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Malang (/.mɒˈlɒŋ-/; Javanese: ꦏꦸꦛꦩꦭꦁ) is the second largest city in the Indonesian province of East Java. It has a history dating back to the age of Singhasari Kingdom. As the second most populous city in the province, the 2016 census recorded 887,443 people in the city.[3] Its built-up (metro) area was home to 3,663,691 inhabitants spread on 2 cities and 22 districts (21 in Malang Regency and 1 in Pasuruan Regency).[4]

Malang
City of Malang
Kota Malang
Other transcription(s)
 • Javaneseꦏꦸꦛꦩꦭꦁ
Malang WEB.jpg
Karangkates Dam, Malang.jpg
Candi Badut.JPG
Stasiun Malang Kota Baru Tampak Dalam.jpg
Gajayana Stadium.jpg
Clockwise, from top left: Malang City Hall, Badut Temple, Gajayana Stadium, Malang Station and Karangkates Dam
Official seal of Malang
Seal
Motto(s): 
Malang Kuçeçwara (meaning: God shattering the wrong, uphold the correct)
Location within East Java
Location within East Java
Malang is located in Java
Malang
Malang
Location in Java and Indonesia
Malang is located in Indonesia
Malang
Malang
Malang (Indonesia)
Malang is located in Asia
Malang
Malang
Malang (Asia)
Coordinates: 7°58′48″S 112°37′12″E / 7.98000°S 112.62000°E / -7.98000; 112.62000Coordinates: 7°58′48″S 112°37′12″E / 7.98000°S 112.62000°E / -7.98000; 112.62000
Country Indonesia
Province East Java
Settled760
Incorporated (City)1 April 1914
Government
 • TypeKota
 • MayorSutiaji
 • Vice MayorSofyan Edi Jarwoko
Area
 • City145.28 km2 (56.09 sq mi)
 • Urban
1,132.7 km2 (437.3 sq mi)
 • Metro
2,156.6 km2 (832.7 sq mi)
Elevation
506 m (1,660 ft)
Population
(2017 BPS[1])
 • City887,443
 • Density6,100/km2 (16,000/sq mi)
 • Urban
2,795,209
 • Urban density2,500/km2 (6,400/sq mi)
 • Metro
3,663,691
 • Metro density1,700/km2 (4,400/sq mi)
Demonym(s)Malangan, Arema[2]
Time zoneUTC+7 (IWST)
Postal Code
6511x–6514x
Area code(+62) 341
Vehicle registrationN
AirportAbdul Rachman Saleh Airport
Websitemalangkota.go.id

The city is well known for its mild climate. During the period of Dutch colonization, it was a popular destination for European residents. Until now, Malang still holds its position a popular destination for international tourists.[5]

Malang was spared many of the effects of the Asian financial crisis and since that time it has been marked by steady economic and population growth.[6]

Contents

EtymologyEdit

The etymology of the name Malang is uncertain. One of the theory said that the name Malang is derived from the words Malangkuçeçwara which means "God has destroyed the false and enforced the right". The words was taken from an ancient term which mention a legendary temple called Malangkuçeçwara supposedly located near the city Malang. The word Malangkuçeçwara was applied as the motto of the city of Malang.

HistoryEdit

The history of Malang Regency could be revealed through the Dinoyo inscription at year of 760 as the primary official document to support the birth of Malang before a new inscription was discovered in 1986, which is yet to be deciphered. According to the inscription, it was concluded that the 8th century was the beginning of the existence of Malang Regency's government due to the birth of King Gajayana's ruling of his Indianized Hindu kingdom in Malang. From the Dinoyo inscriptions, it is noted that the inscription used the "Candra Sengkala" or Cronogram Calendar, and stated that the birth date of Malang Regency was on Jum'at Legi (sweet Friday) of 28 November 760.[7]

The city was capital city of Singhasari in 1222, then transferred to Dutch colony. Malang was modernized under the Dutch; its mild climate which results from its elevation, along with its proximity to the major port of Surabaya, made it a popular destination for the Dutch and other Europeans. In 1879, Malang was connected to Java's railroad network, further increasing development and leading to increased industrialization. On 1 April 1914 Malang was designated gemeente (city).[8][9]

Along with growth came urbanization. The government could not satisfy the population’s needs for affordable housing, which led to the building of shanty towns along the rivers and rail tracks. Today, the shanty towns still exist; although some have been transformed into “better” housing.

