Shakshouka or shakshuka (Arabic: شكشوكة) is a dish of eggs poached in a sauce of tomatoes, chili peppers, and onions, often spiced with cumin. In its present egg and vegetable-based form it is of Tunisian origin, and is now popular among many ethnic groups of the Middle East and North-Africa.
Shakshouka,or "a mixture" in Arabic. Some believe that it was first known as chakchouka, a Berber word meaning a vegetable ragout, Another belief is that it hails from Yemen where it is served with a dollop of zhoug, a fiery, green paste.
Shakshouka is a staple of Arab cuisine (Libyan, Tunisian, Algerian, Moroccan, Egyptian, Saudi, Levantine) and Israeli cuisines, traditionally served in a cast iron pan or tajine as in Morocco with bread to mop up the tomato sauce.
Although the dish is not native to the Levant, it was brought to Israel by Maghrebi Jews as part of the mass Jewish exodus from Arab and Muslim lands, where it has become a staple due to Israel's large Tunisian Jewish, Algerian Jewish and Moroccan Jewish communities.
According to food writer Claudia Roden, Tunisian cooks added artichoke hearts, potatoes and broad beans to the dish. Because eggs are the main ingredient, it is often on breakfast menus, but in Israel, it is also a popular evening meal, and may challenge hummus and falafel as a national favourite, especially in the winter. According to some food historians, the dish was invented in the Ottoman Empire, spreading throughout the Middle East and Spain, where it is often served with spicy sausage. Another belief is that it hails from Yemen, where it is served with Sahawiq, a hot green paste. Some versions include salty cheeses but traditional recipes are very basic, consisting merely of crushed tomatoes, hot peppers, garlic, salt, paprika, olive oil and poached eggs.
- Roden, Claudia (2008). The New Book of Middle Eastern Food. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. p. 168. ISBN 9780307558565.
- Josephs, Bernard (2009-10-08). "Shakshuka: Israel’s hottest breakfast dish". The Jewish Chronicle. Retrieved 2017-08-07.
- Artzeinu: An Israel Encounter, By Joel Lurie Grishaver, 2008
- Encyclopedia of Jewish Food, oughton Mifflin Harcourt, 17 Nov 2010, By Gil Marks
- Clifford-smith, Stephanie (2011-06-07). "Three of a kind ... shakshouka". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 2017-08-07.
- Abitbol, David (2004-10-28). "The REAL Shakshuka". Retrieved 2017-08-07.
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