Radio Republik Indonesia
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Radio Republik Indonesia (Radio of the Republic of Indonesia, abbreviated as RRI), legally Lembaga Penyiaran Publik Radio Republik Indonesia (Public Broadcasting Institution Radio of the Republic of Indonesia) is a public radio network of Indonesia. Founded on 11 September 1945, it is the first radio network in Indonesia. RRI headquarters are located on Medan Merdeka Barat Street in Central Jakarta.
|Type||Public radio network|
|Availability||Nationwide and worldwide|
|Founded||11 September 1945 |
by Jusuf Ronodipuro and Abdul Rahman Saleh
|Slogan||Sekali di udara, tetap di udara (English: Once on air, always on air)|
|Radio stations||See Services|
|Headquarters||Jl. Medan Merdeka Barat 4-5, Central Jakarta|
RRI has several radio channels broadcasts all over Indonesia and abroad to serve all Indonesian citizens throughout the nation and overseas. RRI also provides information about Indonesia to people around the world. Voice of Indonesia is the division for overseas broadcasting.
RRI was established on 11 September 1945 by several figures who previously operated several Japanese radio stations in 6 cities. A meeting attended by the station delegates at Adang Kadarusman house on Menteng resulted in the decision to set up Radio Republik Indonesia by choosing Abdul Rahman Saleh as the first general manager.
The RRI central station in Jakarta became one of the vital objects captured by the 30 September Movement on 1 October 1965. In that morning, RRI reported about the September 30 Movement aimed at high-ranking officers who were members of the "Council of Generals" who were about to stage a coup against the government, and announced the formation of "Revolutionary Council" led by Lt. Col. Untung.
In late 1960s, private radio stations were established and effectively ended RRI's monopoly on radio broadcasting. However, during the New Order era, upon the requests of the Ministry of Information, RRI-produced news programs were aired simulcast on these stations.
After the Broadcasting Act No. 32/2002 is in force, RRI, along with TVRI, set as the public radio network in 2006 and became independent of any governmental control. The status then reaffirmed by Government Regulation (Peraturan Pemerintah) No. 12/2005.
A proposed new Broadcasting Act (Undang-Undang Penyiaran) currently in the making would merge RRI with its fellow public broadcaster TVRI unto a unified firm -RTRI (Radio Televisi Republik Indonesia, Radio [and] Television of the Republic of Indonesia).
Principles and structureEdit
RRI is designated as public broadcasting institution per Act No. 32 of 2002 on Broadcasting, which defined as a "legal entity established by the state; has independent, neutral, not commercial (characteristics); and has the function to provide services for the public benefit". Its duty, according to Government Regulation No. 12 of 2005, is "to provide the healthy information, education and entertainment services, (maintain) social control and unity, and preserve the nation's culture for the whole public benefit by organizing radio broadcast that reaches all parts of the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia". The network is formally placed directly under, and responsible to, the President of Indonesia.
Unlike other public broadcasters such as TVRI and newly-established local public broadcasters, RRI has long had a broadcast pledge called Three Pledges of RRI (Tri Prasetya RRI), shown below in English:
- We must save all radio broadcast devices from anyone who wants to use these devices to destroy our country, and defend the devices with all our body and soul in any condition and with any consequences.
- We must drive the RRI broadcast as an instrument of struggle and revolutionary tool for the entire Indonesian nation, with a pure national spirit, a clean and honest heart, and a mind full of love and loyalty to the homeland and nation.
- We must stand above all traditions and beliefs of the party or group, by prioritizing national unity and the safety of the state and holding on the spirit of the Proclamation of 17 August 1945.
RRI organization structure consists of five Board of Supervisors (Dewan Pengawas) appointed by the People's Representative Council (DPR) and six Board of Directors (Dewan Direksi) appointed by the Board of Supervisors. Both are sworn in by the President, served for five years and renewable once.
According to article 15 of the Broadcasting Act, RRI funding comes from several sources such as broadcasting fees, annual state budget (drafted by the government and approved by the DPR), community contribution, and advertisement, as well as other legal efforts related to the broadcasting operation. In fact, as of today the broadcasting fee is not yet implemented, and RRI is asked to generate "non-tax revenue" for the state by various funding sources (except the annual state budget) regulated in Government Regulation No. 15 of 2016.
In general, RRI offers a maximum of four main stations in a region (availability are vary, see below), one of them is a national simulcast. Three other services are transmitted locally, producing local programmes as well as relaying programmes from RRI central station in Jakarta.
- Pro 1 (regional radio, Channel of Inspiration): serves as "community empowerment centre" for rural, urban, mountainous and industrial community. Mainly broadcasts local news and education as well as music for 19 hours a day, from 5am to midnight local time.
- Pro 2 (music and entertainment radio, Voice of Creativity): serves as "youth creativity centre" for teenager urban contemporary community. Mainly broadcasts music, entertainment and lifestyle programming for 19 hours a day, from 5am to midnight local time.
- Pro 3 (news and talk radio, Voice of Indonesian Identity): relays directly from RRI central station, it broadcasts 24-hour news, current affairs, and talk programming nationally supplemented by reports from local RRI stations.
- Pro 4 (culture radio, Encyclopedia of Indonesian Culture): currently exist in several cities, it broadcasts variety of cultures within Indonesia as well as local culture programming for 19 hours a day, from 5am to midnight local time.
