Open main menu

Wikipedia β

The cayenne pepper is a type of Capsicum annuum. It is usually a moderately hot chili pepper used to flavor dishes. Cayenne peppers are a group of long, tapering, 10 to 25cm long, generally skinny, mostly red colored peppers, often with a curved tip and somewhat rippled skin, which hang from the bush as opposed to growing upright. Most varieties are generally rated at 30,000 to 50,000 Scoville units.[1]

Cayenne pepper
Capsicum annuum - Köhler–s Medizinal-Pflanzen-027.jpg
Genus Capsicum
Species C. annuum
Cultivar Cayenne
Heat Hot
Scoville scale 30,000–50,000 SHU
A large red cayenne
Thai peppers, a cayenne-type pepper
Capsicum frutescens

The fruits are generally dried and ground to make the powdered spice of the same name, although cayenne powder may be a blend of different types of peppers, quite often not containing cayenne peppers, and may or may not contain the seeds.[2]

Cayenne is used in cooking spicy dishes either as a powder or in its whole form. It is also used as an herbal supplement.

Contents

EtymologyEdit

The word 'cayenne' is thought to be a corruption of the word quiínia[3][4] (also sometimes spelled kyynha[5] or kynnha[3]) of the Old Tupi language once spoken in Brazil, which means pepper (thus 'cayenne pepper' means 'pepper pepper'). It is probable that the place Cayenne in French Guiana was named after the peppers, not vice versa,[6] although it is commonly claimed that the pepper was named after the city. Culpeper, for example, uses the word 'cayenne pepper' in 1652,[7] and the city was only renamed as such in 1777.[8] It also is possibly named for the Cayenne River.[1]

Nicholas Culpeper in his Complete Herbal, 1653, mentions cayenne pepper as a synonym for what he calls "pepper (guinea)"[note 1], although he refers to Capsicum peppers in general in his entry.[7]

TaxonomyEdit

The cayenne pepper is a type of Capsicum annuum, as are bell peppers, jalapeños, paprika, and many others. The Capsicum genus is in the nightshade family (Solanaceae). Cayenne peppers are often said to belong to the frutescens variety, but frutescens peppers are now defined as peppers which have fruit which grow upright on the bush (such as tabasco peppers), thus what is known in English as cayenne peppers are by definition not frutescens.[note 2]

In the 19th century, modern cayenne peppers were classified as C. longum, this name was later synonymised with C. frutescens. Cayenne powder, however, has generally been made from the bird's eye peppers, in the 19th century classified as C. minimum.[10]

VarietiesEdit

Cayenne peppers are long, tapering, 10 to 25cm long, generally skinny, mostly red colored peppers, often with a curved tip and somewhat rippled skin, which hang from the bush as opposed to growing upright. There are many specific cultivars, such as 'Cow-horn',[11] 'Cayenne Sweet', 'Cayenne Buist's Yellow', 'Golden Cayenne', 'Cayenne Carolina', 'Cayenne Indonesian', 'Joe's Long', 'Cayenne Large Red Thick', 'Cayenne Long Thick Red', 'Ring of Fire', 'Cayenne Passion', 'Cayenne Thomas Jefferson', 'Cayenne Iberian', 'Cayenne Turkish', 'Egyptian Cayenne', 'Cayenne Violet' or 'Numex Las Cruces Cayenne'.[1] Although most modern cayenne peppers are colored red; yellow and purple varieties exist, and in the 19th century yellow varieties were common.[1][12] Most types are moderately hot, although a number of mild variants exist.[1] Most varieties are generally rated at 30,000 to 50,000 Scoville units, although some are rated at 20,000 or less.[1]

CultivationEdit

Most cultivated varieties of cayenne, Capsicum annuum, can be grown in a variety of locations including tropical and temperate zones and need around 100 days to mature. Peppers prefer warm, moist, nutrient-rich soil in a warm climate. The plants grow to about 0.5–1 m (20–39 in) in height and should be spaced 1 m (3 ft) apart.[13] In gardens, the plants may be planted as close as 30 cm (1 ft) apart in a raised bed, or simply grown in large pots. This may reduce the yield of an individual plant, but will increase yields per unit area.[citation needed]