GeographyEdit

Malang is located in the middle of Malang Regency and south side of Java Island. The city has an area of 145.28 square kilometres (56.09 sq mi).[10] The city is bordered by Singosari and Karangploso subdistricts on the north side; Pakis and Tumpang subdistricts on the east side; Tajinan and Pakisaji subdistricts on the south side; and Wagir and Dau subdistricts on the west side[11] which are all subdistricts of Malang Regency.

The parts of Malang have their own characteristics so that they are well-suited for various activities. The southern part of Malang is a large enough plateau that is suitable for industry, the northern part is a fertile highland that is suitable for agriculture, the eastern part is a plateau with less fertile soil, and the western part is a vast plateau and is now an educational area.[11]

Malang City is passed by one of the longest rivers in Indonesia and the second longest in Java after Bengawan Solo, the Brantas River whose source is located on the slopes of Mount Arjuno in the northwest of the city. The second longest river in Malang is the Metro River through Malang in Karangbesuki village, Sukun subdistrict.

The city of Malang is located at a plateau. The city lies at an altitude between 440-667 metres above sea level. The city's highest point is in CitraGarden City Malang, a real estate development,[12] while the lowest area of Malang is in the Dieng area.[13]

The city of Malang is surrounded by mountains and mountain ranges. The city is surrounded by Mount Arjuno in the north; Mount Semeru to the east; Mount Kawi and Mount Panderman in the west; Mount Kelud in the south.[11] The popular active volcano Mount Bromo is about 25 km (16 miles) east of the city, and in November 2010, the airport was closed for nearly a week due to airborne ash from an eruption.[14]

ClimateEdit

The Climate in Malang city features tropical monsoon climate (Am) as the climate precipitation throughout the year is greatly influenced by the monsoon, bordering with subtropical highland climate (Cwb). The driest month is August with precipitation total 26 mm, while the wettest month is January with precipitation total 334 mm. The temperature is moderated by the altitude, as the city is located at 506 m above sea level. The hottest month is October and November with average 24.3 °C, while the coolest month is July with average 22.4 °C.

Climate data for Malang, East Java, Indonesia
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 28.5
(83.3)
28.5
(83.3)
28.5
(83.3)
28.7
(83.7)
29.0
(84.2)
28.8
(83.8)
28.4
(83.1)
29.3
(84.7)
29.8
(85.6)
30.2
(86.4)
29.5
(85.1)
28.5
(83.3)
29.0
(84.1)
Daily mean °C (°F) 24.0
(75.2)
24.1
(75.4)
24.0
(75.2)
24.0
(75.2)
23.9
(75.0)
23.2
(73.8)
22.4
(72.3)
23.2
(73.8)
23.6
(74.5)
24.3
(75.7)
24.3
(75.7)
23.8
(74.8)
23.7
(74.7)
Average low °C (°F) 19.6
(67.3)
19.7
(67.5)
19.5
(67.1)
19.3
(66.7)
18.9
(66.0)
17.7
(63.9)
16.5
(61.7)
17.1
(62.8)
17.5
(63.5)
18.5
(65.3)
19.2
(66.6)
19.1
(66.4)
18.5
(65.4)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 334
(13.1)
307
(12.1)
292
(11.5)
173
(6.8)
132
(5.2)
77
(3.0)
47
(1.9)
26
(1.0)
43
(1.7)
106
(4.2)
225
(8.9)
326
(12.8)
2,088
(82.2)
Average relative humidity (%) 81.7 82.3 82.2 79.2 79.8 77.3 75.1 72.9 70.9 70.9 74.4 79.1 77.1
Source #1: Climate-Data.org (temp & precip)[15]
Source #2: Weatherbase (humidity)[16]

