This article possibly contains original research. (November 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Arab cuisine (Arabic: مطبخ عربي) is the cuisine of the Arabs, defined as the various regional cuisines spanning the Arab world, from the Maghreb to the Fertile Crescent and the Arabian Peninsula. The cuisines are often centuries old and reflect the culture of great trading in spices, herbs, and foods. The three main regions, also known as the Maghreb, the Fertile Crescent, and the Arabian Peninsula have many similarities, but also many unique traditions. These kitchens have been influenced by the climate, cultivating possibilities, as well as trading possibilities. The kitchens of the Maghreb and Levant are relatively young kitchens that were developed over the past centuries. The kitchen from the Khaleej region is a very old kitchen. The kitchens can be divided into the urban and rural kitchens.
Diet and foodsEdit
The Arab cuisine uses specific and sometimes unique foods and spices. Some of those foods are:
- Meat: lamb and chicken are the most used, with beef, goat. Other poultry is used in some regions, and fish is used in coastal areas including the Mediterranean sea, Atlantic Ocean or the Red sea. Pork is completely prohibited for Muslim Arabs, being both a cultural and religious taboo (Haram) and prohibited under Islamic law, whereas many Christian Arabs do eat and enjoy pork products, especially in Lebanon and Egypt, where cold cuts of ham are frequently consumed in Christian neighbourhoods.
- Dairy products: dairy products are widely used, especially yogurt, Buttermilk and white cheese. Butter and cream are also used extensively.
- Herbs and spices: The amounts and types used generally varies from region to region. Some of the included herbs and spices are sesame, saffron, Black pepper, Allspice, turmeric, garlic, cumin, cinnamon, Parsley, Coriander and sumac. Spice mixtures include baharat, Ras el hanout, Za'atar, Harissa.
- Beverages: hot beverages are served more than cold, coffee being at the top of the list in the Middle-eastern countries and tea at top of the Maghreb countries. In Jordan, Palestine, Egypt, some parts of Syria, Morocco, and Algeria, tea is much more important as a beverage. Other Arabic drinks include Andalucian Horchata and Maghrebi avocado smoothie.
- Grains: rice is the staple and is used for most dishes; wheat is the main source for bread. Bulgur and semolina are also used extensively.
- Legumes: lentils are widely used in all colours, as well as fava beans, chickpeas (garbanzo beans), scarlet runner beans, green peas, lupini beans, white beans, and brown beans.
- vegetables: Arab cuisine favors vegetables such as carrots, eggplant (aubergine), zucchini (courgette), artichokes, okra, onions, and Olives. Potatoes are also eaten as vegetables in Arab culture.
- Fruits: Arab cuisine favors fruits such as Pomegranate, Dates, Figs, oranges, citruses, watermelons, Cantaloupe, Honeydew melon, grapes, peaches, and nectarines.
- Nuts: Almonds, peanuts, pine nuts, pistachios, and walnuts are often included in dishes or eaten as snacks.
- Greens: Parsley, Coriander and mint are popular as seasonings in many dishes, while spinach and mulukhiyah (leaves from the plant of the Corchorus genus) are used in cooked dishes.
- Dressings and sauces: The most popular dressings include various combinations of olive oil, lemon juice, parsley, or garlic, as well as tahini (sesame paste). Labaneh (strained yogurt) is often seasoned with mint, onion, or garlic, and served as a sauce with various dishes.
The Bedouins of the Arabian Peninsula, Middle-East and North-Africa relied on a diet of dates, dried fruit, nuts, wheat, barley, rice, and meat. The meat came from large animals such as cows, sheep, and lambs. They also ate dairy products: milk, cheese, yoghurt, and buttermilk (Labneh). The bedouins would also use many different dried beans including white beans, lentils, and chickpeas. Vegetables that were used a lot among the bedouins are variants that could be dried, such as pumpkins, but also vegetables that are more heat-resistant, such as aubergines. They would drink a lot of fresh Verbena tea, Arabic tea, Maghrebi mint tea, or Arabic coffee. A daily break to freshen up with drinks is a much loved tradition. The bread that is eaten a lot is called Khobz as well as Khaleej, in the Maghreb regions. Dishes such as Marqa, Stews, Tajines were prepared traditionally among the bedouins. Breakfast existed of baked beans, bread, nuts, dried fruits, milk, yoghurt, and cheese with tea or coffee. Snacks included nuts and dried fruits.
