Hamadan (pronounced [hæmedɒːn]) or Hamedan (Persian: همدان, Hamedān) (Old Persian: Haŋgmetana, Ecbatana) is the capital city of Hamadan Province of Iran. At the 2019 census, its population was 783,300 in 230,775 families.The majority of people living in Hamadan identify as ethnic Persians.
|Ancient names: Ecbatana, Hangmatana|
|• Mayor||Majeed Shakiri (since 2021)|
|Elevation||1,850 m (6,069 ft)|
|• Rank||13th in Iran|
|• Urban||673,405 |
|Time zone||UTC+3:30 (IRST)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+4:30 (IRDT)|
Hamedan is believed to be among the oldest Iranian cities. It is possible that it was occupied by the Assyrians in 1100 BCE; the Ancient Greek historian, Herodotus, states that it was the capital of the Medes, around 700 BCE.
Hamedan has a green mountainous area in the foothills of the 3,574-meter Alvand Mountain, in the midwest part of Iran. The city is 1,850 meters above sea level.
The special nature of this old city and its historic sites attract tourists during the summer to this city, located approximately 360 kilometres (220 miles) southwest of Tehran.
The major sights of this city are the Ganj Nameh inscription, the Avicenna monument and the Baba Taher monument. The majority of the population is Persian; however, there is a considerable Azerbaijani minority.
According to Clifford Edmund Bosworth, "Hamadan is a very old city. It may conceivably, but improbably, be mentioned in cuneiform texts from ca. 1100 BC, the time of Assyrian King Tiglath-pilesar I, but is certainly mentioned by Herodotus (i.98) who says that the king of Media Diokes built the city of Agbatana or Ekbatana in the 7th century BC."
Hamadan is mentioned in the biblical book of Ezra as the place where a scroll was found giving the Jews permission from King Darius to rebuild the temple in Jerusalem. (Ezra 6:2). Its ancient name of Ecbatana is used in the Ezra text. Because it was a mile above sea level, it was a good place to preserve leather documents.
During the Parthian era, Ctesiphon was the capital of the country, and Hamadan the summer capital and residence of the Parthian rulers. After the Parthians, the Sassanids constructed their summer palaces in Hamadan. In the year 633 the battle of Nahavand took place and Hamadan fell into the hands of the Muslim Arabs.
During the Buwayhids, the city suffered much damage. In the 11th century, the Seljuks shifted their capital from Baghdad to Hamadan. The city of Hamadan, its fortunes following the rise and fall of regional powers, was completely destroyed during the Timurid invasion. During the Safavid era, the city thrived. Thereafter, in the 18th century, Hamadan was surrendered to the Ottomans, but due to the work of Nader Shah e Afshar, Hamadan was cleared of invaders and, as a result of a peace treaty between Iran and the Ottomans, it was returned to Iran. Hamadan stands on the Silk Road, and even in recent centuries the city enjoyed strong commerce and trade as a result of its location on the main road network in the western region of Persia and Iran.
During World War I, the city was the scene of heavy fighting between Russian and Turko-German forces. It was occupied by both armies, and finally by the British, before it was returned to control of the Iranian government at the end of the war in 1918.
Hamadan province lies in a temperate mountainous region to the east of Zagros. The vast plains of the north and northeast of the province are influenced by strong winds, that almost last throughout the year.
The various air currents of this region are: the north and north west winds of the spring and winter seasons, which are usually humid and bring rainfall. The west-east air currents that blow in the autumn, and the local winds that develop due to difference in air-pressure between the elevated areas and the plains, like the blind wind of the Asad Abad region.
Hamadan is in the vicinity of the Alvand mountains and has a dry summer humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dsa), in transition with a cold semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification BSk), with snowy winters. In fact, it is one of the coldest cities in Iran. The temperature may drop below −30 °C (−22 °F) on the coldest days. Heavy snowfall is common during winter and this can persist for periods of up to two months. During the short summer, the weather is mild, pleasant, and mostly sunny.
|Climate data for Hamedan|
|Record high °C (°F)||17.0
|Average high °C (°F)||2.0
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−4.6
|Average low °C (°F)||−10.5
|Record low °C (°F)||−34
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||46.3
|Average rainy days||11.6||11.1||12.4||12.1||9.5||2.0||1.3||1.6||1.0||5.6||6.8||10.1||85.1|
|Average snowy days||8.8||8.2||4.2||0.6||0||0||0||0||0||0.2||0.9||6.9||29.8|
|Average relative humidity (%)||76||73||64||56||50||36||31||31||34||48||61||73||53|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||131.8||137.1||174.5||199.6||258.5||341.8||342.7||322.2||295.6||234.3||183.1||135.3||2,756.5|
|Source: NOAA (1961-1990)|
According to the survey of 1997, the population of the province of Hamadan was 1,677,957. Based on official statistics of 1997, the population of Hamadan county was 563,444 people. The majority of population are Persians (87%) with a sizeable minority of Azeris, and a small group of Persian Jews.
Hamadan is home to many poets and cultural celebrities. The city is also said to be among the world's oldest continuously inhabited cities.
Hamadan has always been well known for handicrafts like leather, ceramics, and carpets.
Iran's Cultural Heritage Organization lists 207 sites of historical and cultural significance in Hamadan.
Before the Persian Constitutional Revolution, education in Hamadan was limited to some Maktab Houses and theological schools. Fakhrie Mozafari School was the first modern school of Hamadan, which was built after that revolution. Alliance and Lazarist were also the first modern schools founded by foreign institutions in Hamadan.