AdministrationEdit

The city of Malang is currently led by Mayor Sutiaji, which will serve his term from 2018 to 2023.[17] The city's legislative body, the Malang Regional People's Representative Council, has 45 seats, dominated by PDI Perjuangan (11 seats), PKB (6 seats), and Golkar Party (5 seats). The members are elected every five years.[18] Malang is divided into five districts (kecamatan), tabulated below with their 2010 Census population:[19]

Name Population
Census 2010
Kedungkandang 174,477
Sukun 181,513
Klojen 105,907
Blimbing 172,333
Lowokwaru 186,013

DemographicsEdit

Malang municipality has a population of over 800 thousand,[20] with over 3 million clustering in the Malang Valley,[21] making it the province's second most populous city. However, the population growth is not very high, at roughly 1 percent a year.

Ethnic backgroundsEdit

The racial makeup of the city is mainly Javanese,[22] with small percentages of Madurese,[23] Chinese and Arab descent.[24] Compared with other Javanese people, the Javanese people of Malang have a hard and egalitarian character.[22]

ReligionEdit

Religion in Malang (2016)[25]
Religion Percentage
Islam
86.72%
Protestantism
6.36%
Catholicism
5.10%
Hinduism
0.91%
Buddhism
0.87%
Confucianism
0.02%
Aliran kepercayaan
0.01%

Up until the 14th century, Malang was part of an Indianized majority Hindu-Buddhist kingdom like most of Java. Now a large majority of Malang residents are Muslims. There are small minorities of Catholics, Protestants, Hindus, Buddhists and Confucians.

Many buildings of worship still stand from their construction in the colonial era. For example, the City of Malang Grand Mosque (Masjid Agung Jami Kota Malang — مسجد ملانغ الكبير) in Malang City Square (Alun-alun Kota Malang); the Catholic Church of the Sacred Heart of Jesus (Gereja Katolik Hati Kudus Yesus) in Kayutangan; Saint Mary from Mount Carmel Cathedral (Gereja Ijen or Katedral Santa Maria dari Gunung Karmel) in Ijen Street, which is the seat for the Roman Catholic Diocese of Malang; the Immanuel Protestant Church in Alun-alun; and Eng An Kiong Confucian Temple (Klenteng Eng An Kiong — 永安宮廟) in Jl. Laksamana Martadinata No. 1 Malang.

Malang is famous for being a center of religious education. This is evident with the existence of many Islamic schools (madrasahs and pesantren) and Christian bible seminaries. Malang has several convents and monasteries: Carmel Monastery, Ursuline Convent, Misericordia monastery, Monastery of Our Lady of the Sacred Heart Brothers, Convent of the Sisters of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Monastery Mission Congregatio Brother, Brother Abbey Projo, Passionist Monastery, and several others.

LanguageEdit

The Arekan dialect of the Javanese language is the day-to-day language used in Malang. Like those of Surabaya, citizens of Malang adopt an egalitarian form of Javanese. As becomes a center of educational, there are many languages from outside Java spoken in Malang.

Many native Malang youths adopt a dialect that is called 'Boso Walikan'. This is a form of language game that consists of reversing the pronunciation of the words, e.g. “Malang” becomes “Ngalam”.[26]

Art and cultureEdit

 
Topeng Malang Hall

As a center of tourism, Malang has various places of interest which can be classified into local, regional, national and international standards, including traditional dance performances such as Tari Topeng (Mask Dance), Jaranan Pegon (Divine Horse Dance), Tari Beskalan (Beskalan Dance), Tari Bedayan Malang (Welcome Guests Dance) ,and Tari Grebeg Wiratama (Soldier's Fame Dance). There is also 'Topeng' or mask handicraft in the villages of Jabung and Kedungmonggo, which have become a familiar landmark in Malang Regency.

Football is considered a second religion in Malang. The city is home to Arema FC, a popular football club in Indonesia which is also known in the AFC for its internationally acclaimed achievements.