Essential to any cooking in the Arab world is the concept of hospitality and generosity. Meals are generally large family affairs, with much sharing and a great deal of warmth over the dinner table. Formal dinners and celebrations generally involve large quantities of lamb, and every occasion entails large quantities of Arabic coffee or Arabic tea.
Coffee ceremony: In the Khaleej region, a visitor is greeted by a great table of dried fruits, fresh fruits, nuts and cakes with syrup. Dried fruits include figs, dates, apricots and plums. Fresh fruits include citruses, melons and pomegranate. Arabic Coffee is served the most, but Arabic tea is also a great refresher. Spices are often added in the coffee or other drinks.
Dinner guests: In the khaleej region, a visitor might expect a dinner consisting of a very large platter, shared commonly, with a vast amount of spiced rice, incorporating cooked spicy lamb or chicken, or both, as separate dishes, with various stewed vegetables, heavily spiced, sometimes with a tomato-based sauce. Different types of bread are served with different toppings specific to the region. Tea would certainly accompany the meal, as it is almost constantly consumed. Coffee would be included in the same manner.
Tea/coffee ceremony: In the Maghrebi region, a visitor might expect a table full of bread-like snacks, including Msemen, Baghrir and other stuffed breads. These are served with honey, rosewater or olive oil. There are also many different cookies and cakes included accompanied by plates with different kinds of nuts. Arabic coffee and Mint tea is often served with it in a traditional Maghrebian teapot.
Dinner guests: In the Maghrebi region, a visitor might expect a table with different kinds of stews, also called Marqas or Tajines. Dishes such as couscous or other semolina based dishes are much appreciated as well. These main dishes are accompanied by smaller mezze-like plates with salads, sauces and dips. Breads such as Msemen and Khobz are used to eat the stews.
Coffee/ Tea ceremony: In an average Arab Levantian household, a visitor might expect a table full of Mezzes, breads topped with spices including Za'atar and nuts. In the levant region, Arabic coffee is a much loved beverage, but Arabic tea is also much loved in Jordan and Palestine.
Dinner guests: In the Levantian region, a visitor might expect a table with different kinds of mezzes, nuts, dips and oils. Mezzes include Hummus, Baba ghanoush, Falafel, Kibbeh, Kafta, smoked vegetables and Tabouli salads. The nuts can differ from almonds to walnuts, with different spice coatings. The dips and oils include hummus and olive oil.
There are many regional differences in the Arab cuisine. For instance, mujadara in Syria and Lebanon is different from mujadara in Jordan and Palestine. Some dishes, such as mansaf (the national dish of Jordan), are native to certain countries and rarely, if ever, make an appearance in other countries. Unlike in most Western cuisines, cinnamon is used in meat dishes, as well as in sweets such as baklava. Dishes including Tajine and Couscous can differ from Morocco to Libya, with their unique preparations. Other dishes, such as the Arabo-Andalucian Bastilla or Albondigas have different traditional spicemixes and fillings in the Maghreb region.
Structure of mealsEdit
Cafés often serve croissants for breakfast. Breakfast is often a quick meal, consisting of bread and dairy products, with tea and sometimes jam. The most used is labneh and cream (kishta, made of cow's milk).
Lunch is considered the main meal of the day, and is traditionally eaten between 1:30pm and 2:30pm. It is the meal for which the family comes together, and when entertaining, it is the meal of choice to invite guests to. Rarely do meals have different courses; however, salads and mezze (an appetizer) are served as side dishes to the main meal. The platter usually consists of a portion of meat, poultry or fish, a portion of rice, lentils, bread and a portion of cooked vegetables, in addition to the fresh ones with the mezze and salad. The vegetables and meat are usually cooked together in a sauce (often tomato, although others are also popular) to make maraq, which is served on rice. Most households add bread, whether other grains were available or not. Drinks are not necessarily served with the food; however, there is a very wide variety of drinks such as shineena (or laban), karakaden, Naqe'e Al Zabib, irq soos, tamr Hindi, and fruit juice, as well as other traditional Arab drinks. During the 20th century, carbonated soda and fruit-based drinks, sold by supermarkets, have also become very popular.