Some of the popular universities in Hamadan include:
Fazlollah Zahedi and his family
- Abolhassan Banisadr, economist, politician, and the first post-revolutionary elected president of the Islamic Republic of Iran
- Ahmad NikTalab, a famous contemporary poet
- Aminollah Rezaei, Poet, the Father of Iranian Surrealism
- Amir Nosrat'ollah Balakhanlou, born in Tehran — two-time mayor and MP for Hamadan City (1950s and early 1960s)
- Amir-Shahab Razavian, film director, writer and producer
- Baba-Taher-e Oryan, a famous poet (1100 A.c)
- Ein-Alqozat Hamadani, a great philosopher and sufist (1100 A.C)
- Ehsan Yarshater, historian, scientists, and founder of Encyclopædia Iranica
- Fakhr-al-Din Iraqi, celebrated poet (1300 A.C)
- Fazlollah Zahedi, military general
- Fereydoun Moshiri, contemporary poet (originally from Hamadan, but born in Tehran)
- Hanieh Tavassoli, actress
- Joseph Emin, a major activist in the attempts to liberate Armenia during the 18th century
- Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadani, poet and scholar
- Mirzadeh Eshghi, a celebrated nationalist poet
- Moshfegh Hamadani, writer, journalist and translator
- Parviz Parastouei, acclaimed actor
- Rashid-al-Din Hamadani, Persian statesman, historian and physician of the 13th-14th centuries
- Shirin Ebadi, lawyer and the 2003 Nobel Peace Laureate
- Samuel Rahbar, scientist
- Wojtek, a bear who was born in Hamedan and would grow up to become a corporal in the Polish army during World War 2.
- Viguen, known as the king of Persian pop and jazz music
Twin towns – Sister citiesEdit
Hamadan is twinned with:
- معارفه سرپرست شهرداري همدان. Municipality.hamadan.ir (in Persian). Hamedan Municipality.[permanent dead link]
- "مجید شاکری" سرپرست شهرداری همدان شد. Irna.ir/news/ (in Persian). Islamic Republic News Agency. Retrieved 5 August 2021.[permanent dead link]
- "Statistical Center of Iran > Home". www.amar.org.ir.
- Multiple Authors (April 18, 2012). "HAMADĀN". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 18 April 2015.
- "The population of the counties in Hamadan (Hamadān) Province by census years". www.citypopulation.de.
- "کاهش جمعیت استان همدان در سرشماری 95". www.isna.ir.
- "Introduction". www.hamedan.rmto.ir.
- Mohammad Jalal Abbasi-Shavazi, Peter McDonald, Meimanat Hosseini-Chavoshi, "The Fertility Transition in Iran: Revolution and Reproduction", Springer, 2009. pp 100-101: "The first category is 'Central' where the majority of people are Persian speaking ethnic Fars (provinces of Fars, Hamedan, Isfahan, Markazi, Qazvin, Qom, Semnan, Yazd and Tehran..."
- (Parviz Aḏkāʾi and EIr, HAMADĀN i. GEOGRAPHY in Encyclopædia Iranica:"Languages spoken. Hamedān has been a crossroads of civilizations for millennia and a mosaic of cultures and dialects live there side by side. The main language spoken, especially in the provincial capital and its surroundings, is Persian, which is also the lingua franca in other regions. In the northern parts of the province, however, the language mostly spoken is Azeri Turkish, while in the northwest and west, near the provinces of Kurdistan and Kermānšāhān, people mostly speak Kurdish, while in some other cities such as Malāyer, Nehāvand, and Sāmen most people speak Lori and Lak (Faraji, p. 1296)."
- Bosworth, Clifford Edmund (2008). Historic Cities of the Islamic World. Brill Academic Publishers. p. 151. ISBN 978-90-04-15388-2.
- "Hamedan Nozheh Climate Normals 1961-1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved December 28, 2012.
- Subani, Hamad (2013). The Secret History of Iran. Lulu.com. p. 19. ISBN 9781304082893.[self-published source]
- Official statistics from 1997 (1375) - Hamadan provinces - Population and ethnicites - "Archived copy". Archived from the original on May 12, 2008. Retrieved 2010-02-22.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link) accessed on March 12, 2006. Replaced with Archive link on Feb 22, 2010.
- "Hamadan - Iran". Encyclopedia Britannica.
- "صفحه اصلی - دانشگاه بوعلی سینا". basu.ac.ir.
- "Hamadan Medical University Website". www.umsha.ac.ir.
- "Hamedan University of Technology Website".
- "Welcome to Website Islamic Azad University of Hamedan Branch". 11 March 2005. Archived from the original on 11 March 2005. Retrieved 30 August 2020.
- "خبرگزاری فارس - "بخارا" زادگاه و "همدان" مدفن بوعلیسینا خواهرخوانده میشوند". خبرگزاری فارس. 23 November 2011.
Media related to Hamadan at Wikimedia Commons
- Ecbatana, Photos from Iran, Livius.
- Gandj Nameh, Photos from Iran, Livius.
- The Bisotun inscription, Photos from Iran, Livius.
- Photos from Hamadan City
- Hamadan City
- Hamadan: Older than history
- Hamadan; Capital of Median Empire
- Iconos satellite photo (January, 2005)
- Google Satellite Picture
- Hamedan Cultural Heritage Organization (in Persian)
- Hegmataneh Official Website
- Hamadān entries in the