue on pedestal Bronze and stone Grade II Q26616046 [40]

Other worksEdit

  • Seated statue in marble of Sir Jamsetjee Jeejeebhoy, 1857, in the Asiatic Society Library, Mumbai Town Hall. Two versions in bronze of the same design, at the entrance to the JJ Institute and on Narriman Road, are also known.[29]
  • Memorial, in marble and black stone, to Sixteen Officers of the Engineers of 1857-58, c. 1862, in St. Paul's Cathedral, Kolkata. The memorial has a central inscription listing the names of British officers killed in the Indian Rebellion of 1857 with a surround containing their portraits in carved relief above a panel depicting the Siege of Lucknow.[29]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Ward-Jackson, P. (2008). "Marochetti, (Pietro) Carlo Giovanni Battista, Baron Marochetti in the nobility of Sardinia (1805–1867), sculptor". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/18085. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  2. ^ a b c d e University of Glasgow History of Art / HATII (2011). "Baron (Pietro) Carlo Giovanni Battista Marochetti". Mapping the Practice and Profession of Sculpture in Britain & Ireland 1851–1951. Retrieved 9 September 2020.
  3. ^ Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Marochetti, Carlo" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 17 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 747.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Martina Droth, Jason Edwards & Michael Hatt (2014). Sculpture Victorious: Art in the Age of Invention, 1837-1901. Yale Center for British Art, Yale University Press. ISBN 9780300208030.
  5. ^ a b "Marochetti, Charles or Carlo (Baron) or Marocchetti". Benezit Dictionary of Artists. 31 October 2011. doi:10.1093/benz/9780199773787.article.B00117054. ISBN 978-0-19-977378-7. Retrieved 19 February 2021.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Cust, Lionel Henry (1893). "Marochetti, Carlo" . In Lee, Sidney (ed.). Dictionary of National Biography. Vol. 36. London: Smith, Elder & Co.
  7. ^ Ian Chilvers (2004). The Oxford Dictionary of Art. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-860476-9.
  8. ^ a b F. H. W. Sheppard, ed. (1983). "The Smith's Charity Estate: Charles James Freake and Onslow Square Gardens". Survey of London: volume 41: Brompton. Institute of Historical Research. Retrieved 11 October 2011.
  9. ^ a b c d Mary Chisholm (18 December 2020). "Kingston Lacey: A Civil War Heroine, The Philae Obelisk & Tortoises". Exploring Building History. Retrieved 18 February 2021.
  10. ^ a b c d Jason Edwards, Amy Harris & Greg Sullivan (2021). Monuments of St Paul's Cathedral 1796-1916. Scala Arts & Heritage Publishers Ltd. ISBN 978-1-78551-360-2.
  11. ^ "George Washington model ca.1851 - ca.1853 (made)". Victoria & Albert Museum. Retrieved 19 February 2021.
  12. ^ a b c d e John Blackwood (1989). London's Immortels. The Complete Outdoor Commemorative Statues. Savoy Press. ISBN 0951429604.
  13. ^ William Page, ed. (1912). "A History of the County of Hampshire: Volume 5. Parishes: Newport". Victoria County History of Hampshire. British History Online. pp. 253–265. Retrieved 3 May 2017.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Jo Darke (1991). The Monument Guide to England and Wales. Macdonald Illustrated. ISBN 0-356-17609-6.
  15. ^ "Albert Memorial: The memorial". British History Online. Retrieved 19 February 2021.
  16. ^ Historic Environment Scotland. "Queen Street Duke of Wellington Statue (Category A Listed Building) (LB32823)". Retrieved 6 July 2020.
  17. ^ "Monument to Granville Gower Loch". The Courtauld Institute of Art. Retrieved 20 May 2022.
  18. ^ Historic Environment Scotland. "George Square, Queen Victoria Statue (Category A Listed Building) (LB32702)". Retrieved 6 July 2020.
  19. ^ Barbara Pezzini (24 May 2019). "Classical beauty to expressive wisdom: the changing image of Queen Victoria". Art UK. Retrieved 6 June 2022.
  20. ^ Historic England. "Statue of Duke of Wellington on south-east corner of Woodhouse Moor (1375204)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 8 September 2020.
  21. ^ Historic Environment Scotland. "George Square, James Oswald Statue (Category B Listed Building) (LB32699)". Retrieved 6 July 2020.
  22. ^ Historic England. "Statue of Richard I (1225624)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 27 July 2020.
  23. ^ Historic England. "Statue of Lord Clive (1254926)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 8 September 2020.
  24. ^ "Cavalry Division Crimean War memorial". The Courtauld Institute of Art. Retrieved 20 May 2022.
  25. ^ "Memorial to Major General Sir Arthur Wellesley Torrens". The Courtauld Institute of Art. Retrieved 21 May 2022.
  26. ^ "Coldstream Guards Memorial Commemorating the Battle of Inkerman". The Courtauld Institute of Art. Retrieved 23 July 2022.
  27. ^ Historic England. "Statue of Sidney Herbert (1243322)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 6 July 2021.
  28. ^ Historic England. "Statue of Sir George Cornewall Lewis (1196885)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 9 September 2020.
  29. ^ a b c d Mary Ann Steggles & Richard Barnes (2011). British Sculpture in India: New Views & Old Memories. Frontier Publishing. ISBN 9781872914411.
  30. ^ Historic England. "Equestrian Statue of Stapleton Cotton Viscount Combermere (1197697)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 25 July 2020.
  31. ^ Historic Environment Scotland. "Albert, Prince, Statue, Union Terrace (Category B Listed Building) (LB20001)". Retrieved 8 September 2020.
  32. ^ "William Makepeace Thackeray". Westminster Abbey. Retrieved 29 July 2022.
  33. ^ Historic Environment Scotland. "George Square, Prince Albert Statue (Category A Listed Building) (LB32701)". Retrieved 8 September 2020.
  34. ^ Historic England. "Wellington Monument (1092251)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 24 September 2020.
  35. ^ "Case of controversial statue comes to an end". Bangalore Mirror. 30 June 2020. Retrieved 24 September 2020.
  36. ^ Historic England. "Statue of Joseph Locke and enclosure (1151159)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 6 July 2021.
  37. ^ Historic England. "Statue of Sir Colin Campbell, Lord Clyde (1273744)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 8 September 2020.
  38. ^ Historic England. "Statue of Robert Stephenson in Euston Station forecourt (1342041)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 8 September 2020.
  39. ^ Historic England. "Statue of I K Brunel (1357346)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 8 September 2020.
  40. ^ Historic England. "Statue of Jonas Webb opposite Chalk Farmhouse (1331112)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 8 September 2020.

External linksEdit