Bali (Balinese: ᬩᬮᬶ) is a province of Indonesia and an island on the westernmost of the Lesser Sunda Islands. Located on the east of Java and west of Lombok, the province includes the island of Bali and a few smaller neighbouring islands, notably Nusa Penida, Nusa Lembongan and Nusa Ceningan. The provincial capital, Denpasar, is the most populous city in the Lesser Sunda Islands and the second largest in Eastern Indonesia after Makassar. Bali is the only Hindu-majority province in Indonesia, with 83.5% of the population adhering to Balinese Hinduism.
ᬩᬮᬶ ᬤ᭄ᬯᬶᬧ ᬚᬬ
Bali Dwipa Jaya (Balinese)
(meaning: Glorious Bali Island)
Location of Bali in Indonesia
(and largest city)
|• Governor||I Wayan Koster (PDI-P)|
|• Vice Governor||Tjokorda Oka A. A. Sukawati|
|• Total||5,780 km2 (2,230 sq mi)|
|• Density||730/km2 (1,900/sq mi)|
|• Ethnic groups|
|Time zone||UTC+08 (WITA)|
|Native name: |
Bali Island, Indonesia
|Archipelago||Lesser Sunda Islands|
|Area||5,636 km2 (2,176 sq mi)|
|Length||145 km (90.1 mi)|
|Width||80 km (50 mi)|
|Highest elevation||3,148 m (10,328 ft)|
|Highest point||Mount Agung|
|Largest settlement||Denpasar (pop. 834,881)|
|Ethnic groups||Balinese, Javanese, Sasak|
Bali is Indonesia's main tourist destination, which has seen a significant rise in tourists since the 1980s. Tourism-related business makes up 80% of its economy. It is renowned for its highly developed arts, including traditional and modern dance, sculpture, painting, leather, metalworking and music. The Indonesian International Film Festival is held every year in Bali. In March 2017, TripAdvisor named Bali as the world's top destination in its Traveller's Choice award.
Bali is part of the Coral Triangle, the area with the highest biodiversity of marine species. In this area alone, over 500 reef-building coral species can be found. For comparison, this is about seven times as many as in the entire Caribbean. Most recently, Bali was the host of the Miss World 2013 and 2018 Annual Meetings of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank Group. Bali is the home of the Subak irrigation system, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. It is also home to a unified confederation of kingdoms composed of 10 traditional royal Balinese houses, where each house rules a specific geographic area. The confederation is the successor of the Bali Kingdom. The royal houses are not recognised by the government of Indonesia; however, they originate before Dutch colonisation.
Bali was inhabited around 2000 BCE by Austronesian people who migrated originally from Southeast Asia and Oceania through Maritime Southeast Asia. Culturally and linguistically, the Balinese are closely related to the people of the Indonesian archipelago, Malaysia, the Philippines and Oceania. Stone tools dating from this time have been found near the village of Cekik in the island's west.
Inscriptions from 896 and 911 do not mention a king, until 914, when Sri Kesarivarma is mentioned. They also reveal an independent Bali, with a distinct dialect, where Buddhism and Sivaism were practiced simultaneously. Mpu Sindok's great-granddaughter, Mahendradatta (Gunapriyadharmapatni), married the Bali king Udayana Warmadewa (Dharmodayanavarmadeva) around 989, giving birth to Airlangga around 1001. This marriage also brought more Hinduism and Javanese culture to Bali. Princess Sakalendukirana appeared in 1098. Suradhipa reigned from 1115 to 1119, and Jayasakti from 1146 until 1150. Jayapangus appears on inscriptions between 1178 and 1181, while Adikuntiketana and his son Paramesvara in 1204.:129,144,168,180
Balinese culture was strongly influenced by Indian, Chinese, and particularly Hindu culture, beginning around the 1st century AD. The name Bali dwipa ("Bali island") has been discovered from various inscriptions, including the Blanjong pillar inscription written by Sri Kesari Warmadewa in 914 AD and mentioning Walidwipa. It was during this time that the people developed their complex irrigation system subak to grow rice in wet-field cultivation. Some religious and cultural traditions still practiced today can be traced to this period.
The Hindu Majapahit Empire (1293–1520 AD) on eastern Java founded a Balinese colony in 1343. The uncle of Hayam Wuruk is mentioned in the charters of 1384–86. A mass Javanese immigration to Bali occurred in the next century when the Majapahit Empire fell in 1520.:234,240 Bali's government then became an independent collection of Hindu kingdoms which led to a Balinese national identity and major enhancements in culture, arts, and economy. The nation with various kingdoms became independent for up to 386 years until 1906, when the Dutch subjugated and repulsed the natives for economic control and took it over.
The first known European contact with Bali is thought to have been made in 1512, when a Portuguese expedition led by Antonio Abreu and Francisco Serrão sighted its northern shores. It was the first expedition of a series of bi-annual fleets to the Moluccas, that throughout the 16th century usually traveled along the coasts of the Sunda Islands. Bali was also mapped in 1512, in the chart of Francisco Rodrigues, aboard the expedition. In 1585, a ship foundered off the Bukit Peninsula and left a few Portuguese in the service of Dewa Agung.
Dutch East IndiesEdit
In 1597, the Dutch explorer Cornelis de Houtman arrived at Bali, and the Dutch East India Company was established in 1602. The Dutch government expanded its control across the Indonesian archipelago during the second half of the 19th century (see Dutch East Indies). Dutch political and economic control over Bali began in the 1840s on the island's north coast, when the Dutch pitted various competing Balinese realms against each other. In the late 1890s, struggles between Balinese kingdoms in the island's south were exploited by the Dutch to increase their control.
In June 1860, the famous Welsh naturalist, Alfred Russel Wallace, travelled to Bali from Singapore, landing at Buleleng on the north coast of the island. Wallace's trip to Bali was instrumental in helping him devise his Wallace Line theory. The Wallace Line is a faunal boundary that runs through the strait between Bali and Lombok. It has been found to be a boundary between species. In his travel memoir The Malay Archipelago, Wallace wrote of his experience in Bali, of which has strong mention of the unique Balinese irrigation methods:
I was both astonished and delighted; for as my visit to Java was some years later, I had never beheld so beautiful and well-cultivated a district out of Europe. A slightly undulating plain extends from the seacoast about ten or twelve miles (16 or 19 kilometres) inland, where it is bounded by a fine range of wooded and cultivated hills. Houses and villages, marked out by dense clumps of coconut palms, tamarind and other fruit trees, are dotted about in every direction; while between them extend luxurious rice-grounds, watered by an elaborate system of irrigation that would be the pride of the best cultivated parts of Europe.
The Dutch mounted large naval and ground assaults at the Sanur region in 1906 and were met by the thousands of members of the royal family and their followers who rather than yield to the superior Dutch force committed ritual suicide (puputan) to avoid the humiliation of surrender. Despite Dutch demands for surrender, an estimated 200 Balinese killed themselves rather than surrender. In the Dutch intervention in Bali, a similar mass suicide occurred in the face of a Dutch assault in Klungkung. Afterward the Dutch governors exercised administrative control over the island, but local control over religion and culture generally remained intact. Dutch rule over Bali came later and was never as well established as in other parts of Indonesia such as Java and Maluku.
