Hayam Vuruk (Indonesian : Hayam Wuruk, Sanskrit: हयम् वुरुक्, Kawi: ꦲꦪꦩ꧀ꦮꦸꦫꦸꦏ꧀) (1334–1389), also called Rajasanagara, Pa-ta-na-pa-na-wu, or Bhatara Prabhu after 1350, was a Javanese Hindu emperor from the Rajasa dynasty and the 4th emperor of the Majapahit Empire.[1][2] Together with his prime minister Gajah Mada, he reigned the empire at the time of its greatest power. During his reign, the Hindu epics, the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, became ingrained in the culture and worldview of the Javanese through the wayang kulit (leather puppets).[3] He was preceded by Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi, and succeeded by his son-in-law Wikramawardhana.

Dyah Hayam Wuruk
Çri Nata Rajasanagara
Çri Nata Wilwatikta
Modern artist's impression of Hayam Wuruk
4th Great King of Majapahit
Reign1350 – 1389
PredecessorTribhuwana Tunggadewī
SuccessorBhra Hyang Wisesa Wikramawardhana
2nd Prince of Kahuripan
Reignca. 1334 – 1350
PredecessorTribhuwana Tunggadewī
SuccessorTribhuwana Tunggadewī
BornDyah Hayam Wuruk
Kingdom of Majapahit
Died1389 (aged 54–55)
Kingdom of Majapahit
(Paduka Sori)
Regnal name
Çri Rajasanagara Jayawishnuwardhana
Posthumous name
Bhatāra Hyang Wekas ing Sukha
FatherKertawardhana Dyah Cakradhara, 1st Prince of Tumapel
MotherQueen Tribhuwana Tunggadewī
Genealogy diagram of Rajasa dynasty, the royal family of Singhasari and Majapahit. Rulers are highlighted with period of reign.

Most of the accounts of his life were taken from the Nagarakretagama, a eulogy to Hayam Wuruk, and the Pararaton ("Book of Kings"), a Javanese historical chronicle.

Early life Edit

According to the Nagarakretagama, Canto 1, Stanzas 4 and 5, Hayam Wuruk was born in 1256 Saka year, corresponding to 1334 CE, the same year that Mount Kelud erupted. Mpu Prapanca, author of the Nagarakretagama, argued that this was the divine sign that Batara Girinata (the Javanese name for Shiva Mahadewa) had manifest himself on earth, reincarnated as the Javanese king.[2]

Hayam Wuruk's name can be translated as "scholar rooster". He was the only son of Empress Tribhuwana Tunggadewi and Prince Kertawardhana (or Cakradhara). His mother was the daughter of Emperor Kertarajasa Jayawardhana, founder of Majapahit, while his father was the Duke of Tumapel "Bhre Tumapel", a lesser king of Singhasari. During Queen Tribhuwana's reigned, he was also called Kumararaja Jiwana[4] which means Viceroy of Jiwana or Kahuripan. He had a younger sister, Princess Iswari, Duchess of Pajang. The Duchess of Pajang was mentioned as a daughter of Kertawardhana in Nagarakretagama, thus make it obvious that she was Hayam Wuruk's biological sister. However, Nagarakretagama also mentioned another name as the younger sister of Hayam Wuruk even earlier than Iswari, she was Princess Indudevi, Duchess of Lasem and a daughter of Wijayarajasa. From this evidence, we can guess that Nagarakretagama's writer means that Princess Indudevi was Hayam Wuruk's younger cousin. In contrast, Pararaton said that Rajadevi and Wijayarajasa's marriage didn't produced any children.

Both the Pararaton and the Nagarakretagama praised Hayam Wuruk as a handsome, bright, talented, and exceptional student in the courtly martial arts of archery and fencing, who also mastered politics, scriptures, arts, and music. He was known as an accomplished ceremonial dancer in the court, and some accounts tell of his performances in the traditional ceremonial Javanese mask dance. His mother, Queen Tribhuwana, educated and groomed him to become the next monarch of Majapahit.[citation needed]

Reign Edit

In 1350, Queen Dowager Gayatri died in her retirement at a Buddhist monastery. She was the primary consort of King Kertarajasa Jayawardhana, the first king of Majapahit, and also the grandmother of Hayam Wuruk. Queen Tribhuwana had to abdicate because she ruled Majapahit under Gayatri's auspices, and was obliged to relinquish the throne to her son.

