Slavs

  (Redirected from Slavic peoples)

Slavs are the largest European ethnolinguistic group.[2] They speak the various Slavic languages, belonging to the larger Balto-Slavic branch of the Indo-European languages. Slavs are geographically distributed throughout northern Eurasia, mainly inhabiting Central and Eastern Europe, and the Balkans to the west; and Siberia to the east. A large Slavic minority is also scattered across the Baltic states and Central Asia,[3][4] while a substantial Slavic diaspora is found throughout the Americas, as a result of immigration.[5]

Slavs
Slavic World updated.png
World map of countries with:[citation needed]
  Majority Slavic ethnicities (More than 50%)
  Minority Slavic populations (10–50%)
Total population
c. 300 million
Regions with significant populations
Russiansc. 134 million
Polesc. 60 million
Ukrainiansc. 59 million
Czechsc. 10 million
Serbsc. 10 million
Belarusiansc. 10 million
Bulgariansc. 9 million
Croatsc. 8 million
Slovaksc. 7 million
Flag of Don Cossacks.svg Cossacksc. 5 million
Bosniak national flag.svg Bosniaksc. 3 million
Slovenesc. 2.5 million
Flag of North Macedonia.svg Macedoniansc. 2.4 million
Flag of Rusyns 2007.svg Rusynsc. 1.7 million
Flag of the Republic of Tamrash.svg Pomaksc. 1 million[1]
Flag of Silesians.svg Silesiansc. 860,000
Banner of arms of Moravia.svg Moraviansc. 700,000
Kashubian flag.svg Kashubiansc. 570,000
Montenegrinsc. 460,000
Yugoslavsc. 415,000
Flag of Sorbs.svg Sorbsc. 150,000
Flag of the Islamska Zajednica.svg Muslimsc. 140,000
Flag of Lemkos.svg Lemkosc. 67,000
Flag of Gorani.svg Goranic. 60,000
Flag of Bunjevci.gif Bunjevcic. 20,000
Flag of Arkhangelsk oblast proposal (var 1).svg Pomorsc. 6,000
Flag missing.jpg Krashovanic. 5,000
National flag of Šokci in Serbia.png Šokcic. 600
Proposed goral flag.png Gorals?
Flag of Polesia.svg Poleshuksc. 25
Languages
Slavic languages
Religion
Majority:
OrthodoxCrossblack.svg Eastern Orthodoxy
Christian cross.svg Catholicism (Greek Catholicism or Latin Catholicism)

Minority:
Star and Crescent.svg Islam
Golden Christian Cross.svg Protestantism
Red Rodnover kolovrat.svg Slavic Neopaganism
Spiritual Christianity
Irreligion
Related ethnic groups
Indo-Europeans

Present-day Slavs are classified into East Slavs (chiefly Belarusians, Russians, Rusyns, and Ukrainians), West Slavs (chiefly Czechs, Kashubs, Poles, Slovaks, Silesians and Sorbs) and South Slavs (chiefly Bosniaks, Bulgarians, Croats, Macedonians, Montenegrins, Serbs and Slovenes).[6][7][8][9]

The vast majority of Slavs are traditionally Christians. However, modern Slavic nations and ethnic groups are considerably diverse both genetically and culturally, and relations between them – even within the individual groups – range from "ethnic solidarity to mutual feelings of hostility".[10]

EthnonymEdit

The oldest mention of the Slavic ethnonym is the 6th century AD Procopius, writing in Byzantine Greek, using various forms such as Sklaboi (Σκλάβοι), Sklabēnoi (Σκλαβηνοί), Sklauenoi (Σκλαυηνοί), Sthlabenoi (Σθλαβηνοί), or Sklabinoi (Σκλαβῖνοι),[11] while his contemporary Jordanes refers to the Sclaveni in Latin.[12] The oldest documents written in Old Church Slavonic, dating from the 9th century, attest the autonym as Slověne (Словѣне). These forms point back to a Slavic autonym which can be reconstructed in Proto-Slavic as *Slověninъ, plural Slověne.[citation needed]

The reconstructed autonym *Slověninъ is usually considered a derivation from slovo ("word"), originally denoting "people who speak (the same language)", i.e. people who understand each other, in contrast to the Slavic word denoting German people, namely *němьcь, meaning "silent, mute people" (from Slavic *němъ "mute, mumbling"). The word slovo ("word") and the related slava ("glory, fame") and slukh ("hearing") originate from the Proto-Indo-European root *ḱlew- ("be spoken of, glory"), cognate with Ancient Greek κλέος (kléos "fame"), as in the name Pericles, Latin clueo ("be called"), and English loud.[citation needed]