Malang is also home to a thriving transgender (waria) community headed by Miss Waria Indonesia 2006, Merlyn Sopjan. Many waria work in entertainment industry, beauty salons or become prostitutes. However, they still face prejudice and they can't get many employment options.[27]

Non-residentsEdit

Temporary residents in Malang are mostly there for educational reasons. They come from other islands, mainly in East and Central Indonesia, which includes Bali, Madura, Sulawesi, Nusa Tenggara, Papua, and Maluku. But there are also a large number of students originating from Jakarta, West Java, Sumatra and Borneo.

The view of West Malang from State University of Malang tower. University of Brawijaya's rectorate and main library building can be seen as a tower on the left side of the picture.

EconomyEdit

Malang City has a developed and pluralistic economy and is an economic area highlighted by the East Java Provincial Government.[28] The gross regional domestic product (GRDP) of Malang reached 57,171.60 billion rupiahs[29] with economic contribution of 3.06% to the GRDP of East Java; Malang became the city with the third largest GRDP in East Java and second-level region (daerah tingkat II, includes regencies and cities) with the tenth largest GRDP in East Java.[30] GRDP per capita of Malang City, which is 66,758,1 hundred thousand rupiahs is the sixth largest in East Java, after Pasuruan Regency.[30] Malang has about 6,000 unemployed people[31] with an open unemployment rate of 7.28%.[32] The economy of Malang is supported by various sectors, including industry, services, trade, and tourism. Trade contributed the most, with 29.53% of the total GRDP of Malang City.[33] Malang is also the home of one of the famous tobacco companies, namely Bentoel.[34]

Malang implements a system of creative economy.[35] This can be proved by the high role of micro, small and medium-sized enterprises (MSMEs) in the economy. The city government continues to encourage the development of MSMEs, among them by holding various expos[36] and festivals.[37] In addition to MSMEs, applications and digital games were made subsectors of the application of creative economy.[38] Indirectly, this creative economy also increases the human development of Malang City.[39]

In 2016, the economy of Malang grew by 5.61%.[33] This rapid economic growth is being boosted by tourism.[40][41][42] In addition, rapid economic growth was contributed by MSMEs,[43] industry and trade.[44]

Inflation in Malang is very low. In September 2017, Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS) noted that inflation in Malang was 0.05%.[45] The underlying cause of inflation is the rise in the general consumer price index.[45] Although low, Malang's inflation rate was once the highest in East Java, that is in July 2017 with inflation of 0.30%.[46]

TransportEdit

RoadEdit

There are 2,960 roads in Malang with a total length of 1,027 kilometres (638 mi).[47][48] This count does not include provincial and state roads.[47][48] In addition to being located at Indonesian National Route 23, which connects it to Gempol and Kepanjen, Malang is also connected to provincial roads[49] linking regencies and cities in East Java. To increase connectivity in East Java, toll roads are being built, one of them is the Pandaan-Malang Toll Road.[50] This toll road will end in Madyopuro, Kedungkandang.[51] Now the toll has entered the construction phase.[52]

On 28 May 2006, a blow-out occurred during drilling for an exploration of natural gas in Porong, Sidoarjo Regency. The blow-out initially produced 5000 m³ of mud flow per day. 18 months after the incident, the mudflow is estimated to be 80,000 m³ to 100,000 m³ per day. This ongoing mudflow has forced the closure of the Porong-Gempol toll road in East Java, which effectively cut off the transport line from Surabaya to Malang.[53] In mid-2015, a new highway — Gempol-Pandaan Toll Road — opened for the public to ease transport from Malang to Surabaya and Pasuruan to Surabaya, vice versa.[54]

 
Malang railway station, the main station of Malang

The primary means of public transportation is by microvans (most of them are Suzuki Carry) and painted blue for legal public use. Those microvans are called Angkot both officially and casually (from Angkutan = transportation and Kota = city) but some locals prefer to call it by the name Mikrolet. They are operated privately and cheap, around IDR 4,000 each boarding, but the angkots are usually cramped. The Department of Transportation of Malang operates angkots and school buses. Both services serve both the city centre and the suburbs. There are now 25 angkot routes in the city.[55] The school buses began operating on 29 December 2014[56] and there are now six school buses with six routes.[57] Malang has a large intercity bus terminal, Arjosari, located in Blimbing, North Malang. Since 2016, transportation network companies such as GO-JEK and Uber have been operating in Malang. A protest was held by angkot and taxi drivers opposing these companies on 20 February 2017, leading GO-JEK to close its office in Malang temporarily.[58]

