Jayapura (formerly Dutch: Hollandia) is the capital and largest city of the Indonesian province of Papua. It is situated on the northern coast of New Guinea island and covers an area of 940.0 km2 (362.9 sq mi). The city borders the Pacific Ocean and Yos Sudarso Bay to the north, the sovereign state of Papua New Guinea to the east, Keerom Regency to the south, and Jayapura Regency to the west.

City of Jayapura
Kota Jayapura
From top, left to right:
Panoramic view of Jayapura, Youtefa Bridge, Jayapura City signboard, Jayapura Port within Humboldt Bay, Mal Jayapura, and Jayapura City view at night
Flag of Jayapura
Coat of arms of Jayapura
Prasetya Adi Karya
(Determination to create the best work)
Location within Papua
Location within Papua
Jayapura is located in Indonesia
Coordinates: 2°31′58.8″S 140°43′1.2″E / 2.533000°S 140.717000°E / -2.533000; 140.717000Coordinates: 2°31′58.8″S 140°43′1.2″E / 2.533000°S 140.717000°E / -2.533000; 140.717000
Country Indonesia
Founded7 March 1910 (as Hollandia)[1]
Incorporated2 August 1993[2]
 • MayorBenhur Tomi Mano
 • Vice MayorRustan Saru
 • Total940.0 km2 (362.9 sq mi)
287 m (942 ft)
 (mid 2021 estimate)
 • Total404,004
 • Density430/km2 (1,100/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+9 (Indonesia Eastern Time)
Area code(+62) 967
HDIIncrease 0.801 (Very High)

With a population of 398,478 according to the 2020 census, Jayapura is the most populous city in the entire island of New Guinea, surpassing Port Moresby, the national capital of Papua New Guinea.[3] It is also the fastest-growing city in Indonesia, with the population increasing by 55.23% since the previous census in 2010.[4] The official estimate as at mid 2021 was 404,004.[5]

Jayapura is the fourth largest city by economy in Eastern Indonesia—after Makassar, Denpasar, and Manado—with an estimated 2016 GDP at Rp19.48 trillion.[6] As of 2017, it is also the second-most expensive Indonesian city to live in, after Jakarta.[7] Jayapura has a very high Human Development Index (HDI) at 0.801.[8]


Jayapura is Sanskrit for "city of victory" (जय jaya: "victory"; पुर pura: "city") and was named by Suharto as part of the de-Sukarnoization. Nowadays there are calls from some citizens, government officials and academicians, to rename the city to better reflect the locals like the naming of Youtefa Bridge. Some suggestions include Kota Tabi as the city is in the customary region of Tabi, Port Numbay, or just Numbay as "Port" is English and not a native word. The word "Numbay" comes from the river Numbay which flows to the city. It has the meaning "clear water" while "Tabi" means "sunrise" in the local Kayo Pulau language.[9][10]

During the Dutch colonial era the city was called Hollandia, based on the Holland region. In 1945, the Dutch made Hollandia the capital of then Netherlands New Guinea. After the territory was handed over to the United Nations Temporary Executive Authority, on 1 October 1962, the city went by a dual Dutch/Indonesian name: Hollandia/Kota Baru (New Town). When Indonesia took control over the city on 1 May 1963, it became solely Kota Baru. In 1964, the city was briefly renamed Sukarnopura,[11] after then-President Sukarno, until the end of 1968, when it acquired its present name.


Hollandia Haven or Hollandia (now Jayapura) port in 1947

Before its inclusion into the colonial government of the Dutch Indies, the location of present-day Jayapura was known as Numbay.[12] Before the arrival of the Dutch there was an active trade in Numbay, centered on the Island of Metui Debi and the area where the former Gereja Pengharapan ("Church of the Favor of God") stood, in Sam Ratulangi Road, being most active between 1897 and 1905. The mode of the trade was through barter for spices, cassava, salted fish and bird-of-paradise. The society of Numbay was led by an ondoafi (chief of the tribe). In the 1800's, Numbay maintained relations with the Ternate Sultanate.[12]

On 28 September 1909, a detachment of the Dutch navy under Captain F.J.P. Sachse came ashore at Humboldt Bay near the mouth of the Numbay river. Their task was the systematic exploration of northern New Guinea and the search for a natural border between the Dutch and German spheres on New Guinea. Their camp along the river was called Kloofkamp, a name still in use as the name of an ancient district of Jayapura. Forty coconut trees were cut down for the establishment of the camp. They were bought from the owners at a cost of one rijksdaalder per palm.

On 7 March 1910, the Dutch flag was raised and the settlement was named Hollandia. On the other side of the bay there was already a German camp, Germania-Huk (German Corner), which is now uninhabited and part of Indonesian territory. Hollandia was the capital of a district of the same name in the northeast of West New Guinea. The name Hollandia was used until 1962.