In Medieval and Early Modern sources written in Latin, Slavs are most commonly referred to as Sclaveni, or in shortened version Sclavi.[13]

HistoryEdit

OriginsEdit

First mentionsEdit

 
The origin and migration of Slavs in Europe between the 5th and 10th centuries AD:
  Original Slavic homeland (modern-day southeastern Poland, northwestern Ukraine and southern Belarus)
  Expansion of the Slavic migration in Europe
 
Terracotta tile from the 6th–7th century AD found in Vinica, North Macedonia depicts a battle scene between the Bulgars and Slavs with the Latin inscription BOLGAR and SCLAVIGI [14]

Ancient Roman sources refer to the Early Slavic peoples as Veneti, who dwelt in a region of central Europe east of the Germanic tribe of Suebi, and west of the Iranian Sarmatians in the 1st and 2nd centuries AD,[15][16] between the upper Vistula and Dnieper rivers. The Slavs under name of the Antes and the Sclaveni first appear in Byzantine records in the early 6th century. Byzantine historiographers under emperor Justinian I (527–565), such as Procopius of Caesarea, Jordanes and Theophylact Simocatta describe tribes of these names emerging from the area of the Carpathian Mountains, the lower Danube and the Black Sea, invading the Danubian provinces of the Eastern Empire.[citation needed]

Jordanes, in his work Getica (written in 551 AD),[17] describes the Veneti as a "populous nation" whose dwellings begin at the sources of the Vistula and occupy "a great expanse of land". He also describes the Veneti as the ancestors of Antes and Slaveni, two early Slavic tribes, who appeared on the Byzantine frontier in the early 6th century. Procopius wrote in 545 that "the Sclaveni and the Antae actually had a single name in the remote past; for they were both called Sporoi in olden times". The name Sporoi derives from Greek σπείρω ("I scatter grain"). He described them as barbarians, who lived under democracy, believed in one god, "the maker of lightning" (Perun), to whom they made a sacrifice. They lived in scattered housing and constantly changed settlement. In war, they were mainly foot soldiers with small shields and spears, lightly clothed, some entering battle naked with only genitals covered. Their language is "barbarous" (that is, not Greek), and the two tribes are alike in appearance, being tall and robust, "while their bodies and hair are neither very fair or blond, nor indeed do they incline entirely to the dark type, but they are all slightly ruddy in color. And they live a hard life, giving no heed to bodily comforts..."[18] Jordanes described the Sclaveni having swamps and forests for their cities.[19] Another 6th-century source refers to them living among nearly impenetrable forests, rivers, lakes, and marshes.[20]

Menander Protector mentions a Daurentius (circa 577–579) who slew an Avar envoy of Khagan Bayan I for asking the Slavs to accept the suzerainty of the Avars; Daurentius declined and is reported as saying: "Others do not conquer our land, we conquer theirs – so it shall always be for us".[21]

MigrationsEdit

 
Slavic tribes from the 7th to 9th centuries AD in Europe

According to eastern homeland theory, prior to becoming known to the Roman world, Slavic-speaking tribes were part of the many multi-ethnic confederacies of Eurasia – such as the Sarmatian, Hun and Gothic empires. The Slavs emerged from obscurity when the westward movement of Germanic tribes in the 5th and 6th centuries CE (thought to be in conjunction with the movement of peoples from Siberia and Eastern Europe: Huns, and later Avars and Bulgars) started the great migration of the Slavs, who settled the lands abandoned by Germanic tribes fleeing the Huns and their allies: westward into the country between the Oder and the Elbe-Saale line; southward into Bohemia, Moravia, much of present-day Austria, the Pannonian plain and the Balkans; and northward along the upper Dnieper river. It has also been suggested that some Slavs migrated with the Vandals to the Iberian Peninsula and even North Africa.[22]

Around the 6th century, Slavs appeared on Byzantine borders in great numbers.[23] Byzantine records note that Slav numbers were so great, that grass would not regrow where the Slavs had marched through[citation needed]. After a military movement even the Peloponnese and Asia Minor were reported to have Slavic settlements.[24] This southern movement has traditionally been seen as an invasive expansion.[25] By the end of the 6th century, Slavs had settled the Eastern Alps regions.[26]

Pope Gregory I in 600 CE wrote to Maximus, the bishop of Salona (in Dalmatia), in which he expresses concern about the arrival of the Slavs: "Et quidem de Sclavorum gente, quae vobis valde imminet, et affligor vehementer et conturbor. Affligor in his quae jam in vobis patior; conturbor, quia per Istriae aditum jam ad Italiam intrare coeperunt." ("I am both distressed and disturbed about the Slavs, who are pressing hard on you. I am distressed because I sympathize with you; I am disturbed because they have already begun to arrive in Italy through the entry-point of Istria.")[27]