Chilis are mostly perennial in subtropical and tropical regions; however, they are usually grown as annuals in temperate climates. They can be overwintered if protected from frost, and require some pruning.[14]

In CuisineEdit

In American or British English, a cayenne pepper is a type of chilli pepper, but not all chilli peppers are cayenne peppers. Cayenne powder, however, may be a blend of different types of peppers.[2] In the United States, cayenne powder is distinguished from 'chili powder' as it is made from peppers only, whereas chili powder is generally a spice mixture.[15] In Indian English 'red chilli powder' is made from pure peppers, and refers to what an American might call cayenne, thus recipes for Indian-style foods for people in the UK and USA, such as British curries, often use cayenne as a substitute, although the name cayenne is virtually unknown in Asia.[16][17][18]

Cayenne is a popular spice primarily in North American (for example spicy nachos[19] or deviled ham[20][21][22][23][24][25]) and British cuisines (for example devilled eggs,[26][27] devilled kidneys[28][29][30][31] or sometimes Welsh rarebit[32]). It is employed variously in its fresh form, or dried and powdered. The powder is used in the USA and Britain on seafood (oysters, mussels, clams, crayfish, crab, fish),[2][27][33][34] all types of egg dishes (devilled eggs, omelettes, soufflés),[2][27][33] meat (bacon, chicken, lamb, beef, pork, ham, kidneys)[2][27] and in stews, casseroles, and cheese dishes.[2][27] It is a key ingredient in a variety of hot sauces, especially cheese, barbecue and shellfish sauces.[2][27] It is also used in British-style curries, British gravy and is an ingredient in some types of Worcestershire sauce.[2][17][18][27] In the UK and the USA, the word 'devilled' or 'deviled', respectively (i.e. devilled eggs, devilled kidneys, devilled herrings, deviled crab, deviled ham) generally means 'coated with some cayenne powder' (though any hot powder will do, and in antique recipes mustard and black pepper was generally used). It is particularly used in Louisiana-style sauces, which are primarily composed of either cayenne or tabasco peppers, vinegar, and salt. In the USA cayenne pepper is often spread on sandwiches or similar items to add a spicy flavor.

In BeveragesEdit

Beverage foods are emerging with cayenne extract as an active ingredient.[35][36]

NutritionEdit

Cayenne pepper, by weight, is high in vitamin A. It also contains vitamin B6, vitamin E, vitamin C, riboflavin, potassium, and manganese.[37] However, given the very small amount of cayenne pepper typically consumed in a serving, it makes a negligible contribution to overall dietary intake of these nutrients.

Medicinal ClaimsEdit

Cayenne pepper consumption dilates the blood vessels and speeds the metabolism due to the high amounts of capsaicin. With the consumption of cayenne peppers, the amount of heat the human body puts off is influenced. In animal studies, capsaicin has the ability to boost metabolism, which in turn causes weight loss. This increases circulation and blood flow to all major organs, facilitating oxygen and nutrient delivery. Capsaicin may support a healthy energy balance while suppressing appetite.[38] Capsaicin has been shown to increase energy expenditure, so acts as a metabolism booster and is beneficial in long-term weight loss.[39] A correlation has been shown between substrate oxidation and capsaicin. Capsaicin treatment sustained fat oxidation during weight maintenance, but did not affect weight regain after modest weight loss.[40]

Cayenne pepper is also claimed to be an aphrodisiac because it contains capsaicin. It has also been shown to aid in the oxidation of adipose tissue,[41] regulate high blood pressure,[42] promote healthy liver function and tissue production,[citation needed] help regulate the digestive system,[43] and promote healthy mucus production in the membranes that line internal organs[citation needed].