According to INRIX, Malang is one of the most congested cities in the world with total time spent in a year in congestion of 39.3 hours (20% of total time).[59] According to a Brawijaya University survey, 46.2% of city residents consider congestion in the city to be severe.[60] This congestion also eliminates the convenience of the tourists.[61] The city government has tried to overcome it by planning the development of monorail[62][63] and underpasses. However, after conducting several comparative studies, the government stated that the City of Malang is unable to build monorails and underpasses because it is very expensive.[64]

RailwayEdit

The Malang Station, located in the centre of Malang,[65] is the main railway station of the city and serves 832,181 passengers[66] with the number reaching 5 thousand people per day [67] on the mudik of 2017. The station is the largest railway station in Malang[68] and connects Malang with other major cities in Indonesia such as Surabaya,[69] Bandung,[70] and Jakarta.[71] It is near Malang City Hall and some other governmental and primary public services. The station is frequently called as the Malang Kota Baru Station (Malang New City Station) to distinguish it from Kotalama Station (Old City Station) which is located in Sukun, South Malang. There is also a small train station, Blimbing located in Blimbing, North Malang which is strategically located near five and four-star hotels and the city's business and commercial district.

To ease commuters from Yogyakarta to Malang vice versa, on 20 May 2012 Malioboro Express (Moleks) has been operated.[72]

Previously, there was a tram system in Malang, but now it is defunct.

AirEdit

Malang is served by Abdul Rachman Saleh Airport[73] located in Malang Regency.[74] The airport connects the city to domestic cities such as Jakarta[75] and Makassar.[76] This airport can be accessed by taxis and travel cabs.

EducationEdit

Malang has a strong reputation throughout Indonesia as a center for higher education and learning.[77] The following higher education institutions are located in the city:

Public institutions:

Private institutions:

  • University of Muhammadiyah Malang (UMM)
  • Ma Chung University
  • Islamic University of Malang (UNISMA)
  • Catholic University Widya Karya Malang (UKWK)
  • South East Asia Bible Seminary - SAAT
  • STIE Malangkucecwara
  • Widyagama University of Malang (UWG)
  • Institut Teknologi Nasional Malang (ITN)
  • Merdeka University (UNMER)
  • Vocational and Educational Development Center Malang (VEDC Malang)
  • IKIP Budi Utomo Malang
  • Gajayana University of Malang (UNIGA)
  • Universitas Kanjuruhan Malang (UNIKAMA)

Malang also has two elementary schools, high schools and two international schools, Wesley International School and Bina Bangsa School Malang.

HealthcareEdit

 
Saiful Anwar Hospital

Health services in the city are quite adequate. This is supported by the focus of the city budget carried out by the municipal government.[78] In Malang, there are hundreds of hospitals, clinics, Puskesmas (community health centres), Posyandu (integrated health posts), and other health services. Provincial and municipal governments have hospitals in this city. The provincial government has a hospital of type A, the Dr. Saiful Anwar Regional General Hospital,[79] while the city government has a smaller hospital, the Malang Regional General Hospital.[80]

Dr. Saiful Anwar Hospital is the largest hospital in the city. The hospital is a referral hospital in southern East Java.[81] Other public hospitals are the Malang City Hospital, Panti Nirmala Hospital, Lavalette Hospital, Hermina Tangkubanprahu Hospital, RSI Malang, and Persada Hospital.[82]

Malang has many teaching hospitals. Dr. Saiful Anwar Hospital and University of Brawijaya Hospital accommodate University of Brawijaya students.[83][84][85] The University of Muhammadiyah Malang Hospital which accommodates students of the University of Muhammadiyah Malang is also one of them.[86]

SportEdit

Arema FC is the city's most widely supported football team and plays in the Indonesian top league, the GO-JEK Traveloka Liga Satu. Its home is Kanjuruhan Stadium, located in Kepanjen, Malang Regency. Arema FC has a loyal and large fanbase, those fans are called Aremania. There is also another football club, it goes by the name, Persema Malang, now defunct.

