According to classical Jewish sources, the Hebrew year 6000 (from sunset of 29 September 2239 until nightfall of 16 September 2240 on the Gregorian calendar) marks the latest time for the initiation of the Messianic Age. The Talmud, Midrash, and the Kabbalistic work, the Zohar, state that the 'deadline' by which the Messiah must appear is 6,000 years from creation. According to tradition, the Hebrew calendar started at the time of Creation, placed at 3761 BCE. The current (2019/2020) Hebrew year is 5780.
The Ten Commandments state (Exodus 20:8):
“Remember the Sabbath day to sanctify it. Six days shall you work and perform all of your labors. And on the seventh day, which is the Sabbath day unto the Lord your God, you shall do no work... For in six days God made the heavens and the earth, the oceans and all therein, and He rested on the seventh day. Therefore God hath blessed the Sabbath day and sanctified it.”
This tradition maintains that each day of the week corresponds to one thousand years of creation: Just as the six days of the workweek culminate in the sanctified seventh day of Shabbat, so too will the six millennia of creation culminate in the sanctified seventh millennium (Hebrew years 6000–7000) — the Messianic Age.
Just as Shabbat is the sanctified 'day of rest' and peace, a time representing joyful satisfaction with the labors completed within the previous 6 days, so too the seventh millennium will correspond to a universal 'day of rest' and peace, a time of 'completeness' of the 'work' performed in the previous six millennia.
The Talmud also draws parallels between the Shmita (Sabbatical) year and the seventh millennium: For six 'years', or millennia, the earth will be worked, whilst during the seventh 'year', or millennium, the world will remain 'fallow', in a state of 'rest' and universal peace.
The reconciliation between the traditional Judaic age of the world and the current scientifically derived age of the world is beyond the scope of this article, with some taking a literal approach, as with Young Earth creationism, and others, such as Gerald Schroeder, a scientific conciliatory approach.
The Talmud comments:
R. Katina said, “Six thousand years the world will exist and one [thousand, the seventh], it shall be desolate (haruv), as it is written, ‘And the Lord alone shall be exalted in that day’ (Isa. 2:11)... R. Katina also taught, “Just as the seventh year is the Shmita year, so too does the world have one thousand years out of seven that are fallow (mushmat), as it is written, ‘And the Lord alone shall be exalted in that day’ (Isa. 2:11); and further it is written, ‘A psalm and song for the Shabbat day’ (Ps. 92:1) – meaning the day that is altogether Shabbat – and also it is said, ‘For one thousand years in Your [God's] eyes are but a day that has passed.’ (Ps.90:4) (Sanhedrin 97a).”
Six eons for going in and coming out, for war and peace. The seventh eon is entirely Shabbat and rest for life everlasting.
The Zohar states:
In the 600th year of the sixth thousand, the gates of wisdom on high and the wellsprings of lower wisdom will be opened. This will prepare the world to enter the seventh thousand, just as man prepares himself toward sunset on Friday for the Sabbath.
The Zohar explains further:
The redemption of Israel will come about through the mystic force of the letter “Vav” [which has the numerical value of six], namely, in the sixth millennium…. Happy are those who will be left alive at the end of the sixth millennium to enter the Shabbat, which is the seventh millennium; for that is a day set apart for the Holy One on which to effect the union of new souls with old souls in the world (Zohar, Vayera 119a).
There is a kabbalistic tradition that maintains that each of the seven days of creation in Genesis chapter one corresponds to one millennium of the existence of natural creation.
The tradition teaches that the seventh day of the week, the Sabbath day of rest, corresponds to the seventh millennium, the age of universal 'rest' - the Messianic Era.
|Millennium||Hebrew Year||Corresponding day of week
(In Hebrew and English)
|1||0 - 1000||Rishon / Sunday|
|2||1000 - 2000||Sheini / Monday|
|3||2000 - 3000||Shlishi / Tuesday|
|4||3000 - 4000||Revii / Wednesday|
|5||4000 - 5000||Chamishi / Thursday|
|6||5000 - 6000||Shishi / Friday|
|7||6000 - 7000||Shabbat (Sabbath) / Saturday|
Rishonim and AcharonimEdit
Elaborating on the theme of the seventh millennium representing the Messianic Age are numerous early and late Jewish scholars, including Rashi, the Ramban, Chaim Vital, Isaac Abrabanel, Abraham Ibn Ezra, Rabbeinu Bachya, Rabbi Yaakov Culi author of Me'am Lo'ez, the Vilna Gaon, the Lubavitcher Rebbe, the Ramchal, and Aryeh Kaplan.
The acceptance of the idea of the seventh millennium representing the Messianic Age across the Ashkenazi - Sephardi divide, the Chassidim - Misnagdim divide, and across the rational Talmud and mystical Kabbalah perspectives, shows the centrality of this idea in traditional Judaism.
