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Kurdish man wearing a kaftan

A kaftan or caftan (/ˈkæftæn/; Arabic: قفطانqafṭān) is a variant of the robe or tunic and has been worn by several cultures around the world for thousands of years. The kaftan is often worn as a coat or as an overdress, usually reaching to the ankles, and with long sleeves. It can be made of wool, cashmere, silk, or cotton, and may be worn with a sash. The kaftan is of ancient Mesopotamian origin and was worn by many middle-eastern ethnic groups. According to Gerhard Doerfer, the word originates from the old Turkish "kap ton", meaning "covering garment".[citation needed]

Different styles, uses, and names for the kaftan vary from culture to culture. In regions with a warm climate, the kaftan is worn as a light-weight, loose-fitting garment. In some cultures, the kaftan has served as a symbol of royalty.

Contents

Ottoman kaftanEdit

 
Ottoman Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent in a Kaftan of complex woven fabric.

Kaftans were worn by the Ottoman sultans during the Ottoman Empire. The decorations, including the colours, patterns, ribbons, and buttons, indicated the rank of the person who wore them. From the 14th century through the 17th century, textiles with large patterns were used. However, by the late 16th and early 17th centuries, the decorative patterns on the fabrics had become smaller and brighter. By the second half of the 17th century, the most precious kaftan's were those with 'yollu': vertical stripes with various embroideries and small patterns - so-called "Selimiye" fabrics.

Most fabrics manufactured in Turkey were made in Istanbul and Bursa, but some textiles came from as far away as Venice, Genoa, Persia (Iran), India, and even China. Kaftans were made from velvet, aba, bürümcük (a type of crepe with a silk warp and cotton weft), canfes, çatma (a heavy silk brocade), gezi, diba (Persian دیبا), hatayi, kutnu, kemha, seraser (Persian سراسر) (brocade fabric with silk warp and gold or silver metallic thread weft),[1] serenk, zerbaft (Persian زربافت), and tafta (Persian تافته). Favoured colours were indigo blue, kermes red, violet, pişmis ayva or "cooked quince", and weld yellow.

The Topkapi Palace Museum in Istanbul holds a large collection of Ottoman kaftans and textiles.[2]

The North African kaftanEdit

 
A kaftan offered by Ali Pacha of Algeria to the crown of Sweden on the occasion of a peace treaty, 1731.

AlgeriaEdit

 
Women in a house in Algiers wearing a kaftan, 21 April 1912.

Historically, kaftans were worn by the sultans of the Ottoman Empire. However, across North Africa in the last few centuries, it has been worn more frequently by lay women - men preferring to wear Djellabas. It has become an increasingly popular form of dress in Algiers over the 20th Century and has become the standard formal dress for the bride at weddings.

There are several different kinds of kaftan in Algeria, the most famous being the karakou from Algiers.[3][4]Other famous types of kaftan are the Chedda form the city of Telemcen.[5][better source needed] The ketifa and the gandoura from Constantine and Annaba are also well known.[6][7]

The main cities in Algeria involved in the production of kaftans are Algiers, Blida, Annaba, Constantine, Oran, Mostaghanem, and Tlemcen.

MoroccoEdit

Although the Ottoman Empire have never put their feet in Morocco, which make it a good proof that Morocco has a Kaftan many years before the rise of the Ottoman Empire. The kaftan was adapted and re-fashioned by the Moroccan clothes makers ("Maalem") during the Marinid Dynasty [citation needed], and was worn by the kings of the region. It was later adopted by the wider public as a form of dress during the Saadian Dynasty.[citation needed]

Fes city in 1206 AD or 600 Hijri, was popular by its textile factories with number of 3046 textile factories[8] and at the time of Al-Marinid Dynasty, Sultans of Morocco were sending Kaftan as gift to Ottoman Sultans for each one become the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, and this Kaftan was made by brocard, which make it the first kaftan that is owned by the Ottoman Sultan.[9]

In modern-day Morocco, kaftans are mostly worn by women, and the word kaftan in Morocco is commonly used to mean "one-piece dress". Alternative two-piece versions of Moroccan kaftans are called Takchita and worn with a large belt. The Takchita is also known as Mansouria which derives from the name of Sultan Ahmad al-Mansur[citation needed]. who invented the new fashion of wearing a two-piece Kaftan.

Historically, there are many Moroccan Kaftans, depending on the cities, such as Tetouan, Fes, Rabat, Sale, and Marrakech. They can be made of brocade, velvet, silk and many more fabrics.

Kaftans can be worn on both casual and formal occasions, depending on the materials used.[10]

The West African kaftanEdit

In West Africa, a kaftan is a pullover robe. Kaftans are worn by both men and women. In West Africa, the female robe is called a kaftan, and the male robe is referred to as a Senegalese kaftan.

A Senegalese kaftan is a pullover men's robe with long bell-like sleeves. In the Wolof language, this robe is called a mbubb and in French, it is called a boubou. The Senegalese kaftan is an ankle length garment. It is worn with matching drawstring pants called tubay. Normally made of cotton brocade, lace, or synthetic fabrics, these robes are common throughout West Africa. A kaftan and matching pants are called a kaftan suit. The kaftan suit is worn with a kufi cap.[11] Senegalese kaftans are formal wear in all West African countries.

Other regional variationsEdit

 
Jewish children with a school teacher in Samarkand, wearing kaftans (circa 1910).