Prince Hayam Wuruk inherited the throne in 1350 at the age of 16 under his new regnal name Sri Rajasanagara Jayawishnuwardhana. At that time, mahapatih (prime minister) Gajah Mada was at the height of his career. Under his rule, Majapahit extended its power throughout the Indonesian archipelago of Nusantara. In 1365 (1287 Saka year), Mpu Prapanca wrote the kakawin of Nagarakretagama, the old Javanese eulogy for King Hayam Wuruk.[5] The manuscript described Hayam Wuruk's royal excursion around the Majapahit realm to visit villages, holy shrines, vassal kingdoms, and territory in East Java. He sent ambassadors to China from 1370 to 1381.[1]: 240 

Personal life Edit

According to the Pararaton and Kidung Sunda, in 1357, King Hayam Wuruk was expected to marry Dyah Pitaloka Citraresmi, a daughter of King Linggabuana of the united Sunda Kingdom and Galuh Kingdom. She was described as a princess with extraordinary beauty, but the reason for this royal engagement was probably political, to foster the alliance between the Majapahit and the Sundanese Kingdoms. However, in the Bubat incident, the Sunda royal family and their guards were involved in a skirmish with Majapahit troops. The planned royal wedding ended in disaster with the death of the princess and the whole Sunda royal party. Pitaloka took her own life at about 17 years old[citation needed]. The court officials blamed Gajah Mada, sine it was his intention to demand submission from Sunda Kingdom that ended in bloodshed.

After all, Hayam Wuruk married his relative, Queen Shri Sudevi or Queen Sori. She was a daughter of Wijayarajasa by a concubine, making her a stepdaughter of Hayam Wuruk's maternal aunt. Sometimes, she was mentioned as Paduka Sori which literally means "His Majesty Queen Sori" in some sources. Although all the king's daughters and concubines were beautiful, Queen Sori was a beautiful one. She was linked as Susumna.

They had a daughter, Princess Kusumawardhani, bestowed the title Princess of Kabalan. King Rajasanagara arranged for her to marry her cousin, Wikramawardhana, Prince of Mataram when he was no older than 12 and she was no older than 7[6] at that time. His mother was Hayam Wuruk's sister, Princess Iswari. She was described as a perfect princess with beautiful eyes and slender arches, as well praised because of her beauty. Upon Wikramawardhana's reigned, she was mentioned as Bhre Lasem Sang Ahayu "the Fair Princess of Lasem" in Pararaton.

However, from a concubine, Hayam Wuruk had a son, the 2nd Prince of Wirabhumi (his birth name was unknown), granted the title from his marriage to his cousin, Nagarawardhani, 1st Princess of Wirabhumi (then she bore the title 2nd Princess of Lasem), also known as Bhre Lasem Sang Alemu "The Fat Princess of Lasem".

After Hayam Wuruk's death in 1389, the empire fell into chaos and decline during the contest over succession between Wikramawardhana and Wirabhumi. The dispute ended in Wirabhumi's defeat in the Regreg war. Wikramawardhana succeeded Hayam Wuruk as the King of Majapahit.[citation needed]

Legacy Edit

His reign, as part of Indosphere culturally, helped further Indianisation of Javanese culture through the spread of Hinduism and Sanskritization.[1][2][3]

See also Edit

References Edit

  1. ^ a b c Cœdès, George (1968). The Indianized states of Southeast Asia. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 9780824803681.
  2. ^ a b c Mpu Prapanca, translated by Slamet Muljana. "Terjemahan Kakawin Dēśawarṇnana (Nāgarakṛtāgama)" (in Indonesian). Jejak Nusantara. Retrieved 5 February 2015.
  3. ^ a b Mark Juergensmeyer and Wade Clark Roof, 2012, Encyclopedia of Global Religion, Volume 1, Page 557.
  4. ^ "Majapahit Kingdom: History, Lineage Of Kings, And Historical Traces". VOI - Waktunya Merevolusi Pemberitaan. Retrieved 2023-03-21.
  5. ^ Malkiel-Jirmounsky, Myron (1939). "The Study of The Artistic Antiquities of Dutch India". Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies. Harvard-Yenching Institute. 4 (1): 59–68. doi:10.2307/2717905. JSTOR 2717905.
  6. ^ Noorduyn, J. (1978). "Majapahit in the Fifteenth Century". Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde. 134 (2/3): 207–274. ISSN 0006-2294.

Further reading Edit

  • Pringle, Robert (2004). A Short History of Bali: Indonesia's Hindu Realm. Short History of Asia. Allen & Unwin. ISBN 978-1865088631.
Preceded by Monarch of Majapahit Empire
Succeeded by