The northern part of Netherlands New Guinea was occupied by Japanese forces in 1942. Allied forces drove out the Japanese after Operations Reckless and Persecution, the amphibious landings near Hollandia, from 21 April 1944. The area's Naval Base Hollandia, served as General Douglas MacArthur's headquarters until the conquest of the Philippines in March 1945. Over twenty U.S. bases were established and half a million US personnel moved through the area.[13]

Jayapura was struck by the Aitape tsunami after the 1998 Papua New Guinea earthquake.[14]

Geography and climateEdit

Looking east to Yos Sudarso Bay, showing the floating village of Tobati (left) and Engros (right), just to the south of Jayapura.

The topography of Jayapura varies from valleys to hills, plateaus, and mountains up to 700 metres (2,300 ft) above sea level. Jayapura overlooks the Yos Sudarso Bay. Jayapura is about 94,000 hectares (230,000 acres) in area, and is divided into five districts. Around 30% of the area is inhabited, with the remainder consisting of a rough terrain, swamps, and protected forest.

Jayapura has a tropical rainforest climate (Af) with heavy rainfall year-round.

Climate data for Jayapura
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 30.9
Daily mean °C (°F) 26.9
Average low °C (°F) 22.9
Average precipitation mm (inches) 288
Source: Climate-Data.org[15]

Administrative districtsEdit

Districts (distrik) of Jayapura

The city comprises five districts (kecamatan), tabulated below with their areas and their populations at the 2010 Census[16] and the 2020 Census,[17] together with the official estimates as at mid 2021.[18] The table also lists the location of the district headquarters.

District (kecamatan) Area
mid 2021
Muara Tami 626.7 11,137 13,325 18,414 Skouw Mabo
Abepura 155.7 73,157 86,251 123,811 Kota Baru
Heram 63.2 40,435 47,532 68,107 Waena
Jayapura Daksina (South Jayapura) 43.4 66,937 79,554 100,181 Entrop
Jayapura Utara (North Jayapura) 51.0 65,039 77,098 93,491 Tanjung Ria
Jayapura Totals 940.0 256,705 303,760 404,004

Note: (a) the original 2020 Census figures were quoted as 303,760; this was drastically revised to 398,478, but the figures for the individual five districts have not been revised.


As the capital of Papua Province with all the development undertaken, Jayapura City has become a "magnet" for settlers from other regions of Indonesia. Ethnic Javanese, Makasar, Buginese, Torajanese, Manadonese, Bataks, Moluccans, Madurese and so on, among others ethnicities of the nation that helped increase the population drastically in at least one decade. In addition to the label "city of Education" then has made this city a destination for residents from outside the city of Jayapura to find a job and also gain knowledge in several institutions in this city.


On 12 May 1949, the Roman Catholic Apostolic Prefecture of Hollandia was established in the city. In 1963, it was renamed as the Apostolic Vicariate of Kota Baru. In 1964, it was again renamed as the Apostolic Vicariate of Sukarnapura. It was promoted in 1966 as the Diocese of Sukarnapura, renamed in 1969 as the Diocese of Djajapura and since 1973 spelled as Diocese of Jayapura.


Jayapura port activities around Jayapura Bay, 2011

The highest economic growth of Jayapura city compared to other districts/municipalities in the province of Papua has had implications for the increased income and purchasing power of the people. The economic growth is largely contributed from the tertiary sector, where trade and services and finance dominate its contribution to the formation of GRDP.

The sharp gap/disparity of income, and the high rate of poverty (28.44% at less than $3.10/day PPP[21]) and unemployment rate with low labor force participation rate (57.26%). Another weakness is the not yet optimal use of agriculture (in the broad sense) as one of the supporters of the regional economy that has a competitive advantage. Tourism developments, marked by the growing tourism industry and domestic and foreign tourist arrivals in Jayapura City, have provided opportunities for various sectors to flourish, especially income generation for the indigenous people of Port Numbay in Jayapura city.

With the development of trade and service activities supported by the increasing availability of trade and service facilities that lead to increased private investment in the trade and tourism services sector and other sectors. This condition also needs to be supported by the protection policy for the indigenous people of Port Numbay to be prioritized in taking the opportunity to compete healthily, especially in the field of trade, investment and tourism sector.

The economic condition of the indigenous people of Port Numbay, particularly in the context of economic competition in the city of Jayapura, is still at a low level with the lack of capital and skills possessed and with increasingly depleted natural resources.

