Hamadan[4] or Hamedan (English: /ˌhæməˈdæn/ HAM-ə-DAN;[5] Persian: همدان, romanizedHamedān, pronounced [hæmeˈdɒːn]; Old Persian: Haŋgmetana, Ecbatana) is a city in the Central District of Hamadan County, Hamadan province, Iran, serving as capital of the province, the county, and the district.[6]

Persian: همدان
Ancient names: Ecbatana, Hangmatana
Central square, Nazari Museum garden, Monument, Abbasabad Spa, Quranic and International Convention Center, Tomb of Avicenna
Hamadan is located in Iran
Coordinates: 34°47′54″N 48°30′53″E / 34.79833°N 48.51472°E / 34.79833; 48.51472[1]
Country Iran
 • MayorSeyed Masoud Hosseini [2]
1,850 m (6,069 ft)
 • Total554,406
 • Rank13th in Iran
Time zoneUTC+3:30 (IRST)

At the 2006 National Census, the city's population was 473,149 in 127,812 households.[7] The following census in 2011 counted 525,794 people in 156,556 households.[8] The latest census in 2016 showed a population of 554,406 people in 174,731 households.[3]

Hamadan is believed to be among the oldest Iranian cities, previously named Ecbatana. It is possible that it was occupied by the Assyrians in 1100 BCE; the Ancient Greek historian, Herodotus, states that it was the capital of the Medes, around 700 BCE.

Hamadan has a green mountainous area in the foothills of the 3,574-meter Alvand Mountain, in midwestern Iran. The city is 1,850 meters above sea level.

The old city and its historic sites attract tourists during the summer to this city, located approximately 360 kilometres (220 miles) southwest of Tehran. The major sights of this city are the Ganj Nameh inscription, the Avicenna monument and the Baba Taher monument. The main language in the city is Persian.[9][10][11]

History edit

16th century map of Hamadan by Matrakçı Nasuh

According to Clifford Edmund Bosworth, "Hamadan is a very old city. It may conceivably, but improbably, be mentioned in cuneiform texts from ca. 1100 BC, the time of Assyrian King Tiglath-pilesar I, but is certainly mentioned by Herodotus who says that the king of Media Diokes built the city of Agbatana or Ekbatana in the 7th century BC."[12]

Hamadan was established by the Medes. It then became one of several capital cities of the Achaemenid Dynasty.

Hamadan is mentioned in the biblical book of Ezra (Ezra 6:2) as the place where a scroll was found giving the Jews permission from King Darius to rebuild the temple in Jerusalem. Its ancient name of Ecbatana is used in the Ezra text. Because it was a mile above sea level, it was a good place to preserve leather documents.

During the Parthian era, Ctesiphon was the capital of the country, and Hamadan was the summer capital and residence of the Parthian rulers. After the Parthians, the Sassanids constructed their summer palaces in this city. In 642 the Battle of Nahavand took place and Hamadan fell into the hands of the Muslim Arabs.

During the rule of the Buyid dynasty, the city suffered much damage. However, the city regained its former glory under the rule of the Buyid ruler Fanna Khusraw. The Seljuks launched campaigns to take the city in the 1040s,[13] ultimately taking the final Kakuyid fortress in 1047.[14] The Seljuks later shifted their capital from Baghdad to Hamadan. In 1220, Hamadan was destroyed by the Mongols[15] during the Mongol invasions of Georgia before the Battle of Khunan. The city of Hamadan, its fortunes following the rise and fall of regional powers, was completely destroyed during the Timurid invasions, but later thrived during the Safavid era.

Silver drachma of Parthian king Mithridates II made in Ecbatan mint

Thereafter, in the 18th century, Hamadan was surrendered to the Ottomans, but due to the work of Nader Shah, Hamadan was cleared of invaders and, as a result of a peace treaty between Iran and the Ottomans, it was returned to Iran. Hamadan stands on the Silk Road, and even in recent centuries the city enjoyed strong commerce and trade as a result of its location on the main road network in the western region of Iran. In the late 19th century, American missionaries, including James W. Hawkes and Belle Sherwood Hawke,[16][17] established schools in Hamadan.

The Ganjnameh, a cuneiform inscription in Hamadan

During World War I, the city was the scene of heavy fighting between Russian and Turko-German forces. It was occupied by both armies, and finally by the British, before it was returned to the control of the Iranian government at the end of the war in 1918.

Climate edit

Hamadan has a hot-summer, Mediterranean-influenced continental climate (Köppen: Dsa, Trewartha: Dc), in transition with a cold semi-arid climate (Köppen: BSk). The city experiences hot, dry summers, and cold, snowy winters. The temperature may drop below −30 °C (−22 °F) on the coldest days. Heavy snowfall is common during winter and this can persist for periods of up to two months. During the short summer, the weather is hot, and mostly sunny.