Dinner is traditionally the lightest meal, although in modern times, and due to changing lifestyles, dinner has become more important.
Desserts and Ramadan mealsEdit
In addition to the two meals mentioned hereafter, sweets are consumed much more than usual during the month of Ramadan; sweets and fresh fruits are served between these two meals. Although most sweets are made all year round such as Kanafeh, baklava, and basbousa, some are made especially for Ramadan, such as qatayef.
Iftar (also called Futuur), or fast-breaking, is the meal taken at dusk when the fast is over. The meal consists of three courses: first, they shall eat a date based on Islamic tradition. This is followed by a soup or anything they would like, the most popular being lentil soup, but a wide variety of soups such as chicken, oats, freeka (a soup made from whole wheat and chicken broth), potato, maash, and others are also offered. The third course is the main dish, usually eaten after an interval, when Maghreb prayer is conducted. The main dish is mostly similar to lunch, except that cold drinks are also served.
Regional Arab cuisinesEdit
The cuisine of Eastern Arabia today is the result of a combination of diverse cuisines, incorporating Levantine and Yemeni cuisines. Bukhari rice (روز البخاري) (Ruz al Bukhari) is a dish eaten in the Hejaz, Saudi Arabia. It is a rice with spicy tomato sauce, flavoured chicken and a fresh salad. It is a much eaten dish in the Hejaz district of Saudi-Arabia.
The cuisine of Yemen is rather distinct from other Arab cuisines. Like most other Arab cuisines, chicken, goat, and lamb are eaten more often than beef. Fish is eaten mostly in coastal areas. However, unlike most Arab countries, cheese, butter, and other dairy products are less common, especially in the cities and other urban areas. As with other Arab cuisines, the most widespread beverages are tea and coffee; tea is usually flavored with cardamom, clove, or mint, and coffee with cardamom. Karakaden, Naqe'e Al Zabib, and diba'a are the most widespread cold beverages.
Although each region has their own variation, Saltah (سلتة) is considered the national dish of Yemen. The base is a brown meat is called maraq (مرق), a dollop of fenugreek froth, and sahawiq (سحاوق) or sahowqa (a mixture of chili peppers, tomatoes, garlic, and herbs ground into a salsa. Rice, potatoes, scrambled eggs, and vegetables are common additions to saltah. It is eaten with flat bread, which serves as a utensil to scoop up the food. Other dishes widely known in Yemen include: Aseedah, aseed, fahsa, thareed, Samak Mofa, mandi, fattah, shakshouka, shafut, Bint Al-Sahn, kabsa, and jachnun. Nasi kebuli Harees Hyderabadi haleem. Hadhrami restaurants can be found in Malaysia.
The Fertile Crescent: MashriqEdit
Levantine cuisine is the traditional cuisine of the Fertile Crescent. Although now divided into Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Iraq, Egypt, and Palestine, the region has historically been more united, and shares most of the same culinary traditions. Although almost identical, there is some regional variation within the Levantine area.
Dishes include olive oil, za'atar, and garlic, and common dishes include a wide array of mezze or bread dips, stuffings, and side dishes such as hummus, falafel, ful, tabouleh, labaneh, and baba ghanoush.
It also includes copious amounts of garlic and olive oil, often seasoned with lemon juice—almost no meal goes by without including these ingredients. Most often foods are either grilled, baked, fried, or sautéed in olive oil; butter and cream are rarely used, other than in a few desserts. Vegetables are often eaten raw or pickled, as well as cooked. While the cuisine does not boast a multitude of sauces, it focuses on herbs, spices, and the freshness of ingredients.