Major cities stationsEdit
|Location||Pro 1||Pro 2||Pro 3||Pro 4|
|Ambon||FM 95.4 MHz||FM 98.4 MHz||FM 90.1 MHz|
|Banda Aceh||FM 97.7 MHz||FM 88.5 MHz||FM 92.6 MHz||FM 87.8 MHz|
|Bandar Lampung||FM 90.9 MHz||FM 92.5 MHz||FM 87.7 MHz||FM 88.5 MHz|
|Bandung||FM 97.6 MHz||FM 96.0 MHz|
|Banjarmasin||FM 97.6 MHz||FM 95.2 MHz||FM 92.5 MHz||FM 87.7 MHz, FM 99.6 MHz|
|Batam||FM 105.1 MHz||FM 105.5 MHz||FM 88.6 MHz|
|Bengkulu||FM 92.5 MHz||FM 105.1 MHz||FM 88.6 MHz|
|Bogor||FM 93.7 MHz||FM 106.8 MHz||FM 90.9 MHz|
|Cirebon||FM 94.8 MHz||FM 97.5 MHz|
|Denpasar||FM 88.6 MHz||FM 100.9 MHz||FM 95.3 MHz||FM 93.4 MHz|
|Jakarta||FM 91.2 MHz||FM 105.0 MHz||FM 88.8 MHz||FM 92.8 MHz|
|Jambi||FM 88.5 MHz||FM 90.9 MHz||FM 94.4 MHz||FM 99.2 MHz|
|Jayapura||FM 93.5 MHz||FM 90.1 MHz||FM 105.9 MHz||FM 89.3 MHz|
|Kupang||FM 94.4 MHz||FM 90.9 MHz||FM 101.9 MHz||FM 104.3 MHz|
|Lhokseumawe||FM 89.3 MHz||FM 101.9 MHz||FM 95.2 MHz|
|Makassar||FM 94.4 MHz||FM 96.8 MHz||FM 92.9 MHz||FM 92.5 MHz|
|Malang||FM 91.5 MHz||FM 87.9 MHz||FM 94.6 MHz||FM 105.3 MHz|
|Manado||FM 94.5 MHz||FM 97.7 MHz||FM 104.4 MHz||FM 88.6 MHz|
|Medan||FM 94.3 MHz||FM 92.4 MHz||FM 88.8 MHz||FM 88.4 MHz|
|Padang||FM 97,5 MHz||FM 90.8 MHz||FM 88.4 MHz||FM 92.4 MHz|
|Palembang||FM 92.4 MHz||FM 91.6 MHz||FM 97.1 MHz||FM 88.4 MHz|
|Pekanbaru||FM 99.1 MHz||FM 88.4 MHz||FM 89.2 MHz||FM 95.9 MHz|
|Pontianak||FM 104.2 MHz||FM 101.8 MHz||FM 90.3 MHz||FM 94.3 MHz|
|Purwokerto||FM 93.1 MHz||FM 99.0 MHz||FM 97.1 MHz|
|Semarang||FM 89.0 MHz||FM 95.3 MHz||FM 92.2 MHz||FM 88.2 MHz|
|Surabaya||FM 99.2 MHz||FM 95.2 MHz||FM 106.3 MHz||FM 96.8 MHz|
|Surakarta||FM 105.5 MHz||FM 97.0 MHz||FM 95.1 MHz|
|Yogyakarta||FM 91.1 MHz||FM 102.5 MHz||FM 102.9 MHz|
Other local stationsEdit
RRI Pro 1/2/4 opening 19 hours 7 days at 5am to closedown at 11:55pm local time.
RRI Pro 3 opening 24 hours 7 days.
RRI has its own visual radio channel, RRI NET, that broadcasts certain live national radio programming via television. RRI NET can be accessed via streaming service as well as free-to-air satellite television across the country.
RRI maintain a news portal on its official website (rri.co.id), as well as indie music portal BeYoung.id. The network also maintain RRIplay Go mobile app, offering RRI services in one app such as live streaming of all networks and local stations, news portal, RRI 30" citizen journalism and BeYoung.
Criticism and controversiesEdit
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- Act No. 32 of 2002 on Broadcasting does not specifically mention the ownership of "public broadcasting institution" (LPP), the status of which RRI is attached to; it only mention that LPP is "established by the state". This provision is in contrast to the previous Act No. 24 of 1997 which clearly describe RRI as a "government broadcasting institution". While the network still enjoys national budget appropriation and its asset is classified as state-owned, it should maintain its independent and neutral mandate; adhering to the public broadcasting principles.
- Armando, Ade (2011). Televisi Jakarta di Atas Indonesia: Kisah Kegagalan Sistem Televisi Berjaringan di Indonesia. Yogyakarta: Bentang. p. 64.
- Saragih, Bagus BT (2015). "RRI, TVRI: The forgotten agents of change". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 5 October 2020.
- Zakaria, Anang; et al. (2012). Radio Melintas Zaman. Banjarnegara: Sukses Mandiri Press. pp. 29–30.
- Pusat Pemberitaan (YouTube) (2015). "RRI NET LIVE STREAMING". Retrieved 2 January 2021.
- anni005 (2018). "RRI Net, Inovasi Digital Tonton Apa Yang Anda Dengar". Ministry of Communication and Information Technology, Republic of Indonesia. Retrieved 2 January 2021.
- Djamalul Abidin As (ed.), 40 Tahun Radio Republik Indonesia: Sekali di Udara Tetap di Udara. Jakarta: Panitia Peringatan Hari Radio ke-40, 1985.