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The Brantas is the longest river in East Java, Indonesia.[1] It has a length of 320 km,[2] and drains an area over 11,000 km² from the southern slope of Mount Kawi-Kelud-Butak, Mount Wilis, and the northern slopes of Mount Liman-Limas, Mount Welirang, and Mount Anjasmoro.[3] Its course is semi-circular or spiral in shape: at its source the river heads southeast, but gradually curves south, then southwest, then west, then north, and finally it flows generally eastward at the point where it branches off to become the Kalimas and Porong River.

Brantas River
Kali Brantas, Sungai Brantas
COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Een kabelbrug over de rivier Brantas bij Kesamben residentie Kediri Oost-Java TMnr 10007555.jpg
A suspension bridge above the Brantas near Kesamben, Kediri, East Java (ca. 1922).
Brantas River is located in Java
Brantas River
Location of river mouth
Brantas River is located in Indonesia
Brantas River
Brantas River (Indonesia)
Location
CountryIndonesia
ProvinceEast Java
Litography of Brantas river based on the painting by Abraham Salm (1865-1872)
Brantas river before 1940

Contents

HistoryEdit

 
Brantas River in the area of Surabaya, early 20th century
 
Shallow Brantas river near Kediri.

King Mpu Sindok moved his kingdom from Mataram Kingdom in Central Java to a new location on this river at circa 950 A.D. Possibly (only one of a number of reasons given) due to a Mount Merapi volcanic eruption, he had to leave his kingdom to this new safe place near present city of Madiun.

Cities and regencies on Brantas RiverEdit

GeographyEdit

The river flows in the eastern area of Java with predominantly tropical monsoon climate (designated as Am in the Köppen-Geiger climate classification).[4] The annual average temperature in the area is 26 °C. The warmest month is October, when the average temperature is around 30 °C, and the coldest is June, at 24 °C.[5] The average annual rainfall is 2982 mm. The wettest month is March, with an average of 496 mm rainfall, and the driest is August, with 28 mm rainfall.[6]

Brantas River
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
459
 
 
28
21
 
 
453
 
 
27
22
 
 
496
 
 
27
21
 
 
282
 
 
28
22
 
 
144
 
 
29
22
 
 
175
 
 
27
20
 
 
65
 
 
29
20
 
 
28
 
 
32
20
 
 
35
 
 
35
21
 
 
111
 
 
37
22
 
 
295
 
 
35
23
 
 
439
 
 
30
21
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: [5]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Kali Brantas at Geonames.org (cc-by); Last updated 2013-06-04; Database dump downloaded 2015-11-27
  2. ^ Ramu, Kikkeri (December 2004). "Brantas River Basin Case Study, Indonesia" (pdf). Background Paper. Worldbank: 36.
  3. ^ Whitten, T; Soeriaatmadja, R. E.; Suraya A. A. (1996). The Ecology of Java and Bali. Hong Kong: Periplus Editions Ltd. p. 132.
  4. ^ Peel, M C; Finlayson, B L; McMahon, T A (2007). "Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification". Hydrology and Earth System Sciences. 11: 1633–1644. doi:10.5194/hess-11-1633-2007. Retrieved 30 January 2016.
  5. ^ a b "NASA Earth Observations Data Set Index". NASA. 30 January 2016.
  6. ^ "NASA Earth Observations: Rainfall (1 month - TRMM)". NASA/Tropical Rainfall Monitoring Mission. 30 January 2016.

Coordinates: 7°27′36″S 112°25′49″E / 7.4599°S 112.4302°E / -7.4599; 112.4302