Middle AgesEdit

 
Great Moravia was one of the first major Slavic states, 833–907 AD

When Slav migrations ended, their first state organizations appeared, each headed by a prince with a treasury and a defense force. In the 7th century, the Frankish merchant Samo supported the Slavs against their Avar rulers and became the ruler of the first known Slav state in Central Europe, Samo's Empire. This early Slavic polity probably did not outlive its founder and ruler, but it was the foundation for later West Slavic states on its territory. The oldest of them was Carantania; others are the Principality of Nitra, the Moravian principality (see under Great Moravia) and the Balaton Principality. The First Bulgarian Empire was founded in 681 as an alliance between the ruling Bulgars and the numerous slavs in the area, and their South Slavic language, the Old Church Slavonic, became the main and official language of the empire in 864. Bulgaria was instrumental in the spread of Slavic literacy and Christianity to the rest of the Slavic world. The expansion of the Magyars into the Carpathian Basin and the Germanization of Austria gradually separated the South Slavs from the West and East Slavs. Later Slavic states, which formed in the following centuries, included the Kievan Rus', the Second Bulgarian Empire, the Kingdom of Poland, Duchy of Bohemia, the Kingdom of Croatia, Banate of Bosnia and the Serbian Empire.[citation needed]

Modern eraEdit

 
Seal from the pan-Slavic Congress held in Prague, 1848

In the late 19th century, there were four Slavic states in the world: the Russian Empire, the Principality of Serbia, the Principality of Montenegro and the Principality of Bulgaria. In the Austro-Hungarian Empire, out of a population of approximately 50 million people, about 23 million were Slavs. Because of the vastness and diversity of the territory occupied by Slavic people, there were several centers of Slavic consolidation. At the beginning of the 20th century, following the end of World War I and the collapse of the Central Powers, several Slavic nations emerged and became independent, such as the Second Polish Republic, First Czechoslovak Republic, and the Kingdom of Yugoslavia (officially named Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes until 1929). After the end of the Cold War and subsequent collapse of the Soviet Union, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia, additional new Slavic states emerged, such as the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Belarus, Russia and Ukraine.[citation needed]

Pan-SlavismEdit

Pan-Slavism, a movement which came into prominence in the mid-19th century, emphasized the common heritage and unity of all the Slavic peoples. The main focus was in the Balkans where the South Slavs had been ruled for centuries by other empires: the Byzantine Empire, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire, and Venice.[citation needed]

LanguagesEdit

 
East Slavic languages
  Rusyn
 
West Slavic languages
  Polish
  Polabian
  Czech
  Slovak

Proto-Slavic, the supposed ancestor language of all Slavic languages, is a descendant of common Proto-Indo-European, via a Balto-Slavic stage in which it developed numerous lexical and morphophonological isoglosses with the Baltic languages. In the framework of the Kurgan hypothesis, "the Indo-Europeans who remained after the migrations [from the steppe] became speakers of Balto-Slavic".[28] Proto-Slavic is defined as the last stage of the language preceding the geographical split of the historical Slavic languages. That language was uniform, and on the basis of borrowings from foreign languages and Slavic borrowings into other languages, cannot be said to have any recognizable dialects – this suggests that there was, at one time, a relatively small Proto-Slavic homeland.[29]

Slavic linguistic unity was to some extent visible as late as Old Church Slavonic (or Old Bulgarian) manuscripts which, though based on local Slavic speech of Thessaloniki, could still serve the purpose of the first common Slavic literary language.[30]

Standardised Slavic languages that have official status in at least one country are: Belarusian, Bosnian, Bulgarian, Croatian, Czech, Macedonian, Montenegrin, Polish, Russian, Serbian, Slovak, Slovene, and Ukrainian. Russian is the most spoken Slavic language, and is the most spoken native language in Europe.[31]

The alphabets used for Slavic languages are frequently connected to the dominant religion among the respective ethnic groups. Orthodox Christians use the Cyrillic alphabet while Catholics use the Latin alphabet; the Bosniaks, who are Muslim, also use the Latin alphabet. Additionally, some Eastern Catholics and Western Catholics use the Cyrillic alphabet. Serbian and Montenegrin use both the Cyrillic and Latin alphabets. There are also a Latin script to write in Belarusian, called Łacinka and in Ukrainian, called Latynka.[citation needed]

Ethno-cultural subdivisionsEdit

Slavs are customarily divided along geographical lines into three major subgroups: West Slavs, East Slavs, and South Slavs, each with a different and a diverse background based on the unique history, religion and culture of particular Slavic groups within them. Apart from prehistorical archaeological cultures, the subgroups have had notable cultural contact with non-Slavic Bronze- and Iron Age civilisations.[citation needed]

West Slavs originate from early Slavic tribes which settled in Central Europe after the East Germanic tribes had left this area during the migration period.[32] They are noted as having mixed with Germanics, Hungarians, Celts (particularly the Boii), Old Prussians, and the Pannonian Avars.[33] The West Slavs came under the influence of the Western Roman Empire (Latin) and of the Catholic Church.[citation needed]

East Slavs have origins in early Slavic tribes who mixed and contacted with Finns and Balts.[34][35] Their early Slavic component, Antes, mixed or absorbed Iranians, and later received influence from the Khazars and Vikings.[36] The East Slavs trace their national origins to the tribal unions of Kievan Rus' and Rus' Khaganate, beginning in the 10th century. They came particularly under the influence of the Byzantine Empire and of the Eastern Orthodox Church.[citation needed]

South Slavs from most of the region have origins in early Slavic tribes who mixed with the local Proto-Balkanic tribes (Illyrian, Dacian, Thracian, Paeonian, Hellenic tribes), and Celtic tribes (particularly the Scordisci), as well as with Romans (and the Romanized remnants of the former groups), and also with remnants of temporarily settled invading East Germanic, Asiatic or Caucasian tribes such as Gepids, Huns, Avars, Goths and Bulgars.[citation needed] The original inhabitants of present-day Slovenia and continental Croatia have origins in early Slavic tribes who mixed with Romans and romanized Celtic and Illyrian people as well as with Avars and Germanic peoples (Lombards and East Goths). The South Slavs (except the Slovenes and Croats) came under the cultural sphere of the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire), of the Ottoman Empire and of the Eastern Orthodox Church and Islam, while the Slovenes and the Croats were influenced by the Western Roman Empire (Latin) and thus by the Catholic Church in a similar fashion to that of the West Slavs.[citation needed]

GeneticsEdit

According to Y chromosome, mDNA, and autosomal marker CCR5de132, the gene pool of Eastern (Russians, Ukrainians, and Belarusians) and Western Slavs (Poles, Czechs, and Slovaks) is identical, which is consistent with the proximity of their languages, demonstrating significant differences from neighboring Finno-Ugric, Turkic, and North Caucasian peoples. Such genetic homogeneity is somewhat unusual, given such a wide dispersal of Slavic populations, especially Russians.[37][38] Together they form the basis of the "East European" gene cluster, which also includes non-Slavic Hungarians and Aromanians.[37][39]

Only Northern Russians among East and West Slavs belong to a different, “Northern European” genetic cluster, along with Balts, Germanic and Baltic Finnic peoples (Northern Russian populations are very similar to Balts).[40][41]

The 2006 Y-DNA study results "suggest that the Slavic expansion started from the territory of present-day Ukraine, thus supporting the hypothesis that places the earliest known homeland of Slavs in the basin of the middle Dnieper".[42] According to genetic studies until 2020, the distribution, variance and frequency of the Y-DNA haplogroups R1a and I2 and their subclades R-M558, R-M458 and I-CTS10228 among South Slavs are in correlation with the spreading of Slavic languages during the medieval Slavic expansion from Eastern Europe, most probably from the territory of present-day Ukraine and Southeastern Poland.[43][44][45][46][47][48][49]

Other studies conclude that the ancient Slavic homeland was in Pomerania, Germany. According to a 1919 Shakhmatov study, Slavic tribes from the Elbe and Vistula moved from west to east in two groups. The western group, gradually moving to the north, northeast and east. They would occupy the territories of present-day Belarus and the Pskov, Novgorod, and Smolensk areas of modern Russia. The second, moving south and southeast, gradually settled in the territories of modern Volhynia, Ukraine and the Carpathian Mountains. The Slavs would gradually occupy the territories that would make up the Kievan Rus Empire. Those territories being modern day Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine.[50]

ReligionEdit

The pagan Slavic populations were Christianized between the 7th and 12th centuries. Orthodox Christianity is predominant among East and South Slavs, while Catholicism is predominant among West Slavs and some western South Slavs. The religious borders are largely comparable to the East–West Schism which began in the 11th century. Islam first arrived in the 7th century during the early Muslim conquests, and was gradually adopted by a number of Slavic ethnic groups through the centuries in the Balkans.[citation needed]

Among Slavic populations who profess a religion, the majority of contemporary Christian Slavs are Orthodox, followed by Catholic. The majority of Muslim Slavs follow the Hanafi school of the Sunni branch of Islam.[51] Religious delineations by nationality can be very sharp; usually in the Slavic ethnic groups, the vast majority of religious people share the same religion. The Czech Republic is the only Slavic country with a population that is majority irreligious.[52]

Relations with non-Slavic peopleEdit

 
First Bulgarian Empire, the Bulgars were a Turkic semi-nomadic warrior tribe that became Slavicized in the 7th century AD

Throughout their history, Slavs came into contact with non-Slavic groups. In the postulated homeland region (present-day Ukraine), they had contacts with the Iranian Sarmatians and the Germanic Goths. After their subsequent spread, the Slavs began assimilating non-Slavic peoples. For example, in the Balkans, there were Paleo-Balkan peoples, such as Romanized and Hellenized (Jireček Line) Illyrians, Thracians and Dacians, as well as Greeks and Celtic Scordisci and Serdi.[61] Because Slavs were so numerous, most indigenous populations of the Balkans were Slavicized. Thracians and Illyrians mixed as ethnic groups in this period. A notable exception is Greece, where Slavs were Hellenized because Greeks were more numerous, especially with more Greeks returning to Greece in the 9th century and the influence of the church and administration,[62] however, Slavicized regions within Macedonia, Thrace and Moesia Inferior also had a larger portion of locals compared to migrating Slavs.[63] Other notable exceptions are the territory of present-day Romania and Hungary, where Slavs settled en route to present-day Greece, North Macedonia, Bulgaria and East Thrace but assimilated, and the modern Albanian nation which claims descent from Illyrians and other Balkan tribes.[citation needed]

Ruling status of Bulgars and their control of land cast the nominal legacy of the Bulgarian country and people onto future generations, but Bulgars were gradually also Slavicized into the present-day South Slavic ethnic group known as Bulgarians. The Romance speakers within the fortified Dalmatian cities retained their culture and language for a long time.[64] Dalmatian Romance was spoken until the high Middle Ages, but, they too were eventually assimilated into the body of Slavs.[citation needed]

In the Western Balkans, South Slavs and Germanic Gepids intermarried with invaders, eventually producing a Slavicized population.[citation needed] In Central Europe, the West Slavs intermixed with Germanic, Hungarian, and Celtic peoples, while in Eastern Europe the East Slavs had encountered Finnic and Scandinavian peoples. Scandinavians (Varangians) and Finnic peoples were involved in the early formation of the Rus' state but were completely Slavicized after a century. Some Finnic tribes in the north were also absorbed into the expanding Rus population.[40] In the 11th and 12th centuries, constant incursions by nomadic Turkic tribes, such as the Kipchak and the Pecheneg, caused a massive migration of East Slavic populations to the safer, heavily forested regions of the north.[65] In the Middle Ages, groups of Saxon ore miners settled in medieval Bosnia, Serbia and Bulgaria, where they were Slavicized.[citation needed]

Saqaliba refers to the Slavic mercenaries and slaves in the medieval Arab world in North Africa, Sicily and Al-Andalus. Saqaliba served as caliph's guards.[66][67] In the 12th century, Slavic piracy in the Baltics increased. The Wendish Crusade was started against the Polabian Slavs in 1147, as a part of the Northern Crusades. The pagan chief of the Slavic Obodrite tribes, Niklot, began his open resistance when Lothar III, Holy Roman Emperor, invaded Slavic lands. In August 1160 Niklot was killed, and German colonization (Ostsiedlung) of the Elbe-Oder region began. In Hanoverian Wendland, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern and Lusatia, invaders started germanization. Early forms of germanization were described by German monks: Helmold in the manuscript Chronicon Slavorum and Adam of Bremen in Gesta Hammaburgensis ecclesiae pontificum.[68] The Polabian language survived until the beginning of the 19th century in what is now the German state of Lower Saxony.[69] In Eastern Germany, around 20% of Germans have historic Slavic paternal ancestry, as revealed in Y-DNA testing.[70] Similarly, in Germany, around 20% of the foreign surnames are of Slavic origin.[71]

Cossacks, although Slavic and practicing Orthodox Christianity, came from a mix of ethnic backgrounds, including Tatars and other peoples. Initially, the Cossacks were a mini-subethnos, but now they are less than 5%, and most of them live in the south of Russia.[72] The Gorals of southern Poland and northern Slovakia are partially descended from Romance-speaking Vlachs, who migrated into the region from the 14th to 17th centuries and were absorbed into the local population. The population of Moravian Wallachia also descended from the Vlachs. Conversely, some Slavs were assimilated into other populations. Although the majority continued towards Southeast Europe, attracted by the riches of the area that became the state of Bulgaria, a few remained in the Carpathian Basin in Central Europe and were assimilated into the Magyar people. Numerous rivers and places in Romania have a name with Slavic origins.[73]

