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Murad IV (Ottoman Turkish: مراد رابع, Murād-ı Rābiʿ; 26/27 July 1612 – 8 February 1640) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1623 to 1640, known both for restoring the authority of the state and for the brutality of his methods. Murad IV was born in Istanbul, the son of Sultan Ahmed I (r. 1603–17) and the ethnic Greek Kösem Sultan. Brought to power by a palace conspiracy in 1623, he succeeded his uncle Mustafa I (r. 1617–18, 1622–23). He was only 11 when he took the throne. His reign is most notable for the Ottoman–Safavid War (1623–39), of which the outcome would permanently part the Caucasus between the two Imperial powers for around two centuries, while it also roughly laid the foundation for the current Turkey–Iran–Iraq borders.
|Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques
Caliph of Islam
Murad IV dressed in full armour
|17th Ottoman Sultan (Emperor)|
|Reign||10 September 1623 – 8 February 1640|
27 July 1612|
Constantinople, Ottoman Empire
|Died||8 February 1640
Constantinople, Ottoman Empire
|Burial||Türbe of Ahmed I, Sultan Ahmed Mosque, Istanbul|
another wife (possibly)
Early reign (1623–32)Edit
Murad IV was for a long time under the control of his relatives and during his early years as Sultan, his mother, Kösem Sultan, essentially ruled through him. The Empire fell into anarchy; the Safavid Empire invaded Iraq almost immediately, Northern Anatolia erupted in revolts, and in 1631 the Janissaries stormed the palace and killed the Grand Vizier, among others. Murad IV feared suffering the fate of his elder brother, Osman II (1618–22), and decided to assert his power.
Absolute rule and imperial policies (1632–40)Edit
Murad IV tried to quell the corruption that had grown during the reigns of previous Sultans, and that had not been checked while his mother was ruling through proxy.
Murad IV also banned alcohol, tobacco, and coffee in Istanbul. He ordered execution for breaking this ban. He would reportedly patrol the streets and the lowest taverns of Istanbul in civilian clothes at night, policing the enforcement of his command by casting off his disguise on the spot and beheading the offender with his own hands. Rivaling the exploits of Selim the Grim, he would sit in a kiosk by the water near his Seraglio Palace and shoot arrows at any boat man who rowed too close to his imperial compound. He restored the judicial regulations by very strict punishments, including execution, he once strangled a grand vizier for the reason that the official had beaten his mother-in-law. Historians including Halil İnalcık as well as primary sources report that even though he was a ruthless supporter of alcohol prohibition, Murad IV was a habitual drinker himself.
War against Safavid IranEdit
Murad IV's reign is most notable for the Ottoman–Safavid War (1623–39) against Persia (today Iran) in which Ottoman forces managed to conquer Azerbaijan, occupying Tabriz, Hamadan, and capturing Baghdad in 1638. Murad IV himself commanded the invasion of Mesopotamia and proved to be an outstanding field commander. The Treaty of Zuhab that followed the war roughly comprised and confirmed the borders as per the Peace of Amasya, with Eastern Armenia, Eastern Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Dagestan staying Persian, while Western Armenia, and Western Georgia stayed Ottoman. Mesopotamia was irrevocably lost for the Persians. The borders per the outcome of the war is more or less the present border line between Turkey, Iraq and Iran.
During the siege of Baghdad in 1638, the city held for forty days but was compelled to surrender, and the bulk of the population were butchered by the conquerors, in spite of the promises that they had made to spare them. It is said that the officers of Murad arranged a sort of tableau, in which the heads were struck off one thousand captives by one thousand headsmen at the same moment, and that Murad IV enjoyed the sight.
Murad IV himself commanded the Ottoman army in the last years of the war and proved to be an outstanding field commander. He was the third Ottoman Sultan to command an army on the battlefield since the death of Suleiman the Magnificent in 1566.
Relations with the Mughal EmpireEdit
In the year 1626, the Mughal Emperor Jahangir began to contemplate an alliance between the Ottomans, Mughals and Uzbeks against the Safavids, who had defeated the Mughals at Kandahar. He even wrote a letter to the Ottoman Sultan Murad IV, Jahangir's ambition, however, did not materialize due to his death in 1627. However, Jahangir's son and successor Shah Jahan pursued the goal of alliance with the Ottoman Empire.