Climate data for Hamedan Airport (1976–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 16.4
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 2.9
Daily mean °C (°F) −2.6
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) −7.9
Record low °C (°F) −34
Average precipitation mm (inches) 37.1
Average rainy days 11.6 11.1 12.4 12.1 9.5 2.0 1.3 1.6 1.0 5.6 6.8 10.1 85.1
Average snowy days 8.8 8.2 4.2 0.6 0 0 0 0 0 0.2 0.9 6.9 29.8
Average relative humidity (%) 77 73 63 53 50 40 36 35 36 49 63 73 54
Average dew point °C (°F) −7.0
Mean monthly sunshine hours 131.8 137.1 174.5 199.6 258.5 341.8 342.7 322.2 295.6 234.3 183.1 135.3 2,756.5
Source: [18]

Panoramic view edit

Hamadan at night. Hamadan was redesigned in 1928 by German architects and urban planners to resemble the spokes of a hexagram.[19][self-published source?]

Demographics edit

According to the survey of 1997, the population of the province of Hamadan was 1,677,957.[20] Based on official statistics of 1997, the population of Hamadan county was 563,444 people.[21]

A majority of the population speaks the Hamadani dialect of Persian and standard Persian, with a Turkic minority.[22]

Hamadan linguistic composition
Language Percent
Hamadani Persian
Standard Persian
The Saint Mary Church of Hamadan
A church in Ekbatan Hospital in Hamadan

Gallery edit

Sport edit

PAS Hamedan F.C. were founded on June 9, 2007 after the dissolution of PAS Tehran F.C. The team, along with Alvand Hamedan F.C., is in the Azadegan League.

Some sport complexes in this city include: Qods Stadium, Shahid Mofatteh Stadium, Takhti Sport Complex and the National Stadium of Hamadan.

Education edit

Hamadan University of Technology, in Hamadan

Before the Persian Constitutional Revolution, education in Hamadan was limited to some Maktab Houses and theological schools. Fakhrie Mozafari School was the first modern school of Hamadan, which was built after that revolution. Alliance and Lazarist were also the first modern schools founded by foreign institutions in Hamadan.

Some of the popular universities in Hamadan include:

Notable residents edit

Hamedan celebrities are divided into 3 categories: pre-Islamic, post-Islamic and contemporary people.

Pre-Islamic celebrities edit

Among the pre-Islamic celebrities in Hamedan, we can name Mandana, the mother of Cyrus the Great and the daughter of the last king of Media, Ishtovigo.

Famous names after Islam edit

Famous people of Hamedan after Islam are great people such as:

  • Baba Taher, Famous poets of the fourth century AH.
  • Badi'alzaman Hamedani, author of the oldest book in the art of maqam writing.
  • Abul Ali Hassan Attar, a great literature and famous syntax, vocabulary and hadith in the fourth century AH.
  • Tomb of Esther and Mordekhai, The Tomb of Esther and Mordechai is a tomb located in Hamadan, Iran. Iranian Jews and Iranian Christians believe it houses the remains of the biblical Queen Esther and her cousin Mordechai, and it is the most important pilgrimage site for Jews and Christians in Iran.
  • Ibn Salah Hamedani, physician and mathematician of the fifth and sixth centuries AH.
  • Khajeh Rashid al-Din Fazlullah, minister, scientist and expert physician of the sixth and seventh centuries AH.
  • Mir Seyyed Ali Hamedani Mystics and followers of Sirusluk of the seventh century AH.
  • Mirzadeh Eshghi is one of the shining stars of poetry and prose of the play during the Constitutional Revolution.
  • Bu Ali Sina, one of the rare scientists and geniuses of the time, was born in 370 AH in Khoramisin, Bukhara. He entered this city in 406 AH when Hamedan was the capital of the buyid, and after a while, Shams al-Dawla Dailami made him his minister. During his stay in Hamedan, Bu Ali Sina taught at the city's large school and had the opportunity to complete many of his writings.
  • The tomb of Bu Ali Sina is now located in a square of the same name in Hamedan.

Contemporary people edit

Shirin Ebadi

International relations edit

Twin towns – Sister cities edit

Hamadan is twinned with:

