Meteorology, Climatology, and Geophysical Agency

Meteorology, Climatology, and Geophysical Agency (Indonesian: Badan Meteorologi, Klimatologi, dan Geofisika, abbreviated BMKG) is an Indonesian non-departmental government agency for meteorology, climatology, and geophysics.

Meteorology, Climatology, and Geophysical Agency
Badan Meteorologi, Klimatologi, dan Geofisika
Agency overview
Formed1866; 158 years ago (1866)
Preceding agencies
  • Meteorology and Geophysical Agency at Department of Transportation (BMG-DEPHUB) (1980–2002)
  • Meteorology and Geophysical Agency (2002–2008)
TypeNon-ministerial government body
JurisdictionGovernment of Indonesia
Agency executive
  • Dwikorita Karnawati, Head
Parent departmentDepartment of Transportation (1955-2002)



Its history began on 1841 with individual observation conducted by Dr. Onnen, the head of hospital in Bogor, and was established as a formal government institution on 1866 by the Dutch East Indies government by the name of Magnetic and Meteorological Observatory (Dutch: Magnetisch en Meteorologisch Observatorium). The agency name changed several times and its current name was given on 6 September 2008.[1]

Tropical Cyclone Warning Centre


Since 1986 the BMKG, has run a Tropical Cyclone Warning Centre (TCWC), within their headquarters in Jakarta.[2] Over the next 12 seasons, the TCWC named and issued international warnings for the area from the Equator to 10°S between 90°E and 125°E. In 1998, the World Meteorological Organization's RA V Tropical Cyclone Committee recommended that TCWC Perth, in Australia take over warning responsibility on an interim basis until the BMKG's staff had the training to run the TCWC.[2] TCWC Perth then took over the warning and naming responsibilities until the 2007–08 season when they handed it back to TCWC Jakarta.[2] The first depression to be named by TCWC Jakarta came later that year when Cyclone Durga became a Tropical Cyclone within their area of responsibility.[2] During the next two seasons TCWC Jakarta, monitored several tropical cyclones in the North Western Pacific Ocean and the Australian region. At the start of the 2010–11 season, TCWC Jakarta's area of responsibility was then extended out to include the region from the Equator to 10°S between 125°E and 141°E.



  1. ^ (in Indonesian) BMG becomes BMKG Archived 18 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  2. ^ a b c d "The Operation of Jakarta Tropical Cyclone Warning Centre (TCWC Jakarta)" (PDF). Indonesian Meteorological, Climatological and Geophysical Agency. World Meteorological Organisation. 8 November 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 August 2013. Retrieved 6 September 2009.