List of Capsicum cultivars

This is a list of Capsicum cultivars belonging to the five major species of cultivated peppers (genus Capsicum): C. annuum, C. chinense, C. baccatum, C. frutescens, and C. pubescens. Due to the large and changing number of cultivars, and the variation of cultivar namings in different regions, this list only gives a few examples of the estimated 5000 pepper varieties that exist.

Bird's eye (green), 'Madame Jeanette' (yellow), and cayenne peppers (red)

Overview edit

There are perhaps fifty thousand Capsicum cultivars grown worldwide.[1] The USDA-ARS GRIN seed collection contains 6,200 Capsicum accessions alone, including 4,000 Capsicum annuum accessions. The other Capsicum species in the USDA germplasm repository include: C. chinense, C. baccatum, C. frutescens, C. pubescens, C. cardenasii, C. chacoense, C. flexuosum, C. eximium, C. rhomboideum, C. galapagoense, and C. tovarii.[2]

There are five major species of cultivated Capsicum, C. annuum, C. chinense, C. baccatum, C. frutescens, C. pubescens, and within those species are several "taxonomic varieties". Because of the ability of many of species to cross and generate inter-specific hybrids, albeit with low success, there are also what is referred to as "complexes" within the genus Capsicum of closely related and sexually compatible species.[3] This includes the Capsicum annuum complex, which consists of C. annuum, C. frutescens, and C. chinense.[citation needed]

Major species and their taxonomic varieties:[4]

List of cultivars edit

The species and varieties include many economically important cultivars with a variety of different shapes, colors, and flavors that are grown for different purposes, such as spices, vegetables, and herbal medicines. Some confusion has resulted from the legal term "plant variety", which is used interchangeably with "cultivar" (not with "taxonomic variety"). The terminology around a cultivar also includes terms such as heirloom, open-pollinated, self-pollinating, and hybrid.[9]

Heirloom varieties are typically those that have been selected and grown historically with seeds saved every year, and are still maintained today in similar fashion, such as the blocky-type California Wonder. Open-pollinated varieties are those that are maintained without strict barriers to prevent outcrossing and then seed is collected at and stored from each harvest such as the lamuyo-type Marconi Yellow. While open-pollinated varieties are typically true-to-type, there may be occasional outcrossing to other Capsicum varieties that may introduce some heterogeneity. Self-pollinated varieties are similar to open-pollinated varieties in that they are true-to-type and seed is collected at and stored from each harvest, but measures are taken to minimize outcrossing. This may involve placing a barrier such as a mesh bag or cage over the plant to prevent pollinators from reaching flowers, ensuring that the plant has "selfed". This is how much seed intended for home-garden use is produced, like the cultivar Early Jalapeño. These three types of cultivar seed production are all similar in that only one parent is used and the seed are produced generally through self-pollination.

Hybrid varieties take advantage of a phenomenon called heterosis or hybrid vigor, which occurs in pepper. To generate a hybrid variety, two self-pollinated varieties are intentionally crossed, and all seed from this cross are collected. The new hybrid variety typically is more vigorous than either of the two parents contributing to traits such as higher yield.[9] Inter-specific crossing may result in a hybrid of diminished fertility due to specific genetic incompatibilities. In some cases, this may be overcome by deliberately selecting which of the two parents is to be the female parent in the cross.[10] Hybrid seed if saved will not produce a homogeneous set of plants the next generation, meaning that the two parents will need to be crossed again to generate more hybrid seed. This method is used to produce hybrid Capsicum cultivars such as the blocky types Double-Up and Orange Blaze. Much of the commercial pepper production uses hybrid varieties for their improved traits.

Capsicum annuum edit

Capsicum annuum, native from southern North America through Central America to South America, has been cultivated by Indigenous peoples of the Americas for thousands of years, and globally for over 400 years.[11] Its fruit forms are varied, from large to small, sweet to sour, and very hot/pungent to bland. Despite being a single species, C. annuum has many forms, with a variety of names, even in the same language. Official names aside, in American English, any variety lacking heat is colloquially known as a sweet pepper, and those sweet peppers that have a blocky shape are referred to as bell peppers. A variety that produces capsaicin is colloquially known as a hot pepper or chili pepper. In British English, the sweet varieties are called "peppers"[12] and the hot varieties "chillies",[13] whereas in Australian English and Indian English, the name "capsicum" is commonly used for bell peppers exclusively and "chilli" is often used to encompass the hotter varieties.

The plant is a tender perennial subshrub, with a densely branched stem. The plant reaches 0.5–1.5 m (20–59 in). Single white flowers develop into the fruit, which is typically green when unripe, but may lack chlorophyll causing a white color. Ripening fruits usually change to red, although some varieties may ripen to yellow, orange, peach, brown, or purple. The species are grown in temperate climates as an annual, but they are especially productive in warm and dry climates.[14]

Capsicum baccatum edit

These have a distinctive, fruity flavor, and are commonly ground into colorful powders for use in cooking, each identified by its color.

Capsicum chinense edit

Capsicum chinense or "Chinese capsicum" is a misnomer since all Capsicum species originated in the New World. Nikolaus Joseph von Jacquin (1727–1817), a Dutch botanist, named the species in that way in 1776 because he believed they originated in China. Most of the peppers of this species have a distinctive flavor and are similar in flavor to each other.[citation needed]

Capsicum frutescens edit

Sometimes considered to be the same species as C. annuum

Capsicum pubescens edit

Capsicum pubescens is among the oldest of domesticated peppers, and was grown as long as 5,000 years ago.[citation needed] It is probably related to undomesticated plants that still grow in South America (C. cardenasii, C. eximium, and others).