PopulationEdit

There are an estimated c. 300 million Slavs worldwide.[citation needed]

 
Slavs in the US and Canada by area:
  20–35%
  14–20%
  11–14%
  8–11%
  5–8%
  3–5%
  0–3%
 
The percentage of ethnic Russians in post-Soviet states according to last censuses
  90.0%-100.0%
  80.0%-89.9%
  65.0%-79.9%
  50.0%-64.9%
  35.0%-49.9%
  20.0%-34.9%
  10.0%-19.9%
  5.0%-9.9%
  2.0%-4.9%
  0.0%-1.9%
Ethnicity Nation-state Approximate numbers
Russians   Russia 129,000,000 — 134,000,000 [74][75][76][77][78]
Poles   Poland 60,000,000 — 65,000,000 [79][80][81][82]
Ukrainians   Ukraine 37,000,000 — 59,000,000 [83][84][85]
Serbs   Serbia 10,000,000 [86][87][88]
Czechs   Czech Republic 9,500,000 — 14,000,000 [89][90][91]
Belarusians   Belarus 9,500,000 — 10,000,000 [92][93][94]
Bulgarians
(incl. Banat Bulgarians and Pomaks)
  Bulgaria 8,000,000 — 10,000,000 [95][96][97][98][99]
Croats   Croatia 6,000,000 — 9,000,000 [100][101][102]
Slovaks   Slovakia 5,500,000 — 7,000,000 [103]
Bosniaks
(before Bosnian Muslims)
  Bosnia and Herzegovina 2,200,000 – 3,000,000 [104][105]
Slovenes   Slovenia 2,000,000 — 2,500,000 [106]
Macedonians
(incl. Torbeši)
  North Macedonia 1,800,000 — 2,400,000 [107][108]
Silesians   Poland and
  Czech Republic
173,000 — 860,000 [109]
[110][111][112][113]
Moravians   Czech Republic 630,000 — 700,000 [114]
Yugoslavs   Serbia
and other countries ex-Yugoslavia
380,000 — 415,000 [115]
Rusyns
(incl. Lemkos)
  Ukraine and
  Poland and
  Slovakia
350,000 — 1,600,000 [116][117]
Slavs in Greece   Greece 350,000 — 600,000 [118][119][120][121][122][123][124][125]
Czechoslovaks   Czech Republic and
  Slovakia
335,000 — 350,000 [126]
Montenegrins   Montenegro 330,000 — 460,000 [127][128]
Kashubians   Poland 233,000 — 570,000 [129][130][131]
* Slavs
(American or Canadian Slavs)
140,000 — 200,000 [132]
Slavic Muslims   Serbia 100,000 — 140,000 [133][134]
Sorbs   Germany 65,000 — 150,000 [135]
Gorani   Serbia /   Kosovo 35,000 — 60,000 [136]
Bunjevci
(incl. Šokci)
  Serbia and   Croatia c. 20,000 [137][138]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Originally Eastern Orthodox, with some groups adopting Byzantine-Rite Catholicism under Polish and Austro-Hungarian rule and reverting to Eastern Orthodoxy starting in the late 19th Century.

