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Bahārāt (Arabic: بَهَارَات; 'spices') is a spice mixture or blend used in Middle Eastern cuisines. The mixture of finely ground spices is often used to season lamb and mutton, fish, chicken, beef, and soups, and may also be used as a condiment.
Bahārāt is the Arabic word for "spices" (the plural form of bahār, 'spice'). The word originates from the Indian name Bharata, an Indian emperor, as India was historically a large producer and trader of spices with the Middle East.
Composition depends on the region the spice mix is from. Typical ingredients of baharat may include:
- Black peppercorns
- Cardamom seeds
- Cassia bark
- Coriander seeds
- Cumin seeds
- Dried red chili peppers or paprika
One example of a recipe for baharat is a mixture of the following finely ground ingredients:
- 6 parts paprika
- 4 parts black pepper
- 4 parts cumin seeds
- 3 parts cinnamon
- 3 parts cloves
- 3 parts coriander seeds
- 3 parts nutmeg
- 1 part cardamom pods
The mixture can be rubbed into meat or mixed with olive oil and lime juice to form a marinade.
In the Levant a spice mix called sabaa baharat (Arabic: سبع بهارات 'seven spices') is used. Its origins are from Aleppo, Syria. Though it seems to slightly vary from province to province, the typical recipe for it is these following ground spices mixed:
- 2 parts cinnamon
- 2 parts black pepper
- 2 parts cumin
- 2 parts cardamom
- 2 parts coriander
- 1 part nutmeg
- 1 part cloves
Turkish baharat includes mint in the largest proportion. In Tunisia, baharat refers to a simple mixture of dried rosebuds and ground cinnamon, often combined with black pepper. In Eastern Arabia, loomi (dried black lime) and saffron may also be used for the kebsa spice mixture (also called "baharat").
- ^ Wehr, Hand (1979). A Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic (4th ed.). Harrassowitz. p. 96.
- ^ a b c غفاری-ghafaridiet.com, دکتر. "کاربرد بهارات در آشپزی را بلد باشید!". رژیم درمانی دکتر غفاری (in Persian). Retrieved 2022-04-08.
- ^ "Kibbeh: The National Dish of Syria". Food Hopping: What the World Eats. Retrieved 2022-04-07.