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ OpenStreetMap contributors (17 October 2023). "Hamadan, Hamadan County" (Map). OpenStreetMap. Retrieved 17 October 2023.
  2. ^ https://www.mehrnews.com/news/5294124
  3. ^ a b "Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1395 (2016)". AMAR (in Persian). The Statistical Center of Iran. p. 13. Archived from the original (Excel) on 21 April 2021. Retrieved 19 December 2022.
  4. ^ Multiple Authors (18 April 2012). "HAMADĀN". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 18 April 2015.
  5. ^ "Hamadan". Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary. Retrieved 16 June 2023.
  6. ^ Habibi, Hassan (21 June 1369). "Approval of the organization and chain of citizenship of the elements and units of the country's divisions of Hamadan province, centered in Hamadan city". Lamtakam (in Persian). Ministry of Interior, Political Defense Commission of the Government Board. Archived from the original on 11 February 2024. Retrieved 11 February 2024.
  7. ^ "Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1385 (2006)". AMAR (in Persian). The Statistical Center of Iran. p. 13. Archived from the original (Excel) on 20 September 2011. Retrieved 25 September 2022.
  8. ^ "Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1390 (2011)". Syracuse University (in Persian). The Statistical Center of Iran. p. 13. Archived from the original (Excel) on 17 January 2023. Retrieved 19 December 2022.
  9. ^ "Introduction". www.hamedan.rmto.ir. Archived from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 20 December 2015.
  10. ^ Mohammad Jalal Abbasi-Shavazi, Peter McDonald, Meimanat Hosseini-Chavoshi, "The Fertility Transition in Iran: Revolution and Reproduction", Springer, 2009. pp 100-101: "The first category is 'Central' where the majority of people are Persian speaking ethnic Fars (provinces of Fars, Hamedan, Isfahan, Markazi, Qazvin, Qom, Semnan, Yazd and Tehran..."
  11. ^ (Parviz Aḏkāʾi and EIr, HAMADĀN i. GEOGRAPHY in Encyclopædia Iranica:"Languages spoken. Hamedān has been a crossroads of civilizations for millennia and a mosaic of cultures and dialects live there side by side. The main language spoken, especially in the provincial capital and its surroundings, is Persian, which is also the lingua franca in other regions. In the northern parts of the province, however, the language mostly spoken is Azeri Turkish, while in the northwest and west, near the provinces of Kurdistan and Kermānšāhān, people mostly speak Kurdish, while in some other cities such as Malāyer, Nehāvand, and Sāmen most people speak Lori and Lak (Faraji, p. 1296)."
  12. ^ Bosworth, Clifford Edmund (2008). Historic Cities of the Islamic World. Brill Academic Publishers. p. 151. ISBN 978-90-04-15388-2.
  13. ^ C. E. Bosworth, “ABŪ KĀLĪJĀR GARŠĀSP (I),” Encyclopædia Iranica, I/3, p. 328; an updated version is available online at http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/abu-kalijar-garsasp-i-ala-al-dawla-second-son-of-the-kakuyid-amir-of-jebal-ala-al-dawla-mohammad-b (accessed on 23 January 2024).
  14. ^ C. E. Bosworth, “KĀKUYIDS,” Encyclopædia Iranica,Vol. XV, Fasc. 4, pp. 359-362; an updated version is available online at https://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/kuyids-dynasty (accessed on 23 January 2024).
  15. ^ "Hamadan | Iran | Britannica". www.britannica.com. Retrieved 16 January 2022.
  16. ^ James W. Hawkes Collection, Rare Books and Manuscripts Division, Indiana State Library.
  17. ^ Zirinsky, Michael P. (1992). "Harbingers of Change: Presbyterian Women in Iran, 1883—1949". American Presbyterians. 70 (3): 173–186. ISSN 0886-5159. JSTOR 23333052.
  18. ^ "آمار 166 ايستگاه سينوپتيك كشور تا پایان سال 2010 میلادی + 37 ایستگاه تا پایان سال 2005". Archived from the original on 17 February 2016. Retrieved 13 February 2016.
  19. ^ Subani, Hamad (2013). The Secret History of Iran. Lulu.com. p. 19. ISBN 9781304082893.[self-published source]
  20. ^ Official statistics from 1997 (1375) - Hamadan provinces - Population and ethnicities - "جمعيت و قوميت ها". Archived from the original on 12 May 2008. Retrieved 22 February 2010.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link) accessed on March 12, 2006. Replaced with Archive link on Feb 22, 2010.
  21. ^ "Hamadan - Iran". Encyclopedia Britannica.
  22. ^ "Language distribution: Hamadan Province - Hamadān". Retrieved 4 May 2023.
  23. ^ "صفحه اصلی - دانشگاه بوعلی سینا". basu.ac.ir.
  24. ^ "Hamadan Medical University Website". www.umsha.ac.ir.
  25. ^ "Hamedan University of Technology Website". Archived from the original on 16 September 2009. Retrieved 17 March 2007.
  26. ^ "Welcome to Website Islamic Azad University of Hamedan Branch". 11 March 2005. Archived from the original on 11 March 2005. Retrieved 30 August 2020.
  27. ^ "خبرگزاری فارس - "بخارا" زادگاه و "همدان" مدفن بوعلی‌سینا خواهرخوانده می‌شوند". خبرگزاری فارس. 23 November 2011.

Bibliography edit

External links edit

  Media related to Hamadan at Wikimedia Commons

Preceded by
Capital of Median Empire
As "Ecbatana"

678–549 BCE
Succeeded by
Preceded by
Capital of Achaemenid Empire (Persia)
As "Ecbatana"
Served as Summer Capital

550–330 BCE
Succeeded by
Preceded by Capital of Seljuq Empire (Persia)
(Western capital)

Succeeded by
Preceded by Capital of Iran (Persia)
Succeeded by