Nikolaus Joseph von Jacquin

Nikolaus Joseph Freiherr von Jacquin[1] (16 February 1727 – 26 October 1817) was a scientist who studied medicine, chemistry and botany.

Nikolaus Joseph von Jacquin
Born(1727-02-16)16 February 1727
Died26 October 1817(1817-10-26) (aged 90)
EducationLeiden University
Known formedicine, chemistry, botany
ChildrenJoseph Franz, Emil Gottfried, Franziska
Awardsmember, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
Scientific career
Author abbrev. (botany)Jacq.

Biography edit

Selectarum Stirpium Americanarum Historia, 1780, National Library of Poland.
Haemanthus pubescens L., Nikolaus Joseph von Jacquin 1798

Born in Leiden in the Netherlands, he studied medicine at Leiden University, then moved first to Paris and afterward to Vienna. In 1752, he studied under Gerard van Swieten in Vienna.[2]

Between 1755 and 1759, Jacquin was sent to the West Indies, Central America, Venezuela and New Granada by Francis I to collect plants for the Schönbrunn Palace, and amassed a large collection of animal, plant and mineral samples. In 1797, Alexander von Humboldt profited from studying these collections and conversing with Jacquin in preparation of his own journey to the Americas.[3]

In 1763, Jacquin became professor of chemistry and mineralogy at the Bergakademie Schemnitz (now Banská Štiavnica in Slovakia). In 1768, he was appointed Professor of Botany and Chemistry and became director of the botanical gardens of the University of Vienna. For his work, he received the title Edler in 1774. In 1783, he was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. In 1806, he was created a baron. In 1809, he became a correspondent of the Royal Institute, which later became the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences.[4]

His younger son, Emil Gottfried (1767–1792), and his daughter, Franziska (1769–1850), were friends of Mozart; Mozart wrote two songs for Gottfried to publish under Gottfried's name ("Als Luise ...", K. 520, and "Das Traumbild", K. 530) and gave piano lessons to Franziska. Mozart dedicated a considerable number of his works to the Jacquin family, notably the Kegelstatt Trio. This was first played at the Jacquins' house in August 1786 with Franziska playing the piano.

His son Joseph Franz (1766–1839) succeeded him as professor of botany and chemistry at the University of Vienna and wrote several notable botanical books.

Von Jacquin died in Vienna.

He is commemorated by the genera Jacquinia (Theophrastaceae) and Jacquiniella (Orchidaceae). In 2011, the Austrian Mint issued silver coins to mark his science expeditions to the Caribbean.[5]

Publications edit

See also edit

Notes edit

  1. ^ Regarding personal names: Freiherr is a former title (translated as Baron). In Germany since 1919, it forms part of family names. The feminine forms are Freifrau and Freiin.
  2. ^ Santiago Madriñán, Nikolaus Joseph Jacquin's American Plants, Brill, 2013, p. 9.
  3. ^ Daum, Andreas (2019). Alexander von Humboldt. Munich: C. H. Beck. pp. 36–37, 42, 69. ISBN 978-3-406-73436-6.
  4. ^ "Nikolaus Joseph von Jacquin (1727–1817)". Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 19 July 2015.
  5. ^ "Austrian Mint Issues Nikolaus Joseph von Jacquin 20€ Silver Coin". Coin Update News. Retrieved 8 March 2011.
  6. ^ International Plant Names Index.  Jacq.
  7. ^ Jacquin, Nikolaus Joseph (4 June 1760). Enumeratio systematica plantarum. Theodor Haak.
  8. ^ "Selectarum stirpium Americanarum historia, in qua ad Linnaeanum systema determinatae descriptaeque sistuntur plantae illae, quas in insulis Martinica, Jamaica, Domingo aliisque et in vicinae continentis parte, observavit rariores; adjectis iconibus ad autoris archetypa pictis :: Latin American plant literature".
  9. ^ Details – Hortus botanicus vindobonensis, seu, Plantarum rariorum, quae in Horto botanico vindobonensi ... :coluntur, icones coloratae et succinctae descriptiones / – Biodiversity Heritage Library. Leopold Joannis Kaliwoda. 1770. {{cite book}}: |website= ignored (help)
  10. ^ Details – Florae Austriacae, sive, Plantarum selectarum in Austriae archiducatu :sponte crescentium icones, ad vivum coloratae, et descriptionibus, ac synonymis illustratae / – Biodiversity Heritage Library. Leopoldi Joannis Kaliwoda. 1773. {{cite book}}: |website= ignored (help)
  11. ^ Details – Icones plantarum rariorum / – Biodiversity Heritage Library. C. F. Wappler. 1781. {{cite book}}: |website= ignored (help)
  12. ^ Details – Plantarum rariorum horti caesarei Schoenbrunnensis descriptiones et icones / – Biodiversity Heritage Library. C. F. Wappler. 1797. {{cite book}}: |website= ignored (help)
  13. ^ Jacquin, Nikolaus Joseph (1800). Fragmenta botanica, figuris coloratis illustrata. Mathias Andreas Schmidt.

External links edit