While he was encamped in Baghdad, Murad IV is known to have met ambassadors of the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan, Mir Zarif and Mir Baraka, who presented 1000 pieces of finely embroidered cloth and even armor. Murad IV gave them the finest weapons, saddles and Kaftans and ordered his forces to accompany the Mughals to the port of Basra, where they set sail to Thatta and finally Surat.
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Murad IV put emphasis on architecture and in his period many monuments were erected. The Baghdad Kiosk, built in 1635, and the Revan Kiosk, built in 1638 in Yerevan, were both built in the local styles. Some of the others include the Kavak Sarayı pavilion; the Meydanı Mosque; the Bayram Pasha Dervish Lodge, Tomb, Fountain, and Primary School; and the Şerafettin Mosque in Konya.
The Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan exchanged ambassadors with Murad IV, and through these exchanges that he received Isa Muhammad Effendi and Ismail Effendi, two Turkish architects and students of the famous Koca Mimar Sinan Agha. Both later worked with the Mughal team that designed and built the Taj Mahal.
Very little is known about the concubines of Murad IV, principally because he did not leave sons who survived his death to reach the throne but, privy purse registers record the presence of a single haseki, Ayşe Sultan until the very end of Murad's seventeen-year reign. It is possible that Murad had only a single concubine until the advent of the second, or that he had a number of concubines but singled out only one as haseki. A vakf (meaning charitable foundation) inscription dating from 1628 reveals the existence of a concubine of Murad named Sanavber Hatun, who likely was of haseki rank. If Ayșe was initially his only concubine, it is probably his lack of male issue that prompted him to take another, for his sons all died in infancy.
Though the source is not known, it is assumed that Murad IV had affairs with both men and women.[better source needed] In his Iran campaign he brought the commander of Revan Castle Emirgûneoğlu Tahmasp Kulu Khan to Istanbul, changed his name to Yusuf Pasha and made a garden namely "Feridun Bahçesi" for him. According to Dimitri Kantemir and Eremya Çelebi Murad IV was constantly meeting the well known homosexuals of time Yusuf Pasha, Musa Çelebi and Silahtar Mustafa Pasha in "Feridun Bahçesi".[better source needed]
- Şehzade Ahmed (21 December 1628 – 1639);
- Şehzade Numan (1628 – 1629);
- Şehzade Orhan (1629 – 1629);
- Şehzade Hasan (March 1631 – 1632);
- Şehzade Suleiman (2 February 1632 – 1635);
- Şehzade Mehmed (8 August 1633 – 1640);
- Şehzade Osman (9 February 1634 – February 1634);
- Şehzade Alaeddin (26 August 1635 – 1637);
- Şehzade Selim (1637 – 1640);
- Şehzade Abdul Hamid (15 May 1638 – 1638);
Murad had three daughters:
- Kaya Sultan alias Ismihan (1633 – 1659, buried in Mustafa I Mausoleum, Hagia Sophia Mosque, Istanbul), married August 1644, Damat Abaza Melek Ahmed Pasha, Vizier 1638 and 1650–1651;
- Safiye Sultan (buried in Ahmed I Mausoleum, Blue Mosque, Istanbul), married 1659, Damat Abaza Husein Pasha, Vizier 1674–1675, son of Abaza Siyavuş Pasha;
- Rukiye Sultan (died 1696, buried in Ahmed I Mausoleum, Blue Mosque, Istanbul), married firstly 1663, Şeytan Divrikli Ibrahim Pasha, Vizier, married secondly 1693 Damat Gürcü Mehmed Pasha.
Rumours had circulated that on his deathbed, Murad IV ordered the execution of his mentally disabled brother, Ibrahim (reigned 1640–48), which would have meant the end of the Ottoman line. However, the order was not carried out.
In popular cultureEdit
- Finkel, Caroline (2005). Osman's Dream: The Story of the Ottoman Empire, 1300-1923. New York: Basic Books. p. 197. ISBN 978-0-465-02396-7.
- Accounts and Extracts of the Manuscripts in the Library of the King of France. 2. R. Faulder. 1789. p. 51.
The sultan Morad put him to death in the year 1037 [AH], for some action which was contrary to the law of God.