With the skills and knowledge that still rely on subsistence economic activities such as sago concocting activities, catching fish in the sea, shifting cultivation to indigenous people of Port Numbay, it is enough left behind with other ethnic in Jayapura city that competes in trade and service which is economic modern with profit from the subsistence economy. However, by utilizing the customary rights area along the coast that became the coastal tourist attraction, some of the inhabitants of Port Numbay Original have competed in the service sector even on a small scale and limited capital. This is done by indigenous villagers Kayu Batu on BaseG beach in North Jayapura, Hamadi beach in South Jayapura and on Holtekam beach, Skow Mabo and Skow in Muara Tami district.

While competition in the field of trade is still limited to the natives of Port Numbay because it is still in small scale and is subsistence economy. Among other things, the sale of crops such as marine fish, long-term crops such as coconut, areca nut and others that more levels of economic competition with other ethnic Jayapura in the same merchandise, and with a larger scale.


Transmetro Jayapura busses

Jayapura is served by Sentani International Airport, located in Jayapura Regency near Lake Sentani.

A highway connects the city eastwards to Skouw, a village near the border with Papua New Guinea and continues beyond the border to Vanimo. The city has connection to other towns and cities such as Sarmi and Wamena via Trans-Papua Highway.

Bus terminals in Jayapura include Terminal Entrop and Terminal Mesran. Trans Jayapura bus rapid transit, operated by the city government via Pikoum cooperative, is operating within the city since 2019 with four corridors starting from both terminals.[22]

The government is currently planning to build a railway from Jayapura to Sarmi. Further plans could connect Jayapura with Manokwari and Sorong. The project is planned for completion by 2030.[23]


Jayapura is the home of the Persipura, a professional football club that has produced many famous Papuan-Indonesian footballers[24] and have won the Liga Indonesia/Indonesia Super League four times in the 2005, 2008–09, 2010–11 and the 2012–13 seasons. Persipura plays its home matches in the Mandala Stadium.


The main newspaper in Papua, Cenderawasih Pos, is published in Jayapura. Other notable local newspaper and online media such as Koran Jubi is also based in the city.

Jayapura also served by several radio and television station, including public stations RRI Jayapura and TVRI Papua as well as privately owned Jaya TV. Most national television networks coverage could be received in the city.

Twin towns and sister citiesEdit

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ "Sejarah Singkat Kota Jayapura – Dinas Komunikasi Dan Informatika". Archived from the original on 2 February 2020. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
  2. ^ RI, Setjen DPR. "J.D.I.H. - Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat". www.dpr.go.id.
  3. ^ "Badan Pusat Statistik".
  4. ^ "Badan Pusat Statistik".
  5. ^ Badan Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2022.
  6. ^ Badan Pusat Statistik (2017). Produk Domestik Regional Bruto Kabupaten/Kota di Indonesia 2012-2016. Jakarta: Badan Pusat Statistik.
  7. ^ Fadli, Ahmad (5 February 2017). "BPS: Delapan Kota Ini dengan Biaya Hidup Paling Mahal di Indonesia". indsutry.co.id (in Indonesian).
  8. ^ "Badan Pusat Statistik".
  9. ^ Jubi.co.id. "Nama Kota Jayapura Diusulkan Diganti Jadi Port Numbay". teras.id (in Indonesian).
  10. ^ "NUMBAY, JAYAPURA, TANAH TABI, NEGERI MATAHARI TERBIT". IMAJI PAPUA (in Indonesian). 18 September 2019. Retrieved 15 October 2022.
  11. ^ In the spelling Sukarnapura, the ending "o" of Sukarno's name was replaced by an "a" to name the city after Sukarno in the Javanese, in which the "o" is pronounced [ɔ] but written with "a".
  12. ^ a b Fabio Maria Lopes Costa (5 June 2015). "Jelajah Sepeda Papua – Jayapura, Cahaya Dari Timur". Jelajah Sepeda Papua (in Indonesian). Jakarta: KOMPAS. KOMPAS. p. 24. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 6 June 2015.
  13. ^ "Jayapura". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 27 May 2010.
  14. ^ "The Impact of the 1998 Aitape Tsunami at Jayapura, Indonesia" (PDF). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Retrieved 27 May 2010.
  15. ^ "Climate: Jayapura". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved 24 July 2020.
  16. ^ Biro Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2011.
  17. ^ Badan Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2021.
  18. ^ Badan Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2022.
  19. ^ Kota Jayapura
  20. ^ www.citypopulation.de retrieved 2013-12-19
  21. ^ "SMERU - Indonesia Poverty Maps". povertymap.smeru.or.id. Retrieved 19 July 2020.
  22. ^ admin1 (2020). "Rute dan Harga Tiket Bus Rapid Transit 'BRT' Jayapura". Genpi Nasional. Retrieved 20 February 2021.
  23. ^ Ini Rute Jalur KA Papua Setelah Sorong-Manokwari
  24. ^ "Persipura Consistently to Develop Local Players". Papua Untuk Semua. Retrieved 27 July 2013.

External linksEdit