In the 1930s, anthropologists Margaret Mead and Gregory Bateson, artists Miguel Covarrubias and Walter Spies, and musicologist Colin McPhee all spent time here. Their accounts of the island and its peoples created a western image of Bali as "an enchanted land of aesthetes at peace with themselves and nature". Western tourists began to visit the island. The sensuous image of Bali was enhanced in the West by a quasi-pornographic 1932 documentary Virgins of Bali about a day in the lives of two teenage Balinese girls whom the film's narrator Deane Dickason notes in the first scene "bathe their shamelessly nude bronze bodies". Under the looser version of the Hays code that existed up to 1934, nudity involving "civilised" (i.e. white) women was banned, but permitted with "uncivilised" (i.e. all non-white women), a loophole that was exploited by the producers of Virgins of Bali. The film, which mostly consisted of scenes of topless Balinese women was a great success in 1932, and almost single-handedly made Bali into a popular spot for tourists.
Imperial Japan occupied Bali during World War II. It was not originally a target in their Netherlands East Indies Campaign, but as the airfields on Borneo were inoperative due to heavy rains, the Imperial Japanese Army decided to occupy Bali, which did not suffer from comparable weather. The island had no regular Royal Netherlands East Indies Army (KNIL) troops. There was only a Native Auxiliary Corps Prajoda (Korps Prajoda) consisting of about 600 native soldiers and several Dutch KNIL officers under the command of KNIL Lieutenant Colonel W.P. Roodenburg. On 19 February 1942 the Japanese forces landed near the town of Senoer [Senur]. The island was quickly captured.
During the Japanese occupation, a Balinese military officer, Gusti Ngurah Rai, formed a Balinese 'freedom army'. The harshness of Japanese occupation forces made them more resented than the Dutch colonial rulers.
Independence from the DutchEdit
In 1946, the Dutch constituted Bali as one of the 13 administrative districts of the newly proclaimed State of East Indonesia, a rival state to the Republic of Indonesia, which was proclaimed and headed by Sukarno and Hatta. Bali was included in the "Republic of the United States of Indonesia" when the Netherlands recognised Indonesian independence on 29 December 1949. The first governor of Bali, Anak Agung Bagus Suteja, was appointed by President Sukarno in 1958, when Bali became a province.
The 1963 eruption of Mount Agung killed thousands, created economic havoc and forced many displaced Balinese to be transmigrated to other parts of Indonesia. Mirroring the widening of social divisions across Indonesia in the 1950s and early 1960s, Bali saw conflict between supporters of the traditional caste system, and those rejecting this system. Politically, the opposition was represented by supporters of the Indonesian Communist Party (PKI) and the Indonesian Nationalist Party (PNI), with tensions and ill-feeling further increased by the PKI's land reform programs. An attempted coup in Jakarta was put down by forces led by General Suharto.
The army became the dominant power as it instigated a violent anti-communist purge, in which the army blamed the PKI for the coup. Most estimates suggest that at least 500,000 people were killed across Indonesia, with an estimated 80,000 killed in Bali, equivalent to 5% of the island's population. With no Islamic forces involved as in Java and Sumatra, upper-caste PNI landlords led the extermination of PKI members.
As a result of the 1965–66 upheavals, Suharto was able to manoeuvre Sukarno out of the presidency. His "New Order" government reestablished relations with western countries. The pre-War Bali as "paradise" was revived in a modern form. The resulting large growth in tourism has led to a dramatic increase in Balinese standards of living and significant foreign exchange earned for the country. A bombing in 2002 by militant Islamists in the tourist area of Kuta killed 202 people, mostly foreigners. This attack, and another in 2005, severely reduced tourism, producing much economic hardship to the island.
The island of Bali lies 3.2 km (2.0 mi) east of Java, and is approximately 8 degrees south of the equator. Bali and Java are separated by the Bali Strait. East to west, the island is approximately 153 km (95 mi) wide and spans approximately 112 km (70 mi) north to south; administratively it covers 5,780 km2 (2,230 sq mi), or 5,577 km2 (2,153 sq mi) without Nusa Penida District; its population density is roughly 750 people/km2 (1,900 people/sq mi).
Bali's central mountains include several peaks over 2,000 metres (6,600 feet) in elevation and active volcanoes such as Mount Batur. The highest is Mount Agung (3,031 m, 9,944 ft), known as the "mother mountain", which is an active volcano rated as one of the world's most likely sites for a massive eruption within the next 100 years. In late 2017 Mount Agung started erupting and large numbers of people were evacuated, temporarily closing the island's airport. Mountains range from centre to the eastern side, with Mount Agung the easternmost peak. Bali's volcanic nature has contributed to its exceptional fertility and its tall mountain ranges provide the high rainfall that supports the highly productive agriculture sector. South of the mountains is a broad, steadily descending area where most of Bali's large rice crop is grown. The northern side of the mountains slopes more steeply to the sea and is the main coffee producing area of the island, along with rice, vegetables and cattle. The longest river, Ayung River, flows approximately 75 km (47 mi) (see List of rivers of Bali).
The island is surrounded by coral reefs. Beaches in the south tend to have white sand while those in the north and west have black sand. Bali has no major waterways, although the Ho River is navigable by small sampan boats. Black sand beaches between Pasut and Klatingdukuh are being developed for tourism, but apart from the seaside temple of Tanah Lot, they are not yet used for significant tourism.
The largest city is the provincial capital, Denpasar, near the southern coast. Its population is around 491,500 (2002). Bali's second-largest city is the old colonial capital, Singaraja, which is located on the north coast and is home to around 100,000 people. Other important cities include the beach resort, Kuta, which is practically part of Denpasar's urban area, and Ubud, situated at the north of Denpasar, is the island's cultural centre.
Three small islands lie to the immediate south east and all are administratively part of the Klungkung regency of Bali: Nusa Penida, Nusa Lembongan and Nusa Ceningan. These islands are separated from Bali by the Badung Strait.
To the east, the Lombok Strait separates Bali from Lombok and marks the biogeographical division between the fauna of the Indomalayan ecozone and the distinctly different fauna of Australasia. The transition is known as the Wallace Line, named after Alfred Russel Wallace, who first proposed a transition zone between these two major biomes. When sea levels dropped during the Pleistocene ice age, Bali was connected to Java and Sumatra and to the mainland of Asia and shared the Asian fauna, but the deep water of the Lombok Strait continued to keep Lombok Island and the Lesser Sunda archipelago isolated.
Being just 8 degrees south of the equator, Bali has a fairly even climate all year round. Average year-round temperature stands at around 30 °C (86 °F) with a humidity level of about 85%.
Day time temperatures at low elevations vary between 20 to 33 °C (68 to 91 °F), but the temperatures decrease significantly with increasing elevation.
The west monsoon is in place from approximately October to April, and this can bring significant rain, particularly from December to March. During rainy season there is comparatively fewer tourists seen in Bali. During the Easter and Christmas holidays the weather is very unpredictable. Outside of the monsoon period, humidity is relatively low and any rain is unlikely in lowland areas.
Bali lies just to the west of the Wallace Line, and thus has a fauna that is Asian in character, with very little Australasian influence, and has more in common with Java than with Lombok. An exception is the yellow-crested cockatoo, a member of a primarily Australasian family. There are around 280 species of birds, including the critically endangered Bali myna, which is endemic. Others include barn swallow, black-naped oriole, black racket-tailed treepie, crested serpent-eagle, crested treeswift, dollarbird, Java sparrow, lesser adjutant, long-tailed shrike, milky stork, Pacific swallow, red-rumped swallow, sacred kingfisher, sea eagle, woodswallow, savanna nightjar, stork-billed kingfisher, yellow-vented bulbul and great egret.