- Hopkins, Kate (2006-03-24). "Food Stories: The Sultan's Coffee Prohibition". Archived from the original on 20 November 2012. Retrieved 2006-09-12.
- Hari, Johann (2015). Chasing the Scream: The First and Last Days of the War on Drugs. Bloomsbury USA. p. 262. ISBN 1620408902.
- Davis, William (1922). A Short History of the Far East. The Macmillan Company. pp. 259–260.
- İnalcık, Halil; Imber, Colin (1989). The Ottoman Empire : the classical age, 1300-1600. New Rochelle, N.Y.: Aristide D. Caratzas. p. 99. ISBN 0-89241-388-3.
- Traian Stoianovich (1 January 1994). Balkan Worlds: The First and Last Europe. M.E. Sharpe. p. 57. ISBN 978-0-7656-3851-9.
- "Genocide and the Modern Age: Etiology and Case Studies of Mass Death". Retrieved 2014-12-30.
- Roemer (1989), p. 285
- Farooqi, N. R. (1989). Mughal-Ottoman relations: a study of political & diplomatic relations between Mughal India and the Ottoman Empire, 1556-1748. Idarah-i Adabiyat-i Delli. Retrieved 2015-06-14.
- Artan, Tülay (2008). "Questions of Ottoman Identity and Architectural History". In Arnold, Dana; et al. Rethinking Architectural Historiography. London: Routledge. pp. 85–109, page 98. ISBN 978-0-415-36082-1.
- Müller-Wiener, Wolfgang (1988). "Das Kavak Sarayı Ein verlorenes Baudenkmal Istanbuls". Istanbuler Mitteilungen. 38: 363–376.
- Leslie P. Peirce (1993). The Imperial Harem: Women and Sovereignty in the Ottoman Empire. Oxford University Press. pp. 107–108. ISBN 978-0-195-08677-5.
- Sakaoğlu 2008, p. 241.
- Hafiz Hueseyin Ayvansaray-i (2000). The Garden of the Mosques: Hafiz Hüseyin Al-Ayvansarayî's Guide to the Muslim Monuments of Ottoman Istanbul. Brill. pp. 10, 25. ISBN 978-9-004-11242-1.
- Mustafa Çağatay Uluçay (2011). Padişahların kadınları ve kızları. Ankara, Ötüken. pp. 80–90.
- Murphey, Rhoads (January 1, 2007). Studies on Ottoman Society and Culture, 16th-18th Centuries. Ashgate Publishing Company. p. 214. ISBN 978-0-754-65931-0.
- Ayvansarayı̂, Hafız Hüseyin; Sâtı, Ali; Besîm, Süleyman (2001). Hadı̂katü'l-cevâmiʻ: İstanbul câmileri ve diğer dı̂nı̂-sivil miʻmârı̂ yapılar. İşaret. p. 46. ISBN 978-9-753-50118-7.
İsmihân Sultân bint-i Murâd Hân-ı Râbi'
- Kal'a, Ahmet; Tabakoğlu, Ahmet (1999). İstanbul su külliyâtı: Vakıf su defterleri : İlmühaber 4 (1856-1928). İstanbul Araştırmaları Merkezi. pp. 76–7. ISBN 978-9-758-21504-1.
merhume İsmi- hân Kaya Sultân tâbe serâhâ
- Selcuk Aksin Somel, Historical Dictionary of the Ottoman Empire, 2003, p.201
- Barber, Noel (1973). The Sultans. New York: Simon and Schuster. p. 87.
- Roemer, H. R. (1986). "The Safavid Period". The Cambridge History of Iran, Vol. 6: The Timurid and Safavid Periods. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 189–350. ISBN 0521200946.
- Sakaoğlu, Necdet (2008). Bu mülkün kadın sultanları: Vâlide sultanlar, hâtunlar, hasekiler, kadınefendiler, sultanefendiler. Oğlak Yayıncılık. p. 303.
Media related to Murad IV at Wikimedia Commons
Murad IVBorn: June 16, 1612 Died: February 9, 1640
|Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
10 September 1623 – 9 February 1640
with Kösem Sultan (1623–1632)
|Sunni Islam titles|
|Caliph of Islam
10 September 1623 – 9 February 1640