Rashi draws a parallel between the tranquility experienced presently on the seventh day of the week, Shabbat, and that which will be experienced in the seventh millennium:
The Talmud Avoda Zara folio 9a cites a teaching of the Academy of Elijah that "the world will exist for six thousand years". Rashi (s.v ששת אלפים שנים) comments on this: “The world is decreed to last for six thousand years, as the days of the week; the seventh day of the week is Shabbat, so too in the seventh millennium, will there be tranquility in the world.”
In his Sha'ar Hagmul, Ramban writes that the sixth millennium will see the advent of the Messiah and the seventh millennium will be the Shabbat of the 'World to Come', wherein the righteous will be resurrected and rejoice.
Ramban further writes that the Scriptural verse, “And God blessed the seventh day and sanctified it” (Gen. 2:3), refers to His blessing the World to Come which begins at the seventh millennium.
In his commentary to Genesis 2:3, Rabbeinu Bachya writes that the seventh millennium will follow the Messiah and the resurrection, and will be a time of “great eternal delight” for those who merit resurrection.
This being the case, he explains, just as one prepares during the six days of the week for the Shabbat, so too one should prepare during the six thousand years for the seventh.
Chaim Vital writes that whoever wants to know what will happen in the end days, should study the first seven days of creation. Each day of creation represents 1000 years, and the seventh 'day', beginning in the year 6000, represents the day of rest.
Don Isaac Abrabanel writes that similar to the structure of the week of Creation, so too the world will exist for six thousand years, with the seventh millennium being a Hefsek (break) and a Shvita (rest), like Shabbat, Shmita, and Yovel.
Rabbi Yaakov CuliEdit
In his famed work Me'am Lo'ez, in a section elaborating on the parallels between the Exodus from Egypt and the Final Redemption, Rabbi Yaakov Culi writes: "It seems logical to assume that prayers said today for the redemption are more acceptable than those said in earlier times... In earlier times, the redemption was far in the future. Therefore, in order for their prayers to be have any effect, people had to pray intensely. In those days, people were a thousand years from the time in which the redemption had to take place. Now, however, we are only 500, or 200, years away from the time, and the closer it comes, the easier it is for prayers to be accepted". In the footnote to this statement, Rabbi Aryeh Kaplan writes: "This was written in 5492 (1732). Since there was a tradition that the Messiah would have to come before the year 6000 (2240), there was only 500 years left until the redemption would have to come. There was also a tradition that the redemption would have to begin after 200 years, that is by 5700 (1940). This would seem to lend support to the contention that the formation of the modern state of Israel is the beginning of the redemption".
The Vilna Gaon writes:
Each day of Creation alludes to a thousand years of our existence, and every little detail that occurred on these days will have its corresponding event happen at the proportionate time during its millennium.
The עִקְּבוֹת מְשִׁיחַ (iqvot Meshiaḥ), footsteps of Messiah, began the first hour of Friday morning in the Sixth Millennium, that is the year Five Hundred [ from nightfall of October 4, 1739 AD until nightfall of September 22, 1740 AD ], and from hour to hour the footsteps have continued to progress from many aspects [cf. M Avot 1:1; BT Sanhedrin 38a]. As is known, every hour consists of forty-one years and eight months [alt., 41.666], counting from the time that the bonds on the Messiah’s heels were loosened, as it says, You have loosened my bonds (Psalms 116:16), and as revealed in: A decree He declared it for Joseph… ‘I delivered his shoulder from the burden his palms were loosed from the hod’ (Psalms 81:6-7). Beginning with the second hour [i.e., from 5541 (1781 AD)], the entire House of Israel took the stage, both as a whole, and with regard to each individual member of the nation, as an order from above, of Messiah of the beginning of redemption, namely, Messiah Son of Joseph.
This is based on the teaching of the Talmud, which states that one thousand human years is equivalent to one 'day' in the eyes of the Creator, which in turn is based upon the verse in Psalms, "For one thousand years in Your eyes are but a day that has passed (Psalms 90:4)". Therefore, given that one human-time millennium is equal to one cosmic 'day', the human-time seventh millennium is equivalent to the seventh cosmic 'day', the 'Shabbat', the Messianic age.
Given that the Jewish day begins at nightfall, the year 5750 represented 12:00pm midday on the millennial 'Friday', as per the table below.
|Hebrew Year (Common Era year)||Millennial Time|
|5000 (1239 AD)||18:00 Thursday|
|5250 (1489 AD)||00:00 Friday|
|5500 (1739 AD)||06:00 Friday|
|5750 (1989 AD)||12:00 Friday / Shabbat eve|
|5770 (2009 AD)||12:30 Friday / Shabbat eve|
|6000 (2239 AD)||18:00 Entry of Shabbat|
The English year 2019, corresponding to the Hebrew year 5780, thus marks 12:43pm on the Millennial Friday. In Jewish law, a half-hour past midday or mincha gedola marks the time on Friday afternoon when the influence of Shabbat begins, and some authorities forbid keeping a business open past that point.
