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A chipotle (//, chi-POHT-lay; Spanish: [tʃiˈpotle]), or chilpotle, is a smoke-dried ripe jalapeño chili pepper used for seasoning. It is a chili used primarily in Mexican and Mexican-inspired cuisines, such as Mexican-American, Tex-Mex, and Southwestern dishes. It comes in different forms, such as chipotles en adobo (stewed in adobo sauce). A chipotle's heat is similar to that of the Espelette pepper, jalapeño, Guajillo chili, Hungarian wax pepper, Anaheim pepper, and Tabasco sauce.
Chipotles of the morita variety
|Scoville scale||3,000–10,000 SHU|
Jalapeño varieties vary in size and heat. Until recently, chipotles were largely found in the markets of central and southern Mexico.
Typically, a grower passes through a jalapeño field many times, picking the unripe, green jalapeños for market. At the end of the growing season, jalapeños naturally ripen and turn bright red. In Mexico and the United States, there is a market for ripe red jalapeños. They are kept on the bush as long as possible. When they are deep red and have lost much of their moisture, they are picked to be made into chipotles.
They are moved to a closed smoking chamber and spread on metal grills, but in recent years, producers have begun using large gas dryers. Wood is put in a firebox, and the smoke enters the sealed chamber. Every few hours the jalapeños are stirred to mix in the smoke. They're smoked for several days, until most of the moisture is removed. In the end, the chipotles are dry like prunes or raisins. The underlying heat of the jalapeños combines with the taste of smoke. Typically, ten pounds of jalapeños make one pound of chipotles after being thoroughly dried.
Most chipotle chilis are produced in the northern Mexican state of Chihuahua. The variety of chipotle grown there is known as a morita (Spanish for small mulberry). In central and southern Mexico, chipotle chilis are known as chile meco, chile ahumado, or típico. Whereas moritas from Chihuahua are purple in color, chile meco is tan/grey in color and has the general appearance of a cigar butt. Most chipotles found in the United States are of the morita variety. Almost all of the chipotle meco is consumed in Mexico.
Chipotles are purchased in numerous forms: chipotle powder, chipotle pods, chipotles en adobo in a can, concentrated chipotle base and wet chipotle meat marinade.
Other varieties of chilis are smoke-dried, including red jalapeños, serranos, habaneros, New Mexico chiles, Hungarian wax peppers, Santa Fe Grande chiles, and a milder jalapeño called the TAM (a cultivar named for Texas A&M University). Lesser-known varieties of smoked chilis include cobán, a piquín chile native to southern Mexico and Guatemala; pasilla de Oaxaca, a variety of pasilla from Oaxaca used in mole negro; jalapeño chico, jalapeños smoked while still green; and capones ("castrated ones"), rare smoked red jalapeños without seeds.
Chipotles, often a key ingredient in a recipe, impart a relatively mild but earthy spiciness to many dishes in Mexican cuisine. The chilis are used to make various salsas. Chipotle can be ground and combined with other spices to make a meat marinade – adobo. Chipotle is used, typically in powdered form, as an ingredient in both homemade and commercial products, including some brands of barbecue sauce and hot sauce, as well as in some chili con carnes and stews. Usually when used commercially, the product is advertised as having chipotle in it.
Chipotles have spiciness and a distinctive smoky flavor. The flesh is thick, so the chilis are usually used in a slow-cooked dish rather than raw. Whole chipotles are added to soups and stews and in the braising liquid for meats. They can also accompany beans or lentils.
- Francisco J. Santamaría, Diccionario de mejicanismos (Mexico: Editorial Porrúa, 1978), p. 388.
- "chipotle – The Mexican Chef". themexchef.com.