Finno-Ugric countries

(Redirected from Finno-Ugric peoples)

The Finno-Ugric countries are the three independent nation states with a national majority that speaks a Finno-Ugric language: Finland and Estonia, which are inhabited by Baltic Finnic peoples, and Hungary, which is majority Magyar.[1] The three countries are represented in the Finno-Ugric Congress.[2][3] They work together in funding research on Finno-Ugric topics and in protecting the minority rights of other Finno-Ugric-speaking nations that do not occupy sovereign states; collectively these have been called Fenno-Ugria.[4]

Modern entitiesEdit

Independent sovereign statesEdit

Balto-FinnicEdit

Name Capital Founded
  Finland Helsinki 6 December 1917
  Estonia Tallinn 24 February 1918

UgricEdit

Name Capital Founded
  Hungary Budapest c. 895

Countries where Finno-Ugric languages have official or co-official statusEdit

SaamiEdit

Name Capital Language(s)
Finland:   Sámi homeland Sajos Sami
  Norway Oslo Sami and Kven
  Sweden Stockholm Finnish, Meänkieli and Sami

The recently extinct Livonian language has special though unofficial status in   Latvia.

UgricEdit

Name Capital Language(s)
  Romania Localities with populations over 20% ethnic Hungarian (all in Transylvania) Hungarian
Serbia:   Vojvodina Novi Sad Hungarian

PermicEdit

Name Capital Language(s)
Russia:   Komi Syktyvkar Komi
Russia:   Udmurtia Izhevsk Udmurt

VolgaicEdit

Name Capital Language(s)
Russia:   Mari El Yoshkar-Ola Meadow Mari, Hill Mari
Russia:   Mordovia Saransk Erzya, Moksha

Provinces and autonomous regions without official or co-official statusEdit

Country Region Language(s) Administrative center Founded
  Austria   Burgenland Hungarian Eisenstadt 1921
  Norway   Finnmark Northern Sami Vadsø 1576
  Troms Northern Sami Tromsø 1866
  Nordland Sami Bodø 17th century
  Trøndelag Southern Sami Trondheim 1687
  Russia   Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug Khanty, Mansi Khanty-Mansiysk 10 December 1930
  Perm Krai Komi-Permyak Perm 1 December 2005
  Karelia Republic Karelian, Vepsian, Finnish Petrozavodsk 16 July 1956
  Slovenia Prekmurje Hungarian Murska Sobota Unknown
  Sweden   Norrbotten County Meänkieli, Sami Luleå 1810
  Ukraine   Mukacheve Raion Hungarian Mukacheve 9 November 1953

Historical states and dynastiesEdit

Hungarian statesEdit

Name Year(s) Capital Map
Hétmagyar confederation 9th century Unknown
  Principality of Hungary 895–1000 Esztergom and Székesfehérvár
  Árpád Kingdom 1000–1301 Esztergom and Székesfehérvár  
  Kingdom of Hungary (1301–1526) 1301–1526 Esztergom, Székesfehérvár and Buda
Eastern Hungarian Kingdom
(vassal under   Ottoman Empire)
1526–1551
1556–1570
Buda (1526–41)
Lippa (1541–42)
Gyulafehérvár (1542–70)
  Habsburg Kingdom of Hungary
(since 1804 crownland of the   Austrian Empire)
1526–1867 Buda (1526–1536, 1784–1873)
Pressburg (1536–1783)
 
  Principality of Transylvania (1570–1711)
(vassal under   Ottoman Empire)
1570–1711 Gyulafehérvár (1570–1692)
Nagyszeben (1692–1711)
 
Principality of Upper Hungary
(vassal under   Ottoman Empire)
1682–1685 Kassa  
  Grand Principality of Transylvania
(since 1804 part of the   Austrian Empire)
1711–1867 Nagyszeben (1711–1791, 1848–1861)
Kolozsvár (1791–1848, 1861–1867)
 
Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen
(part of   Austria-Hungary)
1867–1918 Budapest  

Note: some of these countries, while not predominantly ethnically Hungarian, were ruled by Hungarians, so they are considered as such here.

Post-World War I statesEdit

Name Year(s) Capital Map
  Soviet Republic of Naissaar 1917–1918 Obernargen  
  Kingdom of Finland 1918–1919 Helsinki  
  Finnish Socialist Workers' Republic 1918 Helsinki  
  Estonia (1918–40) 1918–40 Tallinn  
  Republic of East Karelia 1918–1920 Uhtua  
  First Hungarian Republic 1918–1919 Budapest  
  Estonian Worker's Commune 1918–1919 Narva  
  North Ingria 1919–1920 Kirjasalo  
  Hungarian Soviet Republic 1919 Budapest  
  Hungarian Republic (1919–20) 1919–1920 Budapest
  Kingdom of Hungary (1920–46) 1920–1946 Budapest  
  Banate of Leitha 1921 Oberwart  
Finnish Democratic Republic 1939–1940 Terijoki  
  Second Hungarian Republic 1946–1949 Budapest  
  Hungarian People's Republic 1949–1989 Budapest  

Autonomous regionsEdit

Name Year(s) Capital Map
  Autonomous Governorate of Estonia
(under   Russian Republic)
1917–1918 Tallinn  
  Karelian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic
(under   Soviet Union)
1923–1940
1956–1991
Petrozavodsk  
  Mordovian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic
(under   Soviet Union)
1934–1990 Saransk
  Udmurt Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic
(under   Soviet Union)
1934–1990 Izhevsk
  Komi Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic
(under   Soviet Union)
1936–1990 Syktyvkar
  Mari Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic
(under   Soviet Union)
1936–1990 Yoshkar-Ola
  Karelo-Finnish Soviet Socialist Republic
(under   Soviet Union)
1940–1956 Petrozavodsk  
  Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic
(under   Soviet Union)
1940–1991 Tallinn  
  Socialist Autonomous Province of Vojvodina
(under   Yugoslavia)
1944–1992 Novi Sad  
Magyar Autonomous Region
(under   Romania)
1952–1968 Târgu Mureș  
  Veps National Volost
(under   Russia)
1994–2004 Shyoltozero

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Korkut, Umut (21 April 2009). "Eager, Pragmatic or Reluctant: Can Common Finno-Ugric Ethnic and Linguistic Links Substantiate Intra-EU CFSP Co-Operation?". Retrieved 20 February 2018 – via papers.ssrn.com.
  2. ^ Ruotsala, Helena (20 February 2018). "X Finno-Ugric Congress in Mari El". Ethnologia Fennica. 32: 74–76. Retrieved 20 February 2018 – via journal.fi.
  3. ^ "FennoUgria: World Congresses". ftp.eki.ee. Retrieved 20 February 2018.
  4. ^ Casen, Marie (30 June 2014). "Udmurt Identity Issues: Core Moments from the Middle Ages to the Present Day". Journal of Ethnology and Folkloristics. 8 (1): 91–110. Retrieved 20 February 2018 – via www.jef.ee.