Malang also has a stadium in Klojen, Central Malang, it is known officially as Gajayana Stadium. Currently it is mostly used for major city events and athletics using its running track. There is also a swimming pool, tennis, basketball, badminton and weightlifting facilities near the stadium area as Central Sports Center. Another large sports center which goes by the name Rampal Sports Center is located near a military base in Kedungkandang, East Malang.

The city is also home to the professional basketball team Bimasakti Nikko Steel Malang, which plays in the Indonesian Basketball League.

EnvironmentEdit

ParksEdit

According to research by The Clean Cities Air Partnership Program (CCAP), Malang is one of the five cities with the cleanest air in Asia.[87][88][89] This achievement is one of the results of the community's commitment to continue to cultivate and beautify the city parks.[90] Parks in Malang are known to be clean and have playing facilities so that Malang is considered to be a child-friendly city.[91] The city government also created thematic parks, which helps the city to achieve the Best City Park in Indonesia award.[92][93] Thematic parks can be found on the green way on Jalan Jakarta, namely the Taman Kunang-Kunang (Firefly Park).[94]

The biggest parks in Malang are the Merdeka Square and Tugu Square (Tugu Malang Monument). Merdeka Square is located in front of the Malang Regent's Office and is the oldest square built in 1882.[95] Not only that, Merdeka Square also provides a children playground[96] and a fountain.[97] Tugu Square which is located right in front of the Malang City Hall[98] is decorated by the Tugu Malang, fountains, flowers, ponds with lotuses, typical flowers of Malang,[99] palm trees, and plastic lamps shaped like sunflowers.[100] Although intended for aesthetic elements, the sunflower lights were protested by the local residents because they were considered to be environmentally unfriendly and did not look good.[101]

Some parks are the result of development from CSR funds. One of these is the Slamet Park which was built with CSR funds from PT Bentoel Prima.[102] Bentoel's CSR fund was also used to renovate that park[103] and Taman Trunojoyo.[104] One of the famous parks, the Singha Merjosari Park was also renovated with CSR funds.[105] However, the CSR funds used are funds from telecommunications companies.[105] CSR funds from educational institutions such as the Merdeka Education Foundation that manages the Merdeka Malang University have also provided CSR to revitalize the Dieng Canal Park.[106][107]

AwardsEdit

In the environmental field, Malang has won several awards including Adipura (given to the cleanest cities in Indonesia), Adiwiyata, and others.[108] In addition, Malang is the city with the highest number of Adiwiyata schools in Indonesia, namely 173 schools from elementary to junior high schools.[109] The Department of Environment of Malang City also received the 2017 Water Supply and Environmental Health (Air Minum dan Penyehatan Lingkungan, AMPL) award from the Head of the National Development Planning Agency.[110] AMPL was achieved by the city because the city was able to reduce solid waste in 2016 by 15.1% and the coverage of access to waste management was 74.8%.[111] In 2017, the city won the Wahana Tata Nugraha award because it was able to transform the slum environment into a tourist attraction[112] such as the Jodipan Tourism Village. The many awards obtained by the city also had an impact on the increase in Regional Incentive Funds (Dana Insentif Daerah, DID) from 7.5 billion rupiahs in 2017 to 25.5 billion in 2018.[113]

Conservation effortsEdit

The government plays an active role in environmental conservation efforts. In achieving the Adipura Kencana, the education office held the Green School Festival (GSF) which was held annually in schools in the city.[114] The method of implementing the GSF is considered good because it is forcing the participation of all schools.[114] In addition, the Department of Housing and Settlements (Disperkim) also conducted a garden arrangement competition by realising the importance of green open space,[115] and also actively built parks in the city.[116] The city of Malang also seeks to utilise additional funds such as CSR funds to revitalise city parks.[117][118]

Notable peopleEdit

Sister CitiesEdit

ReferencesEdit

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