ReferencesEdit

CitationsEdit

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  12. ^ Jordanes, The Origin and Deeds of the Goths, V.33.
  13. ^ Curta 2001, p. 41-42, 50, 55, 60, 69, 75, 88.
  14. ^ Balabanov, Kosta (2011). Vinica Fortress : mythology, religion and history written with clay. Skopje: Matica. pp. 273–309.
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  23. ^ Cyril A. Mango (1980). Byzantium, the empire of New Rome. Scribner. p. 26. ISBN 978-0-684-16768-8.
  24. ^ Tachiaos, Anthony-Emil N. 2001. Cyril and Methodius of Thessalonica: The Acculturation of the Slavs. Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press.
  25. ^ Nystazopoulou-Pelekidou 1992: Middle Ages
  26. ^ Štih, Peter (2010). "V. Wiped Out By The Slavic Settlement? The Issue Of Continuity Between Antiquity And The Early Middle Ages In The Slovene Area". The Middle Ages Between the Eastern Alps and the Northern Adriatic: Select Papers on Slovene Historiography and Medieval History. East Central and Eastern Europe in the Middle Ages. Vol. 2. Brill. pp. 85–99. doi:10.1163/ej.9789004185913.i-463.18. ISBN 978-9-004-18770-2.
  27. ^ Željko Rapanić; (2013) O početcima i nastajanju Dubrovnika (The origin and formation of Dubrovnik. additional considerations) p. 94; Starohrvatska prosvjeta, Vol. III No. 40, [1]
  28. ^ F. Kortlandt, The spread of the Indo-Europeans, Journal of Indo-European Studies, vol. 18 (1990), pp. 131–140. Online version, p.4.
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  30. ^ J.P. Mallory and D.Q. Adams, The Oxford Introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European World (2006), pp. 25–26.
  31. ^ "Russian". University of Toronto. Retrieved 26 March 2022. Russian is the most widespread of the Slavic languages and the largest native language in Europe.
  32. ^ Kobyliński, Zbigniew (1995). "The Slavs". In McKitterick, Rosamond (ed.). The New Cambridge Medieval History: Volume 1, c.500-c.700. Cambridge University Press. p. 531. ISBN 9780521362917.
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  36. ^ Vlasto 1970, p. 237.
  37. ^ a b Verbenko 2005, pp. 10–18.
  38. ^ Balanovsky 2012, p. 13.
  39. ^ Balanovsky 2012, p. 23.
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  42. ^ Rebała, K; Mikulich, AI; Tsybovsky, IS; Siváková, D; Dzupinková, Z; Szczerkowska-Dobosz, A; Szczerkowska, Z (2007). "Y-STR variation among Slavs: Evidence for the Slavic homeland in the middle Dnieper basin". Journal of Human Genetics. 52 (5): 406–14. doi:10.1007/s10038-007-0125-6. PMID 17364156.
  43. ^ A. Zupan; et al. (2013). "The paternal perspective of the Slovenian population and its relationship with other populations". Annals of Human Biology. 40 (6): 515–526. doi:10.3109/03014460.2013.813584. PMID 23879710. S2CID 34621779. However, a study by Battaglia et al. (2009) showed a variance peak for I2a1 in the Ukraine and, based on the observed pattern of variation, it could be suggested that at least part of the I2a1 haplogroup could have arrived in the Balkans and Slovenia with the Slavic migrations from a homeland in present-day Ukraine... The calculated age of this specific haplogroup together with the variation peak detected in the suggested Slavic homeland could represent a signal of Slavic migration arising from medieval Slavic expansions. However, the strong genetic barrier around the area of Bosnia and Herzegovina, associated with the high frequency of the I2a1b-M423 haplogroup, could also be a consequence of a Paleolithic genetic signal of a Balkan refuge area, followed by mixing with a medieval Slavic signal from modern-day Ukraine.
  44. ^ Underhill, Peter A. (2015), "The phylogenetic and geographic structure of Y-chromosome haplogroup R1a", European Journal of Human Genetics, 23 (1): 124–131, doi:10.1038/ejhg.2014.50, PMC 4266736, PMID 24667786, R1a-M458 exceeds 20% in the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, and Western Belarus. The lineage averages 11–15% across Russia and Ukraine and occurs at 7% or less elsewhere (Figure 2d). Unlike hg R1a-M458, the R1a-M558 clade is also common in the Volga-Uralic populations. R1a-M558 occurs at 10–33% in parts of Russia, exceeds 26% in Poland and Western Belarus, and varies between 10 and 23% in the Ukraine, whereas it drops 10-fold lower in Western Europe. In general, both R1a-M458 and R1a-M558 occur at low but informative frequencies in Balkan populations with known Slavonic heritage.
  45. ^ O.M. Utevska (2017). Генофонд українців за різними системами генетичних маркерів: походження і місце на європейському генетичному просторі [The gene pool of Ukrainians revealed by different systems of genetic markers: the origin and statement in Europe] (PhD) (in Ukrainian). National Research Center for Radiation Medicine of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. pp. 219–226, 302.