Until the early 20th century, Bali was home to several large mammals: the wild banteng, leopard and the endemic Bali tiger. The banteng still occurs in its domestic form, whereas leopards are found only in neighbouring Java, and the Bali tiger is extinct. The last definite record of a tiger on Bali dates from 1937, when one was shot, though the subspecies may have survived until the 1940s or 1950s.
Squirrels are quite commonly encountered, less often is the Asian palm civet, which is also kept in coffee farms to produce Kopi Luwak. Bats are well represented, perhaps the most famous place to encounter them remaining is the Goa Lawah (Temple of the Bats) where they are worshipped by the locals and also constitute a tourist attraction. They also occur in other cave temples, for instance at Gangga Beach. Two species of monkey occur. The crab-eating macaque, known locally as "kera", is quite common around human settlements and temples, where it becomes accustomed to being fed by humans, particularly in any of the three "monkey forest" temples, such as the popular one in the Ubud area. They are also quite often kept as pets by locals. The second monkey, endemic to Java and some surrounding islands such as Bali, is far rarer and more elusive and is the Javan langur, locally known as "lutung". They occur in few places apart from the Bali Barat National Park. They are born an orange colour, though by their first year they would have already changed to a more blackish colouration. In Java however, there is more of a tendency for this species to retain its juvenile orange colour into adulthood, and a mixture of black and orange monkeys can be seen together as a family. Other rarer mammals include the leopard cat, Sunda pangolin and black giant squirrel.
The rich coral reefs around the coast, particularly around popular diving spots such as Tulamben, Amed, Menjangan or neighbouring Nusa Penida, host a wide range of marine life, for instance hawksbill turtle, giant sunfish, giant manta ray, giant moray eel, bumphead parrotfish, hammerhead shark, reef shark, barracuda, and sea snakes. Dolphins are commonly encountered on the north coast near Singaraja and Lovina.
A team of scientists conducted a survey from 29 April 2011 to 11 May 2011 at 33 sea sites around Bali. They discovered 952 species of reef fish of which 8 were new discoveries at Pemuteran, Gilimanuk, Nusa Dua, Tulamben and Candidasa, and 393 coral species, including two new ones at Padangbai and between Padangbai and Amed. The average coverage level of healthy coral was 36% (better than in Raja Ampat and Halmahera by 29% or in Fakfak and Kaimana by 25%) with the highest coverage found in Gili Selang and Gili Mimpang in Candidasa, Karangasem regency.
Among the larger trees the most common are: banyan trees, jackfruit, coconuts, bamboo species, acacia trees and also endless rows of coconuts and banana species. Numerous flowers can be seen: hibiscus, frangipani, bougainvillea, poinsettia, oleander, jasmine, water lily, lotus, roses, begonias, orchids and hydrangeas exist. On higher grounds that receive more moisture, for instance around Kintamani, certain species of fern trees, mushrooms and even pine trees thrive well. Rice comes in many varieties. Other plants with agricultural value include: salak, mangosteen, corn, kintamani orange, coffee and water spinach.
Some of the worst erosion has occurred in Lebih Beach, where up to seven metres (23 feet) of land is lost every year. Decades ago, this beach was used for holy pilgrimages with more than 10,000 people, but they have now moved to Masceti Beach.
From ranked third in previous review, in 2010 Bali got score 99.65 of Indonesia's environmental quality index and the highest of all the 33 provinces. The score measured three water quality parameters: the level of total suspended solids (TSS), dissolved oxygen (DO) and chemical oxygen demand (COD).
Because of over-exploitation by the tourist industry which covers a massive land area, 200 out of 400 rivers on the island have dried up and based on research, the southern part of Bali would face a water shortage up to 2,500 litres of clean water per second by 2015. To ease the shortage, the central government plans to build a water catchment and processing facility at Petanu River in Gianyar. The 300 litres capacity of water per second will be channelled to Denpasar, Badung and Gianyar in 2013.
Last year Bali received nearly 5.7 million tourists, according to the regional government. In late 2017 officials declared a “garbage emergency” in response to the covering of 3.6 mile stretch of coastline in plastic waste brought in by the tide, amid concerns that the pollution could dissuade visitors from returning.
Indonesia is one of the world's worst plastic polluters, with some estimates suggesting that the 260 million-population, 3,000-mile-wide, 17,000-island archipelago is the source of around 10 per cent of the world's plastic waste. Indonesia’s capital city Jakarta features several huge rubbish dumps and it is common to see swaths of plastics bobbing on the city's few waterways.
|Denpasar City||Denpasar||127.78||532,440||788,589||856,412||0.816 (Very High)|
|Badung Regency||Mangupura||418.52||345,863||543,332||590,062||0.779 (High)|
|Bangli Regency||Bangli||490.71||193,776||215,353||233,875||0.657 (Medium)|
|Buleleng Regency||Singaraja||1,364.73||558,181||624,125||677,803||0.691 (Medium)|
|Gianyar Regency||Gianyar||368.00||393,155||469,777||510,180||0.742 (High)|
|Jembrana Regency||Negara||841.80||231,806||261,638||284,140||0.686 (Medium)|
|Karangasem Regency||Amlapura||839.54||360,486||396,487||430,587||0.640 (Medium)|
|Klungkung Regency||Semarapura||315.00||155,262||170,543||185,211||0.683 (Medium)|
|Tabanan Regency||Tabanan||839.30||376,030||420,913||457,114||0.726 (High)|
In 1970s, the Balinese economy was largely agriculture-based in terms of both output and employment. Tourism is now the largest single industry in terms of income, and as a result, Bali is one of Indonesia's wealthiest regions. In 2003, around 80% of Bali's economy was tourism related. By end of June 2011, non-performing loan of all banks in Bali were 2.23%, lower than the average of Indonesian banking industry non-performing loan (about 5%). The economy, however, suffered significantly as a result of the Islamists' terrorist bombings 2002 and 2005. The tourism industry has since recovered from these events.
Although tourism produces the GDP's largest output, agriculture is still the island's biggest employer. Fishing also provides a significant number of jobs. Bali is also famous for its artisans who produce a vast array of handicrafts, including batik and ikat cloth and clothing, wooden carvings, stone carvings, painted art and silverware. Notably, individual villages typically adopt a single product, such as wind chimes or wooden furniture.
The Arabica coffee production region is the highland region of Kintamani near Mount Batur. Generally, Balinese coffee is processed using the wet method. This results in a sweet, soft coffee with good consistency. Typical flavours include lemon and other citrus notes. Many coffee farmers in Kintamani are members of a traditional farming system called Subak Abian, which is based on the Hindu philosophy of "Tri Hita Karana". According to this philosophy, the three causes of happiness are good relations with God, other people, and the environment. The Subak Abian system is ideally suited to the production of fair trade and organic coffee production. Arabica coffee from Kintamani is the first product in Indonesia to request a geographical indication.
|As of 2017|
In 1963 the Bali Beach Hotel in Sanur was built by Sukarno, and boosted tourism in Bali. Prior to it, there were only three hotels on the island. Construction of hotels and restaurants began to spread throughout Bali. Tourism further increased on Bali after the Ngurah Rai International Airport opened in 1970. The Buleleng regency government encouraged the tourism sector as one of the mainstays for economic progress and social welfare.