Levant: Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, JordanEdit
In Palestine and Jordan, the population has a cooking style of their own, involved in roasting various meats, baking flat breads, and cooking thick yogurt-like pastes from goat's milk.
Musakhan is a common main dish, famous in northern Jordan, the city of Jerusalem, and northern West Bank. The main component is taboon bread, which is topped with pieces of cooked sweet onions, sumac, saffron, and allspice. For large dinners, it can be topped by one or two roasted chickens on a single large taboon bread.
Maqluba is another popular meal in Jordan and central Palestine. Mujaddara, another food of the West Bank, as well as in the Levant in general, consists of cooked green lentils, with bulghur sauteed in olive oil. Mansaf is a traditional meal, and the national dish of Jordan, having roots in the Bedouin population of the country. It is mostly cooked on special occasions such as Ramadan, Eid ul-Fitr, a birth, or a large dinner gathering.
Mansaf is a leg of lamb or large pieces of mutton, on top of a markook bread that has been topped with yellow rice. A type of thick dried yogurt made from goat's milk, called jameed, is poured on top of the lamb and rice to give it its distinct flavor and taste. The dish is garnished with cooked pine nuts and almonds.
Levantine cuisine is also famous for its wide range of cheeses, including Shanklish, Halloum, and Arisheh. Kishk is also a famous Syrian soup, alongside many soups made of lentils. Lebanese food also has a wide range of dips including Hummous, Baba Ghannouj, and Labneh, and also caters many raw meat dishes. Syrian food could be either extremely vegetarian or a meat lover's paradise. Lemon, oregano, za'atar, paprika, and various other Mediterranean spices and herbs are used in Syrian cuisine. To top it off,
Iraq is where the first cookbook was ever recorded in history, historically in Baghdad and Mesopotamia. Iraq is one of the oil-rich Arab countries surrounding the Persian gulf and is also part of the Levant and Mashriq sharing similarities in cooking and cuisines between both the surrounding regions of the Arab world. Iraqi cuisine mainly consists of meat, rather than appetizers. In Iraqi cuisine, the most common meats are chicken and lamb. The national dish of Iraq is the Masgouf fish, usually enjoyed with grilled tomatoes and onions. Iraqi cuisine uses more spices than most Arab cuisines. Iraq's main food crops include wheat, barley, rice, vegetables, and dates. Vegetables include eggplant, okra, potatoes, and tomatoes. Pulses such as chickpeas and lentils are also quite common. Common meats in Iraqi cooking are lamb and beef; fish and poultry are also used.
Soups and stews are often prepared and served with rice and vegetables. Biryani, although influenced by Indian cuisine, is milder with a different mixture of spices, and a wider variety of vegetables, including potatoes, peas, carrots, and onions. Dolma is also one of the most popular dishes.
Egypt has a very rich cuisine with many unique customs. These customs also vary within Egypt itself, for example, in the coastal areas, like the coast of the Mediterranean Sea and Canal, the diet relies heavily on fish. In the more rural areas, reliance on farm products is much heavier. Duck, geese, chicken, and river fish are the main animal protein sources. While Egyptians eat a lot of meat, Egyptian cuisine is rich in vegetarian dishes; three national dishes of Egypt; ful medames, ta'miya (also known in other countries as falafel), and kushari, are generally vegetarian. Fruits are also greatly appreciated in Egypt: mangoes, grapes, bananas, apples, sycamore, guavas, and peaches are very popular, especially because they are all domestically produced and are available at relatively low prices. The most famous dessert from Egypt is called Om Ali, which is similar to a bread and butter pudding made traditionally with puff pastry, milk, and nuts. It is served all across the Middle East and is also made on special occasions such as Eid. Bread is a staple in Egypt, the most common breads are eish baladi (Arabic: عيش البلدي) and eish merahrah (Arabic: عيش مرحرح).
