Harissa (Arabic: هريسة harīsa, from Maghrebi Arabic) is a North African hot chili pepper paste, the main ingredients of which are roasted red peppers, Baklouti (بقلوطي) pepper, serrano peppers, and other hot chili peppers, spices and herbs such as garlic paste, coriander seed, saffron, rose, or caraway, as well as some vegetable or olive oil to carry the oil-soluble flavors.
|Place of origin||Tunisia|
|Region or state||Maghreb|
|Main ingredients||Red peppers|
|Ingredients generally used||Baklouti pepper, serrano peppers, and other hot chili peppers|
As with European cuisine, chili peppers were imported into Maghrebian cuisine by the Columbian Exchange, presumably during the Spanish occupation of Tunisia between 1535 and 1574. Recipes for harissa vary according to the household and region. Variations can include the addition of cumin, red peppers, garlic, coriander, and lemon juice. Ingredients can be fermented onions, garlic, peppers, or tomato paste. In Saharan regions, harissa can have a smoky flavor. Prepared harissa is also sold in jars, cans, bottles, tubes, plastic bags, and other containers.
Harissa is sometimes described as "Tunisia's main condiment", even "the national condiment of Tunisia", or at least as "the hallmark of Tunisia's fish and meat dishes". In Tunisia, harissa is used as an ingredient in a meat (poultry, beef, goat, or lamb) or fish stew with vegetables, and as a flavoring for couscous. It is also used for lablabi, a chickpea soup usually eaten for breakfast. In Algeria, harissa is commonly added to soups, stews, and couscous. Harissa paste can also be used as a rub for meat or eggplants. In Israel, harissa is a common topping for sabich and shawarma, although other hot sauces such as the Yemeni sahawiq or the Iraqi amba are also used. Moroccan cuisine has also adopted harissa, using it as a side condiment for tagines, or sometimes mixed into dishes.
Tunisia is the biggest exporter of prepared harissa. In 2006, the Tunisian production of harissa was 22,000 tonnes, incorporating about 40,000 tonnes of peppers. Tunisian harissa is often made with chilis grown around Nabeul and Gabès, which are relatively mild, scoring 40,000–50,000 on the Scoville scale. Another significant producer is Algeria's Annaba Province, which is also a significant consumer. According to cookbook author Martha Rose Shulman, premade harissa tastes rather different from that which is served in Tunisian and expatriate restaurants.
- Zhug, a hot sauce in Middle Eastern cuisine, made from fresh hot peppers seasoned with coriander, garlic, and various spices
- Muhammara or acuka, a hot pepper dip in Levantine cuisine
- Ajika, a dip in Caucasian cuisine, based on a boiled preparation of hot red peppers, garlic, herbs, and spices
- Gochujang, a fermented hot pepper dip made from red chilies in Korean cuisine
- List of African dishes
- Berber cuisine
- List of dips
- List of sauces
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