The tourism industry is primarily focused in the south, while also significant in the other parts of the island. The main tourist locations are the town of Kuta (with its beach), and its outer suburbs of Legian and Seminyak (which were once independent townships), the east coast town of Sanur (once the only tourist hub), Ubud towards the centre of the island, to the south of the Ngurah Rai International Airport, Jimbaran and the newer developments of Nusa Dua and Pecatu.
The United States government lifted its travel warnings in 2008. The Australian government issued an advisory on Friday, 4 May 2012, with the overall level of this advisory lowered to 'Exercise a high degree of caution'. The Swedish government issued a new warning on Sunday, 10 June 2012 because of one tourist who died from methanol poisoning. Australia last issued an advisory on Monday, 5 January 2015 due to new terrorist threats.
An offshoot of tourism is the growing real estate industry. Bali's real estate has been rapidly developing in the main tourist areas of Kuta, Legian, Seminyak and Oberoi. Most recently, high-end 5-star projects are under development on the Bukit peninsula, on the south side of the island. Expensive villas are being developed along the cliff sides of south Bali, with commanding panoramic ocean views. Foreign and domestic, many Jakarta individuals and companies are fairly active, investment into other areas of the island also continues to grow. Land prices, despite the worldwide economic crisis, have remained stable.
In the last half of 2008, Indonesia's currency had dropped approximately 30% against the US dollar, providing many overseas visitors improved value for their currencies.
Bali's tourism economy survived the Islamists terrorist bombings of 2002 and 2005, and the tourism industry has slowly recovered and surpassed its pre-terrorist bombing levels; the longterm trend has been a steady increase of visitor arrivals. In 2010, Bali received 2.57 million foreign tourists, which surpassed the target of 2.0–2.3 million tourists. The average occupancy of starred hotels achieved 65%, so the island still should be able to accommodate tourists for some years without any addition of new rooms/hotels, although at the peak season some of them are fully booked.
Bali received the Best Island award from Travel and Leisure in 2010. Bali won because of its attractive surroundings (both mountain and coastal areas), diverse tourist attractions, excellent international and local restaurants, and the friendliness of the local people. The Balinese culture and its religion are also considered as the main factor of the award. One of the most prestigious events that symbolizes a strong relationship between a god and its followers is Kecak Dance. According to BBC Travel released in 2011, Bali is one of the World's Best Islands, ranking second after Santorini, Greece.
In August 2010, the film Eat Pray Love was released. The film was based on Elizabeth Gilbert's best-selling memoir Eat, Pray, Love. It took place at Ubud and Padang-Padang Beach at Bali. The 2006 book, which spent 57 weeks at the No. 1 spot on the New York Times paperback nonfiction best-seller list, had already fuelled a boom in Eat, Pray, Love-related tourism in Ubud, the hill town and cultural and tourist centre that was the focus of Gilbert's quest for balance through traditional spirituality and healing that leads to love.
In January 2016, after musician David Bowie died, it was revealed that in his will, Bowie asked for his ashes to be scattered in Bali, conforming to Buddhist rituals. He had visited and performed in a number of Southeast Asian cities early in his career, including Bangkok and Singapore.
Since 2011, China has displaced Japan as the second-largest supplier of tourists to Bali, while Australia still tops the list while India has also emerged as a greater supply of tourists. Chinese tourists increased by 17% from last year due to the impact of ACFTA and new direct flights to Bali. In January 2012, Chinese tourists year on year (yoy) increased by 222.18% compared to January 2011, while Japanese tourists declined by 23.54% yoy.
Bali authorities reported the island had 2.88 million foreign tourists and 5 million domestic tourists in 2012, marginally surpassing the expectations of 2.8 million foreign tourists.
Based on a Bank Indonesia survey in May 2013, 34.39 per cent of tourists are upper-middle class, spending between $1,286 to $5,592, and are dominated by Australia, India, France, China, Germany and the UK. Some Chinese tourists have increased their levels of spending from previous years. 30.26 percent of tourists are middle class, spending between $662 to $1,285. In 2017 it was expected that Chinese tourists would outnumber Australian tourists.
A coastal road circles the island, and three major two-lane arteries cross the central mountains at passes reaching to 1,750 m in height (at Penelokan). The Ngurah Rai Bypass is a four-lane expressway that partly encircles Denpasar. Bali has no railway lines.
In December 2010 the Government of Indonesia invited investors to build a new Tanah Ampo Cruise Terminal at Karangasem, Bali with a projected worth of $30 million. On 17 July 2011 the first cruise ship (Sun Princess) anchored about 400 metres (1,300 feet) away from the wharf of Tanah Ampo harbour. The current pier is only 154 metres (505 feet) but will eventually be extended to 300 to 350 metres (980–1,150 feet) to accommodate international cruise ships. The harbour is safer than the existing facility at Benoa and has a scenic backdrop of east Bali mountains and green rice fields. The tender for improvement was subject to delays, and as of July 2013 the situation was unclear with cruise line operators complaining and even refusing to use the existing facility at Tanah Ampo.
A Memorandum of Understanding has been signed by two ministers, Bali's Governor and Indonesian Train Company to build 565 kilometres (351 miles) of railway along the coast around the island. As of July 2015, no details of this proposed railways have been released.
On 16 March 2011 (Tanjung) Benoa port received the "Best Port Welcome 2010" award from London's "Dream World Cruise Destination" magazine. Government plans to expand the role of Benoa port as export-import port to boost Bali's trade and industry sector. In 2013, The Tourism and Creative Economy Ministry advised that 306 cruise liners were scheduled visit Indonesia, an increase of 43 per cent compared to the previous year.
In May 2011, an integrated Aerial Traffic Control System (ATCS) was implemented to reduce traffic jams at four crossing points: Ngurah Rai statue, Dewa Ruci Kuta crossing, Jimbaran crossing and Sanur crossing. ATCS is an integrated system connecting all traffic lights, CCTVs and other traffic signals with a monitoring office at the police headquarters. It has successfully been implemented in other ASEAN countries and will be implemented at other crossings in Bali.
On 21 December 2011 construction started on the Nusa Dua-Benoa-Ngurah Rai International Airport toll road which will also provide a special lane for motorcycles. This has been done by seven state-owned enterprises led by PT Jasa Marga with 60% of shares. PT Jasa Marga Bali Tol will construct the 9.91-kilometre-long (6.16-mile) toll road (totally 12.7 kilometres (7.89 miles) with access road). The construction is estimated to cost Rp.2.49 trillion ($273.9 million). The project goes through 2 kilometres (1 mile) of mangrove forest and through 2.3 kilometres (1.4 miles) of beach, both within 5.4 hectares (13 acres) area. The elevated toll road is built over the mangrove forest on 18,000 concrete pillars which occupied 2 hectares of mangroves forest. This was compensated by the planting of 300,000 mangrove trees along the road. On 21 December 2011 the Dewa Ruci 450-metre (1,480-foot) underpass has also started on the busy Dewa Ruci junction near Bali Kuta Galeria with an estimated cost of Rp136 billion ($14.9 million) from the state budget. On 23 September 2013, the Bali Mandara Toll Road was opened, with the Dewa Ruci Junction (Simpang Siur) underpass being opened previously.
To solve chronic traffic problems, the province will also build a toll road connecting Serangan with Tohpati, a toll road connecting Kuta, Denpasar and Tohpati and a flyover connecting Kuta and Ngurah Rai Airport.
A DNA study in 2005 by Karafet et al. found that 12% of Balinese Y-chromosomes are of likely Indian origin, while 84% are of likely Austronesian origin, and 2% of likely Melanesian origin. The study does not correlate the DNA samples to the Balinese caste system.
Pre-modern Bali had four castes, as Jeff Lewis and Belinda Lewis state, but with a "very strong tradition of communal decision-making and interdependence". The four castes have been classified as Soedra (Shudra), Wesia (Vaishyas), Satrias (Kshatriyas) and Brahmana (Brahmin).
The 19th-century scholars such as Crawfurd and Friederich suggested that Balinese caste had Indian origins, but Helen Creese states that scholars such as Brumund who had visited and stayed on the island of Bali suggested that his field observations conflicted with the "received understandings concerning its Indian origins". In Bali, the Shudra (locally spelled Soedra) have typically been the temple priests, though depending on the demographics, a temple priest may also be from the other three castes. In most regions, it has been the Shudra who typically make offerings to the gods on behalf of the Hindu devotees, chant prayers, recite meweda (Vedas), and set the course of Balinese temple festivals.
Unlike most of Muslim-majority Indonesia, about 83.5% of Bali's population adheres to Balinese Hinduism, formed as a combination of existing local beliefs and Hindu influences from mainland Southeast Asia and South Asia. Minority religions include Islam (13.37%), Christianity (2.47%), and Buddhism (0.5%).
The general beliefs and practices of Agama Hindu Dharma are a mixture of ancient traditions and contemporary pressures placed by Indonesian laws that permit only monotheist belief under the national ideology of panca sila. Traditionally, Hinduism in Indonesia had a pantheon of deities and that tradition of belief continues in practice; further, Hinduism in Indonesia granted freedom and flexibility to Hindus as to when, how and where to pray. However, officially, Indonesian government considers and advertises Indonesian Hinduism as a monotheistic religion with certain officially recognised beliefs that comply with its national ideology. Indonesian school text books describe Hinduism as having one supreme being, Hindus offering three daily mandatory prayers, and Hinduism as having certain common beliefs that in part parallel those of Islam. Scholars contest whether these Indonesian government recognised and assigned beliefs reflect the traditional beliefs and practices of Hindus in Indonesia before Indonesia gained independence from Dutch colonial rule.
Balinese Hinduism has roots in Indian Hinduism and Buddhism, that arrived through Java. Hindu influences reached the Indonesian Archipelago as early as the first century. Historical evidence is unclear about the diffusion process of cultural and spiritual ideas from India. Java legends refer to Saka-era, traced to 78 AD. Stories from the Mahabharata Epic have been traced in Indonesian islands to the 1st century; however, the versions mirror those found in southeast Indian peninsular region (now Tamil Nadu and southern Karnataka Andhra Pradesh).
The Bali tradition adopted the pre-existing animistic traditions of the indigenous people. This influence strengthened the belief that the gods and goddesses are present in all things. Every element of nature, therefore, possesses its own power, which reflects the power of the gods. A rock, tree, dagger, or woven cloth is a potential home for spirits whose energy can be directed for good or evil. Balinese Hinduism is deeply interwoven with art and ritual. Ritualising states of self-control are a notable feature of religious expression among the people, who for this reason have become famous for their graceful and decorous behaviour.
Apart from the majority of Balinese Hindus, there also exist Chinese immigrants whose traditions have melded with that of the locals. As a result, these Sino-Balinese not only embrace their original religion, which is a mixture of Buddhism, Christianity, Taoism and Confucianism, but also find a way to harmonise it with the local traditions. Hence, it is not uncommon to find local Sino-Balinese during the local temple's odalan. Moreover, Balinese Hindu priests are invited to perform rites alongside a Chinese priest in the event of the death of a Sino-Balinese. Nevertheless, the Sino-Balinese claim to embrace Buddhism for administrative purposes, such as their Identity Cards.
Balinese and Indonesian are the most widely spoken languages in Bali, and the vast majority of Balinese people are bilingual or trilingual. The most common spoken language around the tourist areas is Indonesian, as many people in the tourist sector are not solely Balinese, but migrants from Java, Lombok, Sumatra, and other parts of Indonesia. There are several indigenous Balinese languages, but most Balinese can also use the most widely spoken option: modern common Balinese. The usage of different Balinese languages was traditionally determined by the Balinese caste system and by clan membership, but this tradition is diminishing. Kawi and Sanskrit are also commonly used by some Hindu priests in Bali, as Hindu literature was mostly written in Sanskrit.
English and Chinese are the next most common languages (and the primary foreign languages) of many Balinese, owing to the requirements of the tourism industry, as well as the English-speaking community and huge Chinese-Indonesian population. Other foreign languages, such as Japanese, Korean, French, Russian or German are often used in multilingual signs for foreign tourists.
Bali is renowned for its diverse and sophisticated art forms, such as painting, sculpture, woodcarving, handcrafts, and performing arts. Balinese cuisine is also distinctive. Balinese percussion orchestra music, known as gamelan, is highly developed and varied. Balinese performing arts often portray stories from Hindu epics such as the Ramayana but with heavy Balinese influence. Famous Balinese dances include pendet, legong, baris, topeng, barong, gong keybar, and kecak (the monkey dance). Bali boasts one of the most diverse and innovative performing arts cultures in the world, with paid performances at thousands of temple festivals, private ceremonies, or public shows.
Throughout the year, there are a number of festivals celebrated locally or island-wide according to the traditional calendars.
The Hindu New Year, Nyepi, is celebrated in the spring by a day of silence. On this day everyone stays at home and tourists are encouraged (or required) to remain in their hotels. On the day before New Year, large and colourful sculptures of ogoh-ogoh monsters are paraded and finally burned in the evening to drive away evil spirits. Other festivals throughout the year are specified by the Balinese pawukon calendrical system.
Celebrations are held for many occasions such as a tooth-filing (coming-of-age ritual), cremation or odalan (temple festival). One of the most important concepts that Balinese ceremonies have in common is that of désa kala patra, which refers to how ritual performances must be appropriate in both the specific and general social context. Many of the ceremonial art forms such as wayang kulit and topeng are highly improvisatory, providing flexibility for the performer to adapt the performance to the current situation. Many celebrations call for a loud, boisterous atmosphere with lots of activity and the resulting aesthetic, ramé, is distinctively Balinese. Often two or more gamelan ensembles will be performing well within earshot, and sometimes compete with each other to be heard. Likewise, the audience members talk amongst themselves, get up and walk around, or even cheer on the performance, which adds to the many layers of activity and the liveliness typical of ramé.
Kaja and kelod are the Balinese equivalents of North and South, which refer to ones orientation between the island's largest mountain Gunung Agung (kaja), and the sea (kelod). In addition to spatial orientation, kaja and kelod have the connotation of good and evil; gods and ancestors are believed to live on the mountain whereas demons live in the sea. Buildings such as temples and residential homes are spatially oriented by having the most sacred spaces closest to the mountain and the unclean places nearest to the sea.
Most temples have an inner courtyard and an outer courtyard which are arranged with the inner courtyard furthest kaja. These spaces serve as performance venues since most Balinese rituals are accompanied by any combination of music, dance and drama. The performances that take place in the inner courtyard are classified as wali, the most sacred rituals which are offerings exclusively for the gods, while the outer courtyard is where bebali ceremonies are held, which are intended for gods and people. Lastly, performances meant solely for the entertainment of humans take place outside the walls of the temple and are called bali-balihan. This three-tiered system of classification was standardised in 1971 by a committee of Balinese officials and artists to better protect the sanctity of the oldest and most sacred Balinese rituals from being performed for a paying audience.
Tourism, Bali's chief industry, has provided the island with a foreign audience that is eager to pay for entertainment, thus creating new performance opportunities and more demand for performers. The impact of tourism is controversial since before it became integrated into the economy, the Balinese performing arts did not exist as a capitalist venture, and were not performed for entertainment outside of their respective ritual context. Since the 1930s sacred rituals such as the barong dance have been performed both in their original contexts, as well as exclusively for paying tourists. This has led to new versions of many of these performances which have developed according to the preferences of foreign audiences; some villages have a barong mask specifically for non-ritual performances as well as an older mask which is only used for sacred performances.
Balinese society continues to revolve around each family's ancestral village, to which the cycle of life and religion is closely tied. Coercive aspects of traditional society, such as customary law sanctions imposed by traditional authorities such as village councils (including "kasepekang", or shunning) have risen in importance as a consequence of the democratisation and decentralisation of Indonesia since 1998.
Other than Balinese sacred rituals and festivals, the government presents Bali Arts Festival to showcase Bali’s performing arts and various artworks produced by the local talents that they have. It is held once a year, from second week of June until end of July. Southeast Asia’s biggest annual festival of words and ideas Ubud Writers and Readers Festival is held at Ubud in October, which is participated by the world’s most celebrated writers, artists, thinkers and performers.
In football, Bali is home to the football club Bali United, which plays in the Liga 1. The team was relocated from Samarinda, East Kalimantan to Gianyar, Bali. Harbiansyah Hanafiah, the main commissioner of Bali United explained that he changed the name and moved the homebase because there were no representative from Bali in the highest football tier in Indonesia. Another reason was due to local fans in Samarinda prefer to support Pusamania Borneo F.C. more than Persisam.
Bali was the host of Miss World 2013 (63rd edition of the Miss World pageant). It was the first time Indonesia hosted an international beauty pageant.
- "Bali to Host 2013 Miss World Pageant". Jakarta Globe. 26 April 2012. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013. Retrieved 30 December 2012.
- Penduduk Menurut Wilayah dan Agama yang Dianut (2010 Census). bps.go.id
- Suryadinata, Leo; Arifin, Evi Nurvidya & Ananta, Aris (2003). Indonesia's Population: Ethnicity and Religion in a Changing Political Landscape. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. ISBN 9812302123.
- bali.com. "Languages Spoken in Bali". www.bali.com. Retrieved 2018-09-16.
- "Luas Wilayah dan Letak Geografis Pulau Bali dan Kabupaten/Kota Tahun 2013". BPS Provinsi Bali. Archived from the original on 3 September 2014. Retrieved 31 August 2014.
- Vickers, Adrian (2013-08-13). Bali: A Paradise Created. Tuttle Publishing. ISBN 9781462900084.
- Desperately Seeking Survival Time. 25 November 2002.
- "Bali named as best destination in the world by TripAdvisor". Nzherald.co.nz. March 22, 2017. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
- Dudley, Nigel; Stolton, Sue (2010-08-12). Arguments for Protected Areas: Multiple Benefits for Conservation and Use. Routledge. ISBN 9781136542923.
- "Species diversity by ocean basin". NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program. 9 May 2014. Archived from the original on 12 May 2014.
- Evans, Kate (2012-06-27). "World heritage listing for Bali's 'Subak' tradition". ABC News. Retrieved 2017-09-14.
- Fokwang, Jude Thaddeus Dingbobga; Langmia, Kehbuma (2011). "Introduction:Society and culture in early 21st century Bali". Society and Change in Bali Nyonga: Critical Perspectives. African Books Collective. p. 1. ISBN 9789956579396.
- Robinson, Geoffrey (1995). The Dark Side of Paradise: Political Violence in Bali. Cornell University Press. ISBN 0801481724.
- Taylor, pp. 5, 7
- Hinzler, Heidi (1995) Artifacts and Early Foreign Influences. From Oey, Eric (Editor) (1995). Bali. Singapore: Periplus Editions. pp. 24–25. ISBN 9625930280.
- Taylor, p. 12
- Greenway, Paul; Lyon, James; Wheeler, Tony (1999). Bali and Lombok. Melbourne: Lonely Planet. p. 15. ISBN 0-86442-606-2.
- "The birthplace of Balinese Hinduism". The Jakarta Post. 28 April 2011. Retrieved 30 December 2012.
- Cœdès, George (1968). The Indianized states of Southeast Asia. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 9780824803681.
- Barski, p.46
- Cortesão, Jaime (1975). Esparsos, Volume III. Coimbra: Universidade de Coimbra Biblioteca Geral. p. 288. "...passing the island of 'Balle', on whose heights the nau Sabaia, of Francisco Serrão, was lost" – from Antonio de Abreu, and in João de Barros and Antonio Galvão's chronicles. 
- Hanna, Willard A. (2004) Bali Chronicles. Periplus, Singapore, ISBN 0-7946-0272-X, p. 32
- Vickers, Adrian (1995), From Oey, Eric (Editor) (1995). Bali. Singapore: Periplus Editions. pp. 26–35. ISBN 9625930280.
- Wallace, Alfred Russel (1869). The Malay Archipelago. p. 116. ISBN 9780794605636.
- Haer, p. 38.
- Friend, Theodore. Indonesian Destinies, Harvard University Press, 2003 ISBN 0-674-01137-6, p. 111.
- Doherty, Thomas Pre-Code Hollywood: Sex, Immorality, and Insurrection in American Cinema, 1930–1934, New York: Columbia University Press, 1999 page 134.
- Doherty, Thomas Pre-Code Hollywood: Sex, Immorality, and Insurrection in American Cinema, 1930–1934, New York: Columbia University Press, 1999 page 133.
- Doherty, Thomas Pre-Code Hollywood: Sex, Immorality, and Insurrection in American Cinema, 1930–1934, New York: Columbia University Press, 1999 page 135.
- Klemen, L (1999–2000). "The Capture of Bali Island, February 1942". Forgotten Campaign: The Dutch East Indies Campaign 1941–1942.
- Haer, pp. 39–40.
- Andy Barski, Albert Beaucort; Bruce Carpenter, Barski (2007). Bali and Lombok. Dorling Kindersley, London. p. 51. ISBN 978-0-7566-2878-9.
- Pringle, p. 167
- Ricklefs, M. C. (1993). A History of Modern Indonesia Since C. 1300, Second Edition. MacMillan. p. 289. ISBN 978-0-333-57689-2.
- "Romantic Paradise Destination – The New Decade Volcano Program #6, Bali". 10 July 2015.
- "Mount Agung: Bali volcano alert raised to highest level". BBC News. 27 November 2017. Retrieved 8 May 2018.
- Stafford, Stephanie (2017-07-22). "Picture perfect beaches, romantic sunsets and delicious Asian food: Discover Bali". Express.co.uk. Retrieved 2017-09-14.
- Sutcliffe, Theodora (2016-04-09). "Indonesia beginners' guide: Bali, Lombok, Java and Flores". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2017-09-14.
- "Climate of Bali". neotravellers.com. Retrieved 2017-10-10.
- Tänzler, Rene; Toussaint, Emmanuel F. A.; Suhardjono, Yayuk R.; Balke, Michael; Riedel, Alexander (2014-05-07). "Multiple transgressions of Wallace's Line explain diversity of flightless Trigonopterus weevils on Bali". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 281 (1782). doi:10.1098/rspb.2013.2528. ISSN 0962-8452. PMC 3973253. PMID 24648218.
- Davison, Julian; Granquist, Bruce (1999). Balinese Flora & Fauna. Hongkong: Periplus ; North Clarendon, VT. ISBN 9789625931975.
- IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 24 June 2010
- "Water Monitor (Varanus salvator)". World Association of Zoos and Aquariums. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
- "About Bali's Wildlife". Asia Holiday Retreats. 2017-09-06. Retrieved 2017-09-14.
- "New fish, coral species found". The Jakarta Post. 13 May 2011. Retrieved 30 December 2012.
- Nurhayati, Desy (16 May 2011) Coral reefs' health 'improves'. The Jakarta Post.
- "Once was a beach". The Jakarta Post. 5 May 2011. Retrieved 30 December 2012.
- Simamora, Adianto P. (15 June 2011) Bali named RI's cleanest province. The Jakarta Post.
- "Bali must stop over- exploiting environment for tourism: Activists". 2 September 2011.
- "Govt to build water catchment at Petanu River". 17 September 2011.
- "British diver exposes sea of plastic rubbish off Bali coast". The Daily Telegraph. 6 March 2018. Retrieved 6 March 2018.
- Brown, Iem (2004-06-17). The Territories of Indonesia. Routledge. p. 149. ISBN 9781135355418.
- "Only 2.23 percent of loans in Bali are bad". The Jakarta Post. 25 July 2011. Retrieved 30 December 2012.
- On history of rice-growing related to museology and the rice terraces as part of Bali's cultural heritage see: Marc-Antonio Barblan, "D'Orient en Occident: histoire de la riziculture et muséologie" in ICOFOM Study Series, Vol.35 (2006), pp.114–131. LRZ-Muenchen.de and "Dans la lumière des terrasses: paysage culturel balinais, Subek Museumet patrimoine mondial (1er volet) "in Le Banian (Paris), juin 2009, pp.80–101, Pasarmalam.free.fr
- "Diverse coffees of Indonesia". Specialty Coffee Association of Indonesia. Archived from the original on 2 August 2008. Retrieved 8 August 2008.
- "Book of Requirements for Kopi Kintamani Bali", page 12, July 2007
- "Bali – Statistics". Bali Government Tourism Office. 17 July 2018.
- "Chinese Tourism to Bali Skyrockets Despite Volcano Woes". Jing Travel. 20 February 2018.
- Adrian Vickers: Bali. A Paradise Created, Periplus 1989, ISBN 0-945971-28-1
- "Young Swede dies on paradise island". thelocal.se. 30 June 2012. Archived from the original on 4 September 2012.
- "Smart Traveller". Australian Government. 15 January 2015. Archived from the original on 15 January 2015.
- "Up to 2.8m Foreign Tourists This Year". Thebalitimes.com. 17 February 2011. Retrieved 30 December 2012.
- "The Best Search Links on the Net". amarigepanache.com. 16 October 2010. Archived from the original on 26 April 2012. Retrieved 30 December 2012.
- "Bali Named as One of the Five Best Islands in the World". The Beat Magazine (Jakarta). 1 December 2011. Archived from the original on 4 December 2011.
- "Southeast Asia news and business from Indonesia, Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia and Vietnam". Asia Times. 18 August 2010. Retrieved 30 December 2012.
- David Bowie rests in Bali, date:Jan 31, 2016
- "China now 2nd-largest source of isle tourists". The Jakarta Post. 6 January 2012.
- "Chinese tourist arrivals in Bali up 222%". Antara News. 3 March 2012. Archived from the original on 4 March 2012.
- "Bali seeks cleanup amid high arrivals". Investvine.com. 24 January 2013. Retrieved 24 January 2013.
- "Upper-middle class dominates Bali's foreign tourists". 12 September 2013. Archived from the original on 3 October 2013.
- "Infrastructure Projects in Indonesia Thrown Open for Bids". Jakarta Globe. 20 December 2010. Archived from the original on 22 September 2011. Retrieved 30 December 2012.
- "Tanah Ampo prepares to welcome first cruise ship". The Jakarta Post. 11 July 2011. Retrieved 30 December 2012.
- "Tender for Tanah Ampo set for next month". The Jakarta Post. 4 July 2013. Retrieved 14 July 2015.
- What? Train? Bali? goodnewsfromindonesia.org (5 January 2011).
- "My Bali Guide – Your Ultimate Connection With Bali".
- ""Best Port Welcome" Awarded to Bali's Benoa Port". KOMPAS.com. 16 March 2011. Retrieved 30 December 2012.
- "Government mulls plan to expand Benoa". The Jakarta Post. 20 June 2011. Retrieved 30 December 2012.
- Jakarta Post (25 January 2013) Cruise ship fever hits Bali Archived 2 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine.
- Dhae, Arnold (12 May 2011). "Pemprov Bali Gunakan Teknologi Baru Atasi Kemacetan". Media Indonesia. Archived from the original on 21 December 2016. Retrieved 30 December 2012.
- "New traffic control system, buses hoped to ease congestion". The Jakarta Post. 25 May 2011. Retrieved 30 December 2012.
- "New toll road to ease congestion, increase tourists". The Jakarta Post. 5 September 2011.
- "Tol di Atas Laut Mulai Dikonstruksi". indopos.co.id. Archived from the original on 7 October 2011. Retrieved 4 October 2011.
- "Bali starts construction on crucial toll road, underpass". The Jakarta Post. 22 December 2011. Archived from the original on 14 January 2012.
- "President officially opens Bali toll road". 23 September 2013. Archived from the original on 25 September 2013.
- "Toll road to cost island 2 hectares of mangrove". The Jakarta Post. 7 February 2011. Retrieved 30 December 2012.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 1 July 2013. Retrieved 2013-07-17.
- Ballots in paradise. The Guardian. 30 October 2008.
- Karafet, Tatiana M.; Lansing, J S.; Redd, Alan J.; and Reznikova, Svetlana (2005) "Balinese Y-Chromosome Perspective on the Peopling of Indonesia: Genetic Contributions from Pre-Neolithic Hunter- Gatherers, Austronesian Farmers, and Indian Traders," Human Biology: Vol. 77: Iss. 1, Article 8. Available at: http://digitalcommons.wayne.edu/humbiol/vol77/iss1/8
- Jeff Lewis; Belinda Lewis (2009). Bali's silent crisis: desire, tragedy, and transition. Lexington Books. pp. 56, 83–86. ISBN 978-0-7391-3243-2.
- Geoffrey Robinson (1995). The Dark Side of Paradise: Political Violence in Bali. Cornell University Press. p. 32. ISBN 0-8014-8172-4.
- Helen M. Creese (2016). Bali in the Early Nineteenth Century. BRILL Academic. pp. 305 with footnotes. ISBN 978-90-04-31583-9.
- Jane Belo (1953), Bali: Temple Festival, Monograph 22, American Ethnological Society, University of Washington Press, pages 4-5
- "Population by Region and Religion in Indonesia". BPS. 2010.
- Victoria Williams (2016). Celebrating Life Customs around the World: From Baby Showers to Funerals. ABC-CLIO. pp. 193–194. ISBN 978-1-4408-3659-6.
- Javier A. Galván (2014). A Cultural Encyclopedia of Extraordinary and Exotic Customs from around the World; They Do What?. ABC-CLIO. pp. 217–219. ISBN 978-1-61069-342-4.
- McDaniel, June (2010). "Agama Hindu Dharma Indonesia as a New Religious Movement: Hinduism Recreated in the Image of Islam". Nova Religio. 14 (1): 93–111. doi:10.1525/nr.2010.14.1.93.
- Shinji Yamashita (2002), Bali and Beyond: Explorations in the Anthropology of Tourism, Berghahn, ISBN 978-1571813275, pp. 57-65
- Michel Picard (2003), in Hinduism in Modern Indonesia (Editor: Martin Ramstedt), Routledge, ISBN 978-0700715336, pp. 56-72
- June McDaniel (2013), A Modern Hindu Monotheism: Indonesian Hindus as ‘People of the Book’, Journal of Hindu Studies, Oxford University Press, Volume 6, Issue 1, doi:10.1093/jhs/hit030
- Anthony Forge (1980), Balinese Religion and Indonesian Identity, in Indonesia: The Making of a Culture (Editor: James Fox), Australian National University, ISBN 978-0909596590
- Putu Setia (1992), Cendekiawan Hindu Bicara, Denpasar: Yayasan Dharma Naradha, ISBN 978-9798357008, pp. 217-229
- Becker, J. (1981). "Hindu-Buddhist Time in Javanese Gamelan Music". The Study of Time IV. Springer. pp. 161–172. doi:10.1007/978-1-4612-5947-3_13. ISBN 978-1-4612-5949-7.
- Jan Gonda, The Indian Religions in Pre-Islamic Indonesia and their survival in Bali, in Handbook of Oriental Studies. Section 3 Southeast Asia, Religions, p. 1, at Google Books, pp. 1-54
- Slattum, J. (2003) Balinese Masks: Spirits of an Ancient Drama. Indonesia, Asia Pacific, Japan, North America, Latin America and Europe Periplus Editions (H) Ltd
- "Short Post". Voiceoftheshadows.blogspot.com. 24 April 2009. Archived from the original on 8 July 2011. Retrieved 30 December 2012.
- "Hectic, yet void, week". Voiceoftheshadows.blogspot.com. 7 May 2009. Archived from the original on 8 July 2011. Retrieved 30 December 2012.
- Emigh, John (1996). Masked Performance: The Play of Self and Other in Ritual and Theatre. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0-8122-1336-X. The author is a Western theatre professor who has become a performer in Balinese topeng theater himself.
- James Lyon; Paul Greenway; Tony Wheeler (2001). Bali and Lombok. p. 109. ISBN 978-1-86450-252-7.; Quote: "Nyepi - The Day of Silence The major festival for the Hindu Balinese is Nyepi, usually held around the end of March or early April."
- Rough Guide to Bali & Lombok. Rough Guides. 2011. ISBN 978-1405381352.
- Herbst, Edward (1997). Voices in Bali: Energes and Perceptions in Vocal Music and Dance Theater. Hanover: University Press of New England. pp. 1–2. ISBN 0-8195-6316-1.
- Foley, Kathy; Sedana, I Nyoman; Sedana, I Nyoman (Autumn 2005). "Mask Dance from the Perspective of a Master Artist: I Ketut Kodi on "Topeng"". Asian Theatre Journal. University of Hawai'i Press. 22 (2): 199–213 (208). doi:10.1353/atj.2005.0031.
- Gold, p. 8.
- Gold, p. 19.
- Gold, pp. 18–26.
- Sanger, Annette (1988). "Blessing or Blight? The Effects of Touristic Dance-Drama on village Life in Singapadu, Bali". Come Mek Me Hol' Yu Han': the Impact of Tourism on Traditional Music. Berlin: Jamaica Memory Bank: 89–104 (90–93).
- Belford, Aubrey (12 October 2010). "Customary Law Revival Neglects Some Balinese". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 7 February 2013. Retrieved 12 October 2010.
- "What to expect at Southeast Asia's biggest festival of words and ideas". Asian Correspondent. Retrieved 26 October 2018.
- "About Bali + Lombok". magicseaweed.com. Retrieved 14 July 2015..
- "Olympic Council of Asia : Games". ocasia.org. Retrieved 8 April 2013.
- "Putra Samarinda Berubah Jadi Bali United Pusam". Retrieved 14 April 2017.
- "Cultural Landscape of Bali Province". UNESCO. Retrieved 1 July 2012.
- Haer, Debbie Guthrie; Morillot, Juliette & Toh, Irene (2001). Bali, a traveller's companion. Editions Didier Millet. ISBN 978-981-4217-35-4.
- Gold, Lisa (2005). Music in Bali: Experiencing Music, Expressing Culture. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-514149-0.
- Taylor, Jean Gelman (2003). Indonesia: Peoples and Histories. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-10518-5.
- Pringle, Robert (2004). Bali: Indonesia's Hindu Realm; A short history of. Short History of Asia Series. Allen & Unwin. ISBN 1-86508-863-3.
- Black, Robert (2012). Bali Fungus. Snake Scorpion Press. ISBN 978-1-477-508-244.
- Copeland, Jonathan (2010). Secrets of Bali: Fresh Light on the Morning of the World. Orchid Press. ISBN 978-974-524-118-3.
- Cotterell, Arthur (2015). Bali: A cultural history, Signal Books ISBN 9781909930179
- Covarrubias, Miguel (1946). Island of Bali. ISBN 9625930604
- Klemen, L (1999–2000). "Forgotten Campaign: The Dutch East Indies Campaign 1941–1942". Archived from the original on 26 July 2011.
- McPhee, Colin (2003). A House in Bali. Tuttle Publishing; New edition, 2000 (first published in 1946 by J. Day Co). ISBN 978-962-593-629-1.
- Shavit, David (2006). Bali and the Tourist Industry: A History, 1906–1942. McFarland & Co Inc. ISBN 978-0-7864-1572-4.
- Vickers, Adrian (1994). Travelling to Bali: Four Hundred Years of Journeys. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-967-65-3081-3.
- Vickers, Adrian (2012). Bali: A Paradise Created. Tuttle. ISBN 978-0-8048-4260-0.
- Whitten, Anthony J.; Roehayat Emon Soeriaatmadja; Suraya A. Afiff (1997). The Ecology of Java and Bali. Hong Kong: Periplus Editions Ltd. ISBN 978-962-593-072-5.
- Wijaya, Made (2003). Architecture of Bali: A Source Book of Traditional and Modern Forms. Thames & Hudson Ltd. ISBN 978-0-500-34192-6.