Libyan cuisine derives much from the traditions of Maghreb and Mediterranean cuisines. One of the most popular Libyan dishes is Bazin, an unleavened bread prepared with barley, water and salt. Bazin is prepared by boiling barley flour in water and then beating it to create a dough using a magraf, which is a unique stick designed for this purpose. Pork consumption is forbidden, in accordance with Sharia, the religious laws of Islam. Tripoli is Libya's capital, and the cuisine is particularly influenced by Italian cuisine. Pasta is common, and many seafood dishes are available. Southern Libyan cuisine is more traditionally Arab and Berber. Common fruits and vegetables include figs, dates, oranges, apricots and olives.
Libyan kitchen also includes hot spices, like Tunisia. Bazin – Libyan bread, Bsisa, Couscous, Harissa, Hassaa, Lebrak – Filled grapeleaves with rice and minced meat, Libyan Boureek, Libyan summer salad, Marqa or Tajine, Madrouba, Mbatten, Mbekbka – a unique Libyan soup with pasta or spaghetti. Instead of the European way of boiling pasta or spaghetti in water and then throwing the water away (with all the goodness it contains), the Libyans boil pasta with the sauce, which adds a real pasta flavour to the sauce. You can make it with any type of pasta, and the simplest dish involves frying onions in oil, throwing in the tomato puree, chili powder, turmeric, then adding water and salt and leave to boil, before adding the pasta. But the proper way to do it is to add some lamb chops, chickpeas and garlic to the sauce. Serve hot with a sprinkle of extra virgin olive oil, lemon, fresh chili and crusty bread (optional). One can also add other vegetables such as pumpkin, potato and green pepper, Maglouba, Shakshouka, Sherba, Usban, Zumita and Asida. Desserts and beverages includes, Makroudh, Libyan tea, Ghoriba, Maakroun, Mafruka and Mhalbiya.
- Bastilla (Arabic: بسطلة): The pancake is a traditional Moroccan tart filled with pigeons or chicken.
- Harira (Arabic:حريرة): a traditional Moroccan tomato soup consumed during the Holy month of Ramadan. It is a thick soup with beans and vegetables in it.
- Taktouka (Arabic:تكتكة): a traditional Moroccan salad made with tomatoes, onions, coriander and smoked green paprika.
Breads and pancakesEdit
- Khobz (Arabic:خبز): a type of bread consumed with broths such as Tajine.
- Msemen (Arabic:مسمن): The word Msemen is derived from Smen, clarified butter widely used in Arab cuisine. Msemen is a type of bread that is consumed on its own with honey or olive oil.
- Baghrir (Arabic:بغرير): a type of pancake with many holes in it, consumed in Morocco and other Maghreb countries.
- Harcha (Arabic:حرشة ): a type of bread made of Semolina, consumed in during breakfast or during high tea, together with honey or butter.
Moroccan spice mixesEdit
- Chermoula (Arabic:شرمولة): a marinade used to flavor fish or seafood and other meats and vegetables. Chermoula is often made of a mixture of herbs, oil, lemon juice, pickled lemons, garlic, cumin, and salt.[full citation needed]
- Ras el Hanout (Arabic:راس الحانوت): Ras el Hanout means "head of the store", and is an Arab spice mix made with 20 or more spices and herbs.[full citation needed]
Sweets and pastriesEdit
- Chebakia (Arabic:شبكية): Chebakia is derived from the Arabic word "Chabaka" meaning "baskets" is a traditional pastry eaten during the Holy month of Ramadan.
- Kaab el Ghazal (Arabic:كعب الغزل ): Kab el Ghazal literally translates from Moroccan Arabic as "gazelle ankles"; these crescent-shaped cookies are famously known as Gazelle Horns, or Cornes de Gazelle in French. They are frequently served at special occasions, including Eid and visitations. Almond paste scented with orange flower water and cinnamon is enclosed in a delicate pastry, molded into a crescent, and then baked until golden. A dip in orange flower water followed by a dusting of powdered sugar is optional – in that case, the pastries are referred to as Kaab el Ghazal M'fenned.
- Briouat (Arabic بريوات ): Briout means "little envelopes" in Arabic. It is a pastry made by wrapping a filling in thin pastry dough and then frying. The fillings might be savory or sweet. In the popular almond briouat version, the pastries are filled with fresh almond paste flavored with orange flower water and cinnamon. Once fried, the pastries are then given a short soaking in hot honey for flavor and sweetness. Almond briouats are commonly served at both special occasions and casual tea times.
