Hippie trail (also the overland[1]) is the name given to an overland journey taken by members of the hippie subculture and others from the mid-1950s to the late 1970s[2] travelling from Europe and West Asia through South Asia via countries such as Afghanistan, Pakistan,[3] India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh to Thailand. The hippie trail was a form of alternative tourism, and one of the key elements was travelling as cheaply as possible, mainly to extend the length of time away from home. The term "hippie" became current in the mid-to-late 1960s; "beatnik" was the previous term from the later 1950s.

Routes of the Hippie Trail
A 1967 VW Kombi bus decorated with hand-painting of the hippie style
Visiting hippies in Kabul, 1976
Musician Goa Gil in the 2001 film Last Hippie Standing

In every major stop of the hippie trail, there were hotels, restaurants and cafés for Westerners, who networked with each other as they travelled east and west. The hippies tended to interact more with the local population than traditional sightseers did.[1]

The hippie trail largely ended in the late 1970s primarily due to both the Iranian Revolution resulting in an anti-Western government, and the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, closing the route to Western travelers.[4][5][1][6]

Routes edit

Journeys would typically start from cities in western Europe, often London, Copenhagen, West Berlin, Paris, Amsterdam, or Milan. Many from the United States took Icelandic Airlines to Luxembourg. Most journeys passed through Istanbul, where routes divided. The usual northern route passed through Tehran, Herat, Kandahar, Kabul, Peshawar and Lahore on to India, Nepal and Southeast Asia.[3] An alternative route was from Turkey via Syria, Jordan, and Iraq to Iran and Pakistan. All travellers had to cross through the Khyber Pass, traversing Peshawar and Lahore in Pakistan[3] and over the Pakistan-India border at Ganda Singh Wala (or later at Wagah).

Common destinations in the east included Delhi, Varanasi (then known as Benares), Goa, Bombay, Madras, Kathmandu and Bangkok. Kathmandu still has a road, Jhochhen Tole, nicknamed Freak Street in commemoration of the many thousands of hippies who passed through.[7] Further travel to southern India, Kovalam beach in Trivandrum (Kerala) and Sri Lanka (then called Ceylon) was sometimes also undertaken.

Kathmandu was usually the terminus of the hippie trail, since Tibet was off-limits and overland journey through Burma was not possible, as India was severely restricting travel to Burma due to clashes between insurgents and Indian armed forces, and the Ledo Road crossing to Burma had fallen into disrepair and largely been reclaimed by the jungle. However, one could fly from Kathmandu to Bangkok to continue the journey in Southeast Asia to Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia (where Bali was a popular destination for hippies). From Indonesia, there was also the option of crossing to Australia by plane or ship. That led to the trail from Timor to Thailand being classified as Hippie Trail South East Asia Extension, which mainly attracted Australians and New Zealanders traveling the opposite way overland to London.[1] Tony Wheeler's travel guide is written from a POV of reverse hippie trail, traveling from Australia to Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand, flying from Bangkok to Kathmandu (or Calcutta) and then continuing on to India and eventually to Europe.[8]

Hippie market in Anjuna, Goa, 2011
Freak Street in Kathmandu, 2009

Beyond the major route, Jimi Hendrix also popularized Essaouira as a hippie destination in Morocco.[7][9]

Methods of travel edit

To keep costs low, journeys were carried out by hitchhiking, or cheap, private buses that travelled the route.[10] There were also trains that travelled part of the way, particularly across Eastern Europe through Turkey (with a ferry connection across Lake Van) and to Tehran or east to Mashhad, Iran. From these cities, public or private transportation could then be obtained for the remainder of the trip. The bulk of travellers were Western Europeans, North Americans, Australians, and Japanese. Ideas and experiences were exchanged in well-known hostels, hotels, and other gathering spots along the way, such as Yener's Café and The Pudding Shop in Istanbul, Sigi's on Chicken Street in Kabul or the Amir Kabir in Tehran. Many used backpacks and, while the majority were young, older people and families occasionally travelled the route. A number drove the entire distance.

Decline of the trail edit

The hippie trail came to an end in the late 1970s with political changes in previously hospitable countries. In 1979, both the Iranian Revolution[4] and the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan closed the overland route to South Asia for Western travellers, and Chitral and Kashmir became less inviting due to tensions and territorial conflicts in the area.[1] Meagan Day summarized that "radio stations in Iran swapped Blue Öyster Cult for speeches by Ayatollah Khomeini."[7] Other factors that led to difficult conditions for travellers were the Saur Revolution (1978),[6] and the advent of a military dictatorship in Pakistan (1977) that banned many hippie attractions.[11]

In the Middle Eastern route, the Yom Kippur War in 1973 also put in place strict visa restrictions for Western citizens in Syria, Iraq and Lebanon. The Lebanese Civil War had already broken out in 1975.[1] Richard Nixon started a drug war which also included cannabis. Due to the constant pressure from USA, in 1976 Nepal enacted Narcotic Drugs (Control) Act prohibiting the trade, farming or any kind of cannabis activities in the country.[12][13]

Locals also became increasingly wary of Western travellers – notably in the region between Kabul and Peshawar, where residents became increasingly frightened and repulsed by unkempt hippies who were drawn to the region for its famed opium and wild cannabis.[14]

Travel organizers Sundowners and Topdeck pioneered a route through Balochistan. Topdeck continued its trips throughout the Iran–Iraq War and later conflicts, but took its last trip in 1998.

