Indonesia ( (listen) IN-də-NEE-zhə, -NEE-zee-ə; Indonesian: [ɪndoˈnesia]), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Indonesian: Republik Indonesia [reˈpublik ɪndoˈnesia]), is a country in Southeast Asia, between the Indian and Pacific oceans. It is the world's largest island country, with more than seventeen thousand islands, and at 1,904,569 square kilometres (735,358 square miles), the 14th largest by land area and the 7th largest in combined sea and land area. With over 261 million people, it is the world's 4th most populous country as well as the most populous Muslim-majority country. Java, the world's most populous island, is home to more than half of the country's population.
The sovereign state is a presidential, constitutional republic with an elected parliament. It has 34 provinces, of which five have special status. Jakarta, the country's capital, is the second most populous urban area in the world. The country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, and the eastern part of Malaysia. Other neighbouring countries include Singapore, Vietnam, the Philippines, Australia, Palau, and India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support a high level of biodiversity. The country has abundant natural resources like oil and natural gas, tin, copper and gold. Agriculture mainly produces rice, palm oil, tea, coffee, cacao, medicinal plants, spices and rubber. Indonesia's major trading partners are China, United States, Japan, Singapore and India.
The 1740 Batavia massacre was a pogrom against ethnic Chinese in the port city of Batavia (present-day Jakarta) in the Dutch East Indies. The violence inside the city lasted from 9 October 1740 until 22 October; minor skirmishes outside the walls continued late into November that year. Hundreds of ethnic Chinese, mostly sugar mill workers, rioted on 7 October. This was met by a massacre of roughly 10,000 ethnic led by the Dutch and other ethnic groups. It was followed by a two-year war. Governor General Adriaan Valckenier was recalled to the Netherlands and tried for crimes related to the massacre, replaced by his political opponent Gustaaf Willem van Imhoff. The massacre's legacy in popular culture is found in Dutch literature, in which it has figured heavily. (Read more...)
Did you know
- ... that the Babirusa (pictured), an endangered pig-like animal native to Sulawesi and surrounding islands, has two pairs of tusks? The upper canines of the male babirusa are so curved and enlarged that they emerge through the flesh, by way of holes, to pass through the top of the snout.
- ... that on Flores island there are two archeological finds of different insular dwarfism species, including "hobbits"?
- ... that one of the active volcanoes in the Banda Sea is named the Emperor of China?
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