The cayenne pepper is a type of Capsicum annuum. It is usually a moderately hot chili pepper used to flavor dishes. Cayenne peppers are a group of long, tapering, 10 to 25cm long, generally skinny, mostly red colored peppers, often with a curved tip and somewhat rippled skin, which hang from the bush as opposed to growing upright. Most varieties are generally rated at 30,000 to 50,000 Scoville units.
|Scoville scale||30,000–50,000 SHU|
The fruits are generally dried and ground to make the powdered spice of the same name, although cayenne powder may be a blend of different types of peppers, quite often not containing cayenne peppers, and may or may not contain the seeds.
The word 'cayenne' is thought to be a corruption of the word quiínia (also sometimes spelled kyynha or kynnha) of the Old Tupi language once spoken in Brazil, which means pepper (thus 'cayenne pepper' means 'pepper pepper'). It is probable that the place Cayenne in French Guiana was named after the peppers, not vice versa, although it is commonly claimed that the pepper was named after the city. Culpeper, for example, uses the word 'cayenne pepper' in 1652, and the city was only renamed as such in 1777. It also is possibly named for the Cayenne River.
The cayenne pepper is a type of Capsicum annuum, as are bell peppers, jalapeños, paprika, and many others. The Capsicum genus is in the nightshade family (Solanaceae). Cayenne peppers are often said to belong to the frutescens variety, but frutescens peppers are now defined as peppers which have fruit which grow upright on the bush (such as tabasco peppers), thus what is known in English as cayenne peppers are by definition not frutescens.[note 2]
In the 19th century, modern cayenne peppers were classified as C. longum, this name was later synonymised with C. frutescens. Cayenne powder, however, has generally been made from the bird's eye peppers, in the 19th century classified as C. minimum.
Cayenne peppers are long, tapering, 10 to 25cm long, generally skinny, mostly red colored peppers, often with a curved tip and somewhat rippled skin, which hang from the bush as opposed to growing upright. There are many specific cultivars, such as 'Cow-horn', 'Cayenne Sweet', 'Cayenne Buist's Yellow', 'Golden Cayenne', 'Cayenne Carolina', 'Cayenne Indonesian', 'Joe's Long', 'Cayenne Large Red Thick', 'Cayenne Long Thick Red', 'Ring of Fire', 'Cayenne Passion', 'Cayenne Thomas Jefferson', 'Cayenne Iberian', 'Cayenne Turkish', 'Egyptian Cayenne', 'Cayenne Violet' or 'Numex Las Cruces Cayenne'. Although most modern cayenne peppers are colored red; yellow and purple varieties exist, and in the 19th century yellow varieties were common. Most types are moderately hot, although a number of mild variants exist. Most varieties are generally rated at 30,000 to 50,000 Scoville units, although some are rated at 20,000 or less.
Most cultivated varieties of cayenne, Capsicum annuum, can be grown in a variety of locations including tropical and temperate zones and need around 100 days to mature. Peppers prefer warm, moist, nutrient-rich soil in a warm climate. The plants grow to about 0.5–1 m (20–39 in) in height and should be spaced 1 m (3 ft) apart. In gardens, the plants may be planted as close as 30 cm (1 ft) apart in a raised bed, or simply grown in large pots. This may reduce the yield of an individual plant, but will increase yields per unit area.
Chilis are mostly perennial in subtropical and tropical regions; however, they are usually grown as annuals in temperate climates. They can be overwintered if protected from frost, and require some pruning.
In American or British English, a cayenne pepper is a type of chilli pepper, but not all chilli peppers are cayenne peppers. Cayenne powder, however, may be a blend of different types of peppers. In the United States, cayenne powder is distinguished from 'chili powder' as it is made from peppers only, whereas chili powder is generally a spice mixture. In Indian English 'red chilli powder' is made from pure peppers, and refers to what an American might call cayenne, thus recipes for Indian-style foods for people in the UK and USA, such as British curries, often use cayenne as a substitute, although the name cayenne is virtually unknown in Asia.
Cayenne is a popular spice primarily in North American (for example spicy nachos or deviled ham) and British cuisines (for example devilled eggs, devilled kidneys or sometimes Welsh rarebit). It is employed variously in its fresh form, or dried and powdered. The powder is used in the USA and Britain on seafood (oysters, mussels, clams, crayfish, crab, fish), all types of egg dishes (devilled eggs, omelettes, soufflés), meat (bacon, chicken, lamb, beef, pork, ham, kidneys) and in stews, casseroles, and cheese dishes. It is a key ingredient in a variety of hot sauces, especially cheese, barbecue and shellfish sauces. It is also used in British-style curries, British gravy and is an ingredient in some types of Worcestershire sauce. In the UK and the USA, the word 'devilled' or 'deviled', respectively (i.e. devilled eggs, devilled kidneys, devilled herrings, deviled crab, deviled ham) generally means 'coated with some cayenne powder' (though any hot powder will do, and in antique recipes mustard and black pepper was generally used). It is particularly used in Louisiana-style sauces, which are primarily composed of either cayenne or tabasco peppers, vinegar, and salt. In the USA cayenne pepper is often spread on sandwiches or similar items to add a spicy flavor.
Cayenne pepper, by weight, is high in vitamin A. It also contains vitamin B6, vitamin E, vitamin C, riboflavin, potassium, and manganese. However, given the very small amount of cayenne pepper typically consumed in a serving, it makes a negligible contribution to overall dietary intake of these nutrients.
Cayenne pepper consumption dilates the blood vessels and speeds the metabolism due to the high amounts of capsaicin. With the consumption of cayenne peppers, the amount of heat the human body puts off is influenced. In animal studies, capsaicin has the ability to boost metabolism, which in turn causes weight loss. This increases circulation and blood flow to all major organs, facilitating oxygen and nutrient delivery. Capsaicin may support a healthy energy balance while suppressing appetite. Capsaicin has been shown to increase energy expenditure, so acts as a metabolism booster and is beneficial in long-term weight loss. A correlation has been shown between substrate oxidation and capsaicin. Capsaicin treatment sustained fat oxidation during weight maintenance, but did not affect weight regain after modest weight loss.
Cayenne pepper is also claimed to be an aphrodisiac because it contains capsaicin. It has also been shown to aid in the oxidation of adipose tissue, regulate high blood pressure, promote healthy liver function and tissue production, help regulate the digestive system, and promote healthy mucus production in the membranes that line internal organs.
- The name Guinea pepper often means Aframomum melegueta or Piper guineense at present, but in Britain in the 16th and 17th century 'Guinea pepper' or 'ginny pepper' was the common name for Capsicum peppers in general. By the end of the 19th century 'Guinea pepper' had come to mean bird's eye chili or piri-piri
- However, in French, for example, the name piment de Cayenne may refer to all types of C. frutescens and other types of C. annuum including tabasco, piri-piri or Bird's eye chili.
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