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ The name Guinea pepper often means Aframomum melegueta or Piper guineense at present, but in Britain in the 16th and 17th century 'Guinea pepper' or 'ginny pepper' was the common name for Capsicum peppers in general.[7][9] By the end of the 19th century 'Guinea pepper' had come to mean bird's eye chili or piri-piri[10]
  2. ^ However, in French, for example, the name piment de Cayenne may refer to all types of C. frutescens and other types of C. annuum including tabasco, piri-piri or Bird's eye chili.[10]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f http://www.thechileman.org/results.php?chile=1&find=cayenne&heat=Any&origin=Any&genus=Any&subscribe=Search; accessed 9 November 2017
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h http://theepicentre.com/spice/cayenne-pepper/; accessed 9 November 2017
  3. ^ a b http://www.yourdictionary.com/cayenne-pepper; accessed 9 November 2017
  4. ^ http://www.memidex.com/cayenne-pepper+capsicum-pepper-plant; accessed 9 November 2017
  5. ^ https://www.etymonline.com/word/cayenne; accessed 9 November 2017
  6. ^ Small, Ernest; 2009; Top 100 Food Plants, p.157; NRC Research Press; ISBN 978-0-660-19858-3; accessed at https://books.google.nl/books?id=nyWY_YkV7qAC&pg=PA157&lpg=PA157&dq=qui%C3%ADnia&source=bl&ots=r4W-HI7HxN&sig=Y6O3v8JY6_PDWPVBfZVtPu-ULn0&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjbvZzJ9q_XAhUJ0xoKHXnwBz04ChDoAQgxMAI
  7. ^ a b c Culpeper, Nicholas (2004) [1653]. "Guinea Pepper". Culpeper's Complete Herbal. Lulu Com. ISBN 1291284869. Retrieved 31 March 2017. 
  8. ^ https://www.britannica.com/place/Cayenne; accessed 9 November 2017
  9. ^ Parkinson, John; 1629; Paradisi in Sole Paradisus Terrestris, p.431; Humfrey Lownes and Robert Young; London; accessed at https://archive.org/stream/paradisiinsolepa00parkrich#page/430/mode/2up
  10. ^ a b c Ridley, Henry Nicholas; 1912; Spices, pp.360-383; Macmillan, Ltd.; London; accessed at https://archive.org/stream/spiceshenry00ridlrich#page/360
  11. ^ http://www.pepperseeds.eu/cow-horn.html; accessed 9 November 2017
  12. ^ Hudson, Selma; 1971; About Spices, p.38; Melmont; ISBN 9780516082103; accessed at https://archive.org/stream/aboutspices00huds#page/38/mode/1up/search/cayenne
  13. ^ Brown, Ellen (27 April 2006). "Growing: Cayenne". ThriftyFun.com. Retrieved 13 July 2011. 
  14. ^ South Devon Chilli Farm (2010). "Chilli Seed Propagation and Plant Care". South Devon Chilli Farm. Retrieved 13 July 2011. 
  15. ^ https://www.thespruce.com/what-is-chili-powder-995615; accessed 10 November 2017
  16. ^ https://www.chowhound.com/post/confused-cayenne-pepper-chili-powder-paprika-342241; accessed 10 November 2017
  17. ^ a b http://www.bigapplecurry.com/2014/03/27/chilli-powder-cayenne-pepper/; accessed 10 November 2017
  18. ^ a b https://www.curryculture.co.uk/cayenne-pepper/; accessed 10 November 2017
  19. ^ http://www.cosmopolitan.com/food-cocktails/a28433/cayenne-pepper-recipes/; accessed 10 November 2017
  20. ^ https://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/12/20/deviled-ham_n_2322754.html; accessed 10 November 2017
  21. ^ https://www.epicurious.com/recipes/food/views/deviled-ham-51193040; accessed 10 November 2017
  22. ^ https://gooddinnermom.com/deviled-ham/; accessed 10 November 2017
  23. ^ http://www.foodandwine.com/recipes/deviled-ham; accessed 10 November 2017
  24. ^ https://www.bonappetit.com/recipe/deviled-ham; accessed 10 November 2017
  25. ^ https://www.chowhound.com/recipes/deviled-ham-30323; accessed 10 November 2017
  26. ^ http://www.finecooking.com/recipe/deviled-eggs-with-crabmeat-and-cayenne; accessed 10 November 2017
  27. ^ a b c d e f g http://www.bbc.co.uk/food/cayenne_pepper; accessed 10 November 2017
  28. ^ http://www.bestrecipes.com.au/recipe/devilled-kidneys-L2438.html; accessed 10 November 2017
  29. ^ https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/wordofmouth/2016/jun/09/how-to-cook-the-perfect-devilled-kidneys; accessed 10 November 2017
  30. ^ https://www.rivercottage.net/recipes/devilled-kidneys; accessed 10 November 2017
  31. ^ https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2011/may/29/nigel-slater-classic-devilled-kidneys; accessed 10 November 2017
  32. ^ https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/wordofmouth/2011/oct/27/how-to-cook-perfect-welsh-rarebit; accessed 10 November 2017
  33. ^ a b http://www.deliciousmagazine.co.uk/recipes/baked-egg-with-crab-and-cayenne/; accessed 10 November 2017
  34. ^ http://www.foodandwine.com/recipes/crisp-cayenne-spiced-crab-cakes; accessed 10 November 2017
  35. ^ Latif, Ray (30 May 2011). "Extreme and Edgy Flavors". Beverage Spectrum Magazine. Bevnet. Retrieved 13 July 2011. 
  36. ^ Stanton Lee, Kendra (March 2011). "Slimming Prospects". Beverage Spectrum Magazine. Bevnet. Retrieved 13 July 2011. 
  37. ^ "Nutrition Facts: Spices, pepper, red or cayenne". Nutrition Data. Condé Nast Digital. 2011. Retrieved 13 July 2011. 
  38. ^ Reinbach, H. C.; Smeets, A.; Martinussen, T.; Møller, P.; Westerterp-Plantenga, M. S. (2009-06-01). "Effects of capsaicin, green tea and CH-19 sweet pepper on appetite and energy intake in humans in negative and positive energy balance". Clinical Nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland). 28 (3): 260–265. doi:10.1016/j.clnu.2009.01.010. ISSN 1532-1983. PMID 19345452. 
  39. ^ Diepvens, Kristel; Westerterp, Klaas R.; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S. (2007-01-01). "Obesity and thermogenesis related to the consumption of caffeine, ephedrine, capsaicin, and green tea". American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology. 292 (1): R77–85. doi:10.1152/ajpregu.00832.2005. ISSN 0363-6119. PMID 16840650. 
  40. ^ Lejeune, M; Kovacs E; Westerterp-Plantegna M (2003). "Effect of capsaicin on substrate oxidation and weight maintenance after modest body-weight loss in human subjects". British Journal of Nutrition. 90: 651–659. doi:10.1079/bjn2003938. 
  41. ^ Snitker, Soren; Fujishima, Yoshiyuki; Shen, Haiqing; Ott, Sandy; Pi-Sunyer, Xavier; Furuhata, Yasufumi; Sato, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Michio (2009-01-01). "Effects of novel capsinoid treatment on fatness and energy metabolism in humans: possible pharmacogenetic implications". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 89 (1): 45–50. doi:10.3945/ajcn.2008.26561. ISSN 1938-3207. PMID 19056576. 
  42. ^ Agency, Tribune Content. "What Doctors Know: Lower your blood pressure naturally overnight". chicagotribune.com. Retrieved 2017-03-31. 
  43. ^ "Cayenne Pepper Cleansing Helps Amazingly Well With Detox". Foods4BetterHealth. 2017-03-24. Retrieved 2017-03-31. 

Further readingEdit