In comparison to its Maghreb and Levantine neighbors, the cuisine of Sudan tends to be generous with spices. The Sudanese cuisine has a rich variety in ingredients and creativity. Simple everyday vegetables are used to create stews and omelettes that are healthy yet nutritious, and full of energy and flair. These stews are called mullah. One could have a zucchini mullah, spinach "Riglah" mullah, etc. Sudanese food inspired the origins of Egyptian cuisine and Ethiopian cuisine, both of which are very popular in the Western world. Popular dishes include Ful medames, Shahan ful, Hummus, Bamya (a stew made from ground, sun dried okra), and Gurasa (pancake), as well as different types of salads and sweets.
|Ful Medames فول مدمس||An Egyptian dish of cooked and mashed fava beans served with vegetable oil, cumin, and optionally with chopped parsley, onion, garlic, lemon juice, and chili pepper.|
|Mutabbaq مطبق||A stuffed pancake or pan-fried bread commonly found in Saudi Arabia (especially the Tihamah and the Hejaz regions), Yemen, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei and Thailand.|
|Pickled lemon ليمون مخلل|
|Shish kebab كباب|
|Tharida||A soup prepared with broth, stewed meat and bread crumbs|
Lahm Ba'ajeen لحم بعجين
Baba Ghanoush بابا غانوج
Waraq Enab ورق عنب - ملفوف
Ka'ak كعك - كحك
Hibiscus tea كركديه - عنآب
Shish taouk شيش طاوك
Falafel فلافل - طعمية
Kleicha الكليجة - كعب الغزال
Halawet el Jibn حلاوة الجبن
Limonana ليمون نعناع
- Flandrin, under the direction of Jean-Louis; al.], Massimo Montanari ; English edition by Albert Sonnenfeld ; translated by Clarissa Botsford ... [et (1999). Food : a culinary history from Antiquity to the present (English ed.). New York: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-231-11154-1.
- Nabeel Y. Abraham. "Arab Americans", Encarta Encyclopedia 2007. Archived 2009-10-31.
- "Desserts & Sweets in Arabia".
- "Daily Traditional Gulf Cuisine food recipes". Shahiya.com. Retrieved 2016-01-07.
- "Hadhramaut continues to highlight Arabic presence in Malaysia - Culture & Art - 13/12/2013". KUNA.net. 2013-12-13. Retrieved 2016-01-07.
- "KUNA : Hadhramaut continues to highlight Arabic presence in Malaysia - Culture & Art - 13/12/2013". 188.8.131.52. 2013-12-13. Retrieved 2016-01-07.
- Grace Chen (2012-07-07). "Middle Eastern restaurants thriving in Malaysia". The Star. Malaysia. Retrieved 2016-01-07.
- "Umm Ali Recipe - Egyptian Bread Pudding".
- Rozario, P. (2004). Libya. Countries of the world. Gareth Stevens Pub. p. 40. ISBN 978-0-8368-3111-5.
- Davidson, A.; Jaine, T.; Davidson, J.; Saberi, H. (2006). The Oxford Companion to Food. Oxford Companions. OUP Oxford. p. 1356. ISBN 978-0-19-101825-1.
- "Libya". Foodspring.com. Accessed June 2011.
- "The Art of Moroccan Cuisine | Fes Cooking and Cultural Tours". Fescooking.com. Retrieved 2013-11-06.
- Fatema Hal, "Authentic Recipes from Morocco". 13 July 2016
- "Gazelle Horns - Traditional Moroccan Cookies with Almond Paste". Retrieved 20 October 2017.
- "134 - Gazelle Horns Covered with Sesame Seeds / "Kab-El-Ghazal" Recipe - Cooking with Alia". 24 February 2015. Retrieved 20 October 2017.
- "Learn to Make Almond Briouats with These Step-by-Step Photos". Retrieved 20 October 2017.