See also edit

Notes edit

  1. ^ a b Contested as being the result of testing a single specimen and thus not establishing a consistent result for a cultivar.[32]

References edit

  1. ^ "introducing the capsicum to the world". World Of Chillies. Archived from the original on 21 January 2015. Retrieved 7 February 2015.
  2. ^ USDA-ARS GRIN pepper seed collection, Experiment, Georgia
  3. ^ Jarret, Robert L. (2008). "DNA Barcoding in a Crop Genebank: The Capsicum annuum Species Complex". The Open Biology Journal. 1 (1): 35–42. doi:10.2174/1874196700801010035.
  4. ^ "The Plant List".
  5. ^ USDA GRIN Taxonomy, Taxon: Capsicum chinense Jacq., retrieved 6 January 2017
  6. ^ USDA GRIN Taxonomy, Taxon: Capsicum frutescens Jacq., retrieved 6 January 2017
  7. ^ a b Dave DeWitt; Paul W. Bosland (2009). The Complete Chile Pepper Book: A Gardener's Guide to Choosing, Growing, Preserving, and Cooking. Timber Press. ISBN 978-0881929201.
  8. ^ "Capsicum frutescens L." Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved 19 Jul 2015.
  9. ^ a b "How are hybrid and open-pollinated vegetables different? | Oregon State University Extension Service | Gardening". Retrieved 2016-04-01.
  10. ^ Carlos Eduardo da Silva Monteiro; Telma Nair Santana Pereira; Karina Pereira de Campos (2011). "Reproductive characterization of interspecific hybrids among Capsicum species" (PDF). Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology. 11 (3). Brazilian Society of Plant Breeding: 241–249. doi:10.1590/s1984-70332011000300006.
  11. ^ Crosby, Alfred W. Jr. (2003-04-30). The Columbian Exchange: Biological and Cultural Consequences of 1492, 30th Anniversary Edition. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9780313095399.
  12. ^ "Pepper - Glossary - Cooking libraries - Cooking and recipes - Food & drink". Retrieved 2010-04-11.
  13. ^ "Chilli - Glossary - Cooking libraries - Cooking and recipes - Food & drink". Retrieved 2010-04-11.
  14. ^ Nations, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United (1990-01-01). Protected Cultivation in the Mediterranean Climate. Food & Agriculture Org. ISBN 9789251027196.
  15. ^ "Vegetable Varieties for Gardeners". Vegetable Varieties for Gardeners. Cornell University. Retrieved 21 May 2015.
  16. ^ "Bird's Eye Chili Peppers". Chili Pepper Madness. 2013-09-27. Retrieved 7 February 2015.
  17. ^ "Black Hungarian Pepper". PepperScale. 2016-03-29. Retrieved 24 April 2018.
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "The Chile Pepper Institute Merchandise Catalog" (PDF). The Chile Pepper Institute. New Mexico State University. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 21 May 2015.
  19. ^ Gil-Jurado, A. T., Il senso del chile e del piccante: dalla traduzione culturale alla rappresentazione visiva in (G. Manetti, ed.), Semiofood: Communication and Culture of Meal, Centro Scientifico Editore, Torino, Italy, 2006:34–58
  20. ^ Park, Mi-Sung; Zhu, Ya Xin; Pae, Hyun-Ock; Park, Seong Hoon (9 March 2016). "In Vitro and In Vivo α-Glucosidase and α-Amylase Inhibitory Effects of the Water Extract of Leaves of Pepper (Capcicum Annuum L. Cultivar Dangjo) and the Active Constituent Luteolin 7-O-Glucoside". Journal of Food Biochemistry. 40 (5): 696–703. doi:10.1111/jfbc.12252.
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  25. ^ "Mirasol Chili Peppers". Chili Pepper Madness. 2013-09-22. Retrieved 5 February 2015.
  26. ^ Jean Andrews (2005). The Peppers Cookbook: 200 Recipes from the Pepper Lady's Kitchen. University of North Texas Press. p. 14. ISBN 9781574411935.
  27. ^ a b NuMex Chile cultivars
  28. ^ "The Scoville Heat Measurement Chart". Retrieved 2012-02-29.
  29. ^ "Selective Enzyme-Mediated Extraction of Capsaicinoids and Carotenoids from Chili Guajillo Puya (Capsicum annuum L.) Using Ethanol as Solvent". Retrieved 2012-02-29.
  30. ^ "Salsa Garden cubit: Salsa Garden Pepper Database: Puya, Capsicum annuum (Hot Pepper)". 2010-05-12. Retrieved 2012-02-29.
  31. ^ Hallock, Betty (27 December 2013). "World's hottest pepper hits 2.2 million Scoville scale". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 11 July 2014.
  32. ^ Paul Adams (7 July 2011). "FYI: What is the Hottest Pepper in the World?". Popular Science. Retrieved 12 October 2016.
  33. ^ Sanj Atwal (October 16, 2023). "Pepper X dethrones Carolina Reaper as world's hottest chilli pepper". Guinness World Records. Retrieved October 16, 2023.
  34. ^ "Hottest chili". Guinness World Records. October 16, 2023. Retrieved October 16, 2023.
  35. ^ Justin Bannister (2012-02-13). "NMSU's Chile Pepper Institute names the Trinidad Moruga Scorpion hottest pepper on earth". Archived from the original on 2014-01-21. Retrieved 2013-11-26.
  36. ^ "How We Make Original Red Sauce | TABASCO® Products |". Retrieved 2016-04-01.
  37. ^ "Which Chile Peppers are Which?". About Travel. Archived from the original on 5 February 2015. Retrieved 5 February 2015.
  38. ^ "Rocoto Chili Peppers". Chile Pepper Madness. 2013-09-27. Retrieved 7 February 2015.

Further reading edit