From the mid 2000s, the route has again become somewhat feasible, but continuing conflict and tensions in Iraq and Afghanistan mean the route is much more difficult and risky to negotiate than in its heyday. In September 2007, Ozbus embarked upon a short-lived service between London and Sydney over the route of the hippie trail,[15] and commercial trips were offered in 2010 between Europe and Asia, bypassing Iraq, Afghanistan, and Pakistan, by going through Nepal and China to the old Silk Road.[16]

Guides and travelogues edit

The BIT Guide, recounting collective experiences and reproduced at a fairly low cost, produced the early duplicated stapled-together "foolscap bundle" with a pink cover providing information for travellers and updated by those on the road, warning of pitfalls and places to see and stay. BIT, under Geoff Crowther (who later joined Lonely Planet), lasted from 1972 until the last edition in 1980.[17] The 1971 edition of The Whole Earth Catalog devoted a page[18] to the "Overland Guide to Nepal." In 1973 Tony Wheeler and his wife Maureen Wheeler, the creators of the Lonely Planet guidebooks, produced a publication about the hippie trail called Across Asia On The Cheap. They wrote this 94-page pamphlet based upon travel experiences gained by crossing Western Europe, the Balkans, Turkey and Iran from London in a minivan. After having travelled through these regions, they sold the van in Afghanistan and continued on a succession of chicken buses, third-class trains and long-distance trucks. They crossed Pakistan, India, Nepal, Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia and arrived nine months later in Sydney with a combined 27 cents in their pockets.[8]

Paul Theroux wrote a classic account of the route in The Great Railway Bazaar (1975). Two more recent travel books — The Wrong Way Home (1999) by Peter Moore and Magic Bus (2008) by Rory Maclean — also retrace the original hippie trail.[19][20]

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ a b c d e f "A Brief History of the Hippie Trail". Archived from the original on 28 July 2020. Retrieved 8 May 2015.
  2. ^ Ireland, Brian. "Touch the Sky: the Hippie Trail and other forms of alternative tourism". Archived from the original on 7 June 2018. Retrieved 30 January 2017.
  3. ^ a b c "The Lonely Planet Journey: The Hippie Trail". Independent. 5 November 2011. Retrieved 25 June 2020.
  4. ^ a b Kurzman, Charles, The Unthinkable Revolution in Iran, Harvard University Press, 2004, p.111
  5. ^ "The Hippie Trail: See how Lonely Planet was born". www.cnn.com. Retrieved 14 May 2022.
  6. ^ a b Maclean, Rory (13 August 2007). "Legacy of the hippie trail". the Guardian. Retrieved 14 May 2022.
  7. ^ a b c Day, Meagan (20 October 2016). "The 1970s Hippie Trail: drugs, danger, and a magical pudding shop in Asia". Timeline. Retrieved 14 May 2022.
  8. ^ a b Across Asia on the Cheap 2013-03-19 blog.waterstones.com
  9. ^ "Jimi Hendrix's Morocco". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 14 May 2022.
  10. ^ "The Lonely Planet Journey: The Hippie Trail". Independent. Retrieved 16 November 2023.
  11. ^ "Photos of a forgotten Pakistan: Hippies in Lollywood, suave bands in Karachi nightclubs". scroll.in.
  12. ^ diwakar (25 May 2021). "Narcotics law in Nepal: Everything you need to know about - OnlineKhabar English News". Retrieved 18 July 2022.
  13. ^ Mahat, Sunny. "How the ban came about andhow long it will stay in place". The Annapurna Express. Retrieved 18 July 2022.
  14. ^ Schofield, Victoria (2010). Afghan Frontier: At the Crossroads of Conflict. Tauris Parke Paperbacks. ISBN 9781848851887. Retrieved 14 June 2017.
  15. ^ Sethi, Anita (10 December 2007). "End of the road for the OzBus after 84 days of mishaps and mayhem". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 May 2015.
  16. ^ "Overland Tours - Overlanding Expeditions - Overland Adventure Holidays". Retrieved 8 May 2015.
  17. ^ "Before Lonely Planet there was the BIT Guides". crowthercollective.org/Ashley Crowther. Archived from the original on 9 November 2016. Retrieved 8 November 2016.
  18. ^ Page 302
  19. ^ "The Wrong Way Home". Retrieved 8 May 2015.
  20. ^ Magic Bus Archived 17 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine

Further reading edit

  • MacLean, Rory (2008), Magic Bus: On the Hippie Trail from Istanbul to India, London, New York: Penguin Books, Ig Publishing.
  • Brosnahan, Tom (2004), Turkey: Bright Sun, Strong Tea: on the Road with a Travel Writer, Istanbul, New York: Homer Kitabevi, Travel Info Exchange.
  • Dring, Simon (1995) On the Road Again BBC Books ISBN 0-563-37172-2
  • A Season in Heaven: True Tales from the Road to Kathmandu (ISBN 0864426291; compiled by David Tomory) - accounts by people who made the trip, mostly in search of enlightenment.
  • Hall, Michael (2007) Remembering the Hippie Trail: travelling across Asia 1976-1978, Island Publications ISBN 978-1-899510-77-1
  • Silberman, Dan (2013) In the Footsteps of Iskander: Going to India, Amazon.com, Amazon.UK ISBN 978-1-61296-246-7