...This is why so much time must transpire from the time of creation until the time of the Tikkun (lit. 'correction', Moshiach's coming). All the forces of Gevurot (strict judgement) are rooted in the six Sefirot—Chesed, Gevurah, Tiferet, Netzach, Hod, Yesod—which are the six days of creation... and also the 6,000 years of history that the world will exist. And within [the six Sefirot] are the roots of all that will happen from the six days of creation until the Final Tikkun... We find that all that transpires is the result of the sparks from the time of Tohu, Chaos...
Aryeh Kaplan writes:
Never before has mankind been faced with such a wide range of possibilities. Never before has it had such tremendous power at its disposal, to use for good or evil... We need not belabor the point, but the past hundred years or so have brought about an increase in knowledge unsurpassed in all human history... The ultimate goal of the historic process is the perfection of society... is what we call the Messianic Age... Almost 2000 years ago, the Zohar predicted, "In the 600th year of the sixth thousand, the gates of wisdom on high and the wellsprings of lower wisdom will be opened. This will prepare the world to enter the seventh thousand, just as man prepares himself toward sunset on Friday for the Sabbath. It is the same here. And a mnemonic for this is (Gen 7:11), 'In the 600th year... all the foundations of the great deep were split'. Here we see a clear prediction that in the Jewish year 5600 (or 1840), the wellsprings of lower wisdom would be opened and there would be a sudden expansion of secular knowledge.
In an interview with Israel National Radio, Rebbetzin Esther Jungreis said the following:
Listen carefully, friends, to what I'm telling you. Hashem, Elokei Yisrael, created this world that we are living in today in six days.
Every day was a thousand years. This world, as we know it today, cannot last beyond 6,000 years. Right now, we are in the year 5769, which means it's Erev Shabbos of the world. By the year 6,000, Mashiach has to be here. He could come much earlier. But by the year 6,000, he has to be here. ... the Vilna Gaon said that the last war, Milchemet Gog uMagog, is going to last only 12 minutes because they are going to have such weapons....
We know that the final redemption, the final Geula, it's going to be like when you left Egypt – only one-fifth of our people left Egypt. Four-fifths perished... during the plague of darkness.
So I'm appealing to every Jew. Every negative prophecy can be changed. We can bring Mashiach today. Right now, we are living in a period called Erev [eve of] Shabbat.
It's Erev Shabbat, because when Mashiach will come, it will be the day that will be all Shabbat, the seventh day....
Let's bring Shabbos early, and let us to bring Shabbos with menucha [ease], with shalom [peace], with simchah [happiness] – Is it possible? Absolutely?! Every negative prophecy can be changed.
- "Hebrew Date Converter - 1st of Tishrei, 6000 | Hebcal Jewish Calendar". www.hebcal.com. Retrieved 2018-01-04.
- "Hebrew Date Converter - 29th of Elul, 6000 | Hebcal Jewish Calendar". www.hebcal.com. Retrieved 2018-01-04.
- Babylonian Talmud Rosh Hashana 31a and Sanhedrin 97a
- Pirke De Rabbi Eliezer, Gerald Friedlander, Sepher-Hermon Press, New York, 1981, p. 141.
- Zohar (1:117a) and Zohar Vayera 119a
- World Book Encyclopedia, C-Ch, entry under 'Calendar'
- Genesis 2:3
- Isaiah 58:13-14
- Sanhedrin 97a
- Zohar 1:117a
- Zohar, Vayera 119a, Ramban on Genesis 2:3
- Rashi on Gemara Avoda Zara Folio 9a
- Ramban on Genesis (2:3)
- Likutim Chadashim - Drush 7 - https://www.otzar.org/wotzar/Book.aspx?182277
- Abarbanel on Genesis 2
- Ramban quoting Ibn Ezra at Leviticus (25:2)
- Bachya on Genesis 2:3
- The Torah Anthology Me'am Lo'ez by Rabbi Yaakov Culi Translated by Rabbi Aryeh Kaplan Exodus II page 117 Moznaim Publishing Corporation 1979
- Safra D'Tzniusa, Ch. 5
- Sefer HaSichos 5750:254
- Derech Hashem 4:7:2
- Page 318, The Real Messiah, oneline at
- Ramban, Shaar HaGemul, ch. 58
- R' Bachya to Genesis 2:3
- Abrabanel to Genesis 2
- The Torah Anthology Me'am Lo'ez by Rabbi Yaakov Culi Translated by Rabbi Aryeh Kaplan Exodus II page 381 footnote 71 Moznaim Publishing Corporation 1979
- Rabbi Hillel Rivlin of Shklov in the name of the Gaon of Vilna. Voice of the Turtle Dove 1:4.
- Derech Hashem 1:3:9, Derech Hashem 4:7:2
- Hadran on the Mishneh Torah, 5745, and Sichos Shabbos Parshas Vayeitzei, 5752
- Drushei Olam HaTohu 2:151b
- The Real Messiah, NCSY, Mesorah Publications 2002