PersianEdit

Persian kaftan robes of honour were commonly known as khalat or kelat.[12]

JewishEdit

The Chassidic Jews adapted a silky robe (bekishe) or a frock coat (kapoteh) from the garb of Slavic nobility which was a type of kaftan. The term kapoteh may originate from the Spanish capote or possibly from "kaftan" via Ladino. Sephardic Jews from Muslim countries wore a kaftan similar to those of their neighbours.

RussianEdit

In Russia, the word "kaftan" is used for another type of clothing: a kind of a man's long suit with tight sleeves. The word "kaftan" was adopted from the Tatar language, which in turn borrowed the word from Turkish.[13] By the 19th century, Russian kaftans were the most widely spread type of outer clothing among peasants and merchants. Currently, they are used as ritual religious clothing by the most conservative sect of Old Believers.

In Western countriesEdit

 
Americans returning from journeys on the hippie trail helped popularise the kaftan.

More recently, the kaftan was introduced to the west in the 1890s when Alix of Hesse wore the traditional Russian kaftan during her coronation.[14] It resembled the ones worn by Ottoman sultans and was in contrast to the tight-fitting dresses with corsets common in England at that time.

The kaftan slowly gained popularity for its exoticism and as a form of loose-fitting clothing. French fashion designer Paul Poiret further popularised this style in the early 20th century.

In the 1950s, fashion designers such as Christian Dior and Balenciaga adopted the kaftan as a loose evening gown or robe in their collections.[15] These variations were usually sashless.

American hippie fashions of the late 1960s and the 1970s often drew from ethnic styles, including kaftans. These styles were brought to the United States from people who journeyed the so-called "hippie trail".[15] African-styled, kaftan-like dashikis were popular, especially among African-Americans. Street styles were appropriated by fashion designers, who marketed lavish, Moroccan-style kaftans as hostess gowns for casual at-home entertaining.

Diana Vreeland, Babe Paley, and Barbara Hutton all helped popularize the caftan into mainstream western fashion.[16] Into the 1970s, Elizabeth Taylor often wore kaftans designed by Thea Porter. In 1975 during her second wedding to Richard Burton, she wore a caftan designed by Gina Fratini.[17]

More recently in 2011, Jessica Simpson was photographed wearing kaftans during her pregnancy.[14] American fashion editor André Leon Talley has also worn kaftans designed by Ralph Rucci as one of his signature looks.[18] Beyoncé, Uma Thurman, Susan Sarandon, Kate Moss, Mary-Kate and Ashley Olsen, and Nicole Richie have all been spotted in kaftans.[19] Some brands like Willian by Keia Bounds have dedicated their 2015 Summer collections to kaftans.[20]

GalleryEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Sadberk Hanim Museum". Sadberkhanimmuzesi.org.tr. Retrieved 2013-09-29. 
  2. ^ IstanbulNet www.istanbulnet.com.tr. "Topkapi Museum: collection of Turkish textiles and kaftans". Exploreturkey.com. Retrieved 2009-10-09. 
  3. ^ hadjer, Nedjma (7 July 2017). "العربية: قفطان جزائري" – via Wikimedia Commons. 
  4. ^ "Magical Algeria". Pinterest. 
  5. ^ fr:Chedda de Tlemcen
  6. ^ "The Algerian Traditional Dress ♓ TARZI ♓ FERGANI ♓". Pinterest. 
  7. ^ "fergani". Pinterest. 
  8. ^ حر, مغربي. "مدونة ثقافة المغرب: القفطان المغربي في الأندلس و خرافة القفطان العثماني". 
  9. ^ The Historical Diplomacy Of Morocco | Volume 7 page 226
  10. ^ Morocco-guide.com. "Traditional Clothing - Kaftan and Djellaba - Morocco Guide". 
  11. ^ Cicero, Providence (2009-02-27). "Afrikando Afrikando Dishes up Great Food with a Side of Quirkiness". The Seattle Times. 
  12. ^ "CLOTHING xxvii. lexicon of Persian clothing – Encyclopaedia Iranica". Iranicaonline.org. Retrieved 2013-09-29. 
  13. ^ Richard Hellie (15 June 1999). The Economy and Material Culture of Russia, 1600–1725. University of Chicago Press. p. 354. ISBN 978-0-226-32649-8. 
  14. ^ a b Hix, Lisa (17 July 2014). "Caftan Liberation: How an Ancient Fashion Set Modern Women Free". Collectors Weekly. Retrieved 16 January 2015. 
  15. ^ a b Annette Lynch; Mitchell D. Strauss (30 October 2014). Ethnic Dress in the United States: A Cultural Encyclopedia. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. pp. 61–62. ISBN 978-0-7591-2150-8. 
  16. ^ Erika Stalder (1 May 2008). Fashion 101: A Crash Course in Clothing. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 13. ISBN 0-547-94693-7. 
  17. ^ Salamone, Gina (2 December 2011). "Elizabeth Taylor's prized possessions—ranging from diamonds to designer gowns—on view at Christie's before going on auction". NY Daily News. Retrieved 16 January 2015. 
  18. ^ Smith, Ray A. (9 October 2013). "An Emperor of Fashion". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 16 January 2015. 
  19. ^ "Caftan Liberation: How an Ancient Fashion Set Modern Women Free". Collectors Weekly. 
  20. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-09-07. Retrieved 2015-09-11.