  46. ^ Neparáczki, Endre; et al. (2019). "Y-chromosome haplogroups from Hun, Avar and conquering Hungarian period nomadic people of the Carpathian Basin". Scientific Reports. Nature Research. 9 (16569): 16569. Bibcode:2019NatSR...916569N. doi:10.1038/s41598-019-53105-5. PMC 6851379. PMID 31719606. Hg I2a1a2b-L621 was present in 5 Conqueror samples, and a 6th sample form Magyarhomorog (MH/9) most likely also belongs here, as MH/9 is a likely kin of MH/16 (see below). This Hg of European origin is most prominent in the Balkans and Eastern Europe, especially among Slavic speaking groups.
  47. ^ Pamjav, Horolma; Fehér, Tibor; Németh, Endre; Koppány Csáji, László (2019). Genetika és őstörténet (in Hungarian). Napkút Kiadó. p. 58. ISBN 978-963-263-855-3. Az I2-CTS10228 (köznevén „dinári-kárpáti") alcsoport legkorábbi közös őse 2200 évvel ezelőttre tehető, így esetében nem arról van szó, hogy a mezolit népesség Kelet-Európában ilyen mértékben fennmaradt volna, hanem arról, hogy egy, a mezolit csoportoktól származó szűk család az európai vaskorban sikeresen integrálódott egy olyan társadalomba, amely hamarosan erőteljes demográfiai expanzióba kezdett. Ez is mutatja, hogy nem feltétlenül népek, mintsem családok sikerével, nemzetségek elterjedésével is számolnunk kell, és ezt a jelenlegi etnikai identitással összefüggésbe hozni lehetetlen. A csoport elterjedése alapján valószínűsíthető, hogy a szláv népek migrációjában vett részt, így válva az R1a-t követően a második legdominánsabb csoporttá a mai Kelet-Európában. Nyugat-Európából viszont teljes mértékben hiányzik, kivéve a kora középkorban szláv nyelvet beszélő keletnémet területeket.
  48. ^ Fóthi, E.; Gonzalez, A.; Fehér, T.; et al. (2020), "Genetic analysis of male Hungarian Conquerors: European and Asian paternal lineages of the conquering Hungarian tribes", Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences, 12 (1), doi:10.1007/s12520-019-00996-0, Based on SNP analysis, the CTS10228 group is 2200 ± 300 years old. The group’s demographic expansion may have begun in Southeast Poland around that time, as carriers of the oldest subgroup are found there today. The group cannot solely be tied to the Slavs, because the proto-Slavic period was later, around 300–500 CE... The SNP-based age of the Eastern European CTS10228 branch is 2200 ± 300 years old. The carriers of the most ancient subgroup live in Southeast Poland, and it is likely that the rapid demographic expansion which brought the marker to other regions in Europe began there. The largest demographic explosion occurred in the Balkans, where the subgroup is dominant in 50.5% of Croatians, 30.1% of Serbs, 31.4% of Montenegrins, and in about 20% of Albanians and Greeks. As a result, this subgroup is often called Dinaric. It is interesting that while it is dominant among modern Balkan peoples, this subgroup has not been present yet during the Roman period, as it is almost absent in Italy as well (see Online Resource 5; ESM_5).
  49. ^ Kushniarevich, Alena; Kassian, Alexei (2020), "Genetics and Slavic languages", in Marc L. Greenberg (ed.), Encyclopedia of Slavic Languages and Linguistics Online, Brill, doi:10.1163/2589-6229_ESLO_COM_032367, retrieved 10 December 2020, The geographic distributions of the major eastern European NRY haplogroups (R1a-Z282, I2a-P37) overlap with the area occupied by the present-day Slavs to a great extent, and it might be tempting to consider both haplogroups as Slavic-specic patrilineal lineages
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  103. ^ including 4,353,000 in Slovakia (according to the census 2011), 147,000 single ethnic identity, 19,000 multiple ethnic identity (especially 18,000 Czech and Slovak and 1,000 Slovak and another identity) in Czech Republic (according to the census 2011), 53,000 in Serbia (according to the census 2011), 762,000 in the USA (according to the census 2010 Archived 12 February 2020 at archive.today), 2,000 single ethnic identity and 1,000 multiple ethnic identity Slovak and Polish in Poland (according to the census 2011), 21,000 single ethnic identity, 43,000 multiple ethnic identity in Canada (according to the census 2006 Archived 25 December 2018 at the Wayback Machine)
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  115. ^ 23,000 in Serbia (according to the census 2011), 327,000 in the USA (according to the census 2010 Archived 12 February 2020 at archive.today), 21,000 single ethnic identity and 44,000 multiple ethnic identity in Canada (according to the census 2006 Archived 25 December 2018 at the Wayback Machine)
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  127. ^ "Montenegrin Census' from 1909 to 2003 — Aleksandar Rakovic<".
  128. ^ http://www.rtcg.me/vijesti/dijaspora/66019/sirom-svijeta-pola-miliona-crnogoraca.html Radio i Televizija Crne Gore
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  130. ^ [The Kashubs Today: Culture-Language-Identity" http://instytutkaszubski.republika.pl/pdfy/angielski.pdf Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine]
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SourcesEdit

Primary sources
Secondary sources

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit