Cream is a dairy product composed of the higher-butterfat layer skimmed from the top of milk before homogenization. In un-homogenized milk, the fat, which is less dense, will eventually rise to the top. In the industrial production of cream, this process is accelerated by using centrifuges called "separators". In many countries, cream is sold in several grades depending on the total butterfat content. Cream can be dried to a powder for shipment to distant markets. Cream has high levels of saturated fat.
Cream skimmed from milk may be called "sweet cream" to distinguish it from whey cream skimmed from whey, a by-product of cheese-making. Whey cream has a lower fat content and tastes more salty, tangy and "cheesy". In many countries, cream is usually sold partially fermented: sour cream, crème fraîche, and so on.
Cream has many culinary uses in sweet, bitter, salty and tangy dishes.
Cream produced by cattle (particularly Jersey cattle) grazing on natural pasture often contains some natural carotenoid pigments derived from the plants they eat; this gives the cream a slight yellow tone, hence the name of the yellowish-white color, cream. This is also the origin of butter's yellow color. Cream from goat's milk, or from cows fed indoors on grain or grain-based pellets, is white.
Cream is used as an ingredient in many foods, including ice cream, many sauces, soups, stews, puddings, and some custard bases, and is also used for cakes. Whipped cream is served as a topping on ice cream sundaes, milkshakes, lassi, eggnog and sweet pies. Irish cream is an alcoholic liqueur which blends cream with whiskey, and often honey, wine, or coffee. Cream is also used in Indian curries such as masala dishes.
Both single and double cream can be used in cooking. Double cream or full-fat crème fraîche are often used when cream is added to a hot sauce, to prevent any problem with it separating or "splitting". Double cream can be thinned with milk to make an approximation of single cream.
Different grades of cream are distinguished by their fat content, whether they have been heat-treated, whipped, and so on. In many jurisdictions, there are regulations for each type.
The Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code – Standard 2.5.2 – Defines cream as milk product comparatively rich in fat, in the form of an emulsion of fat-in-skim milk, which can be obtained by separation from milk. Cream must contain no less than 350 g/kg of milk fat.
Manufacturers labels may distinguish between different fat contents, a general guideline is as follows:
|Name||Fat Content||Main Uses|
|Extra light (or 'lite')||12–12.5%|
|Light (or 'lite')||18–20%|
|Thickened Cream||35–36.5%||with added gelatine and/or other thickeners to give the cream a creamier texture, also possibly with stabilizers to aid the consistency of whipped cream (this would be the cream to use for whipped cream, not necessarily for cooking)|
|Single Cream||~ 35%||Recipes calling for 'single cream' are referring to pure or thickened cream with about 35% fat.|
Canadian cream definitions are similar to those used in the United States, except for "light cream", which is very low-fat cream, usually with 5% or 6% butterfat. Specific product characteristics are generally uniform throughout Canada, but names vary by both geographic and linguistic area and by manufacturer: "coffee cream" may be 10% or 18% and "half-and-half" ("crème légère") may be 3%, 5%, 6% or 10%, all depending on location and brand.
|Additional definition||Main uses|
|Manufacturing cream||40%||Crème fraîche is also 40–45% but is an acidified cultured product rather than sweet cream.||Commercial production.|
|Whipping cream||33–36%||Also as cooking or "thick" cream 35% with added stabilizers. Heavy cream must be at least 36%. In Francophone areas: crème à fouetter 35%; and for cooking, crème à cuisson 35%, crème à l'ancienne 35% or crème épaisse 35%.||Whips into a creamy and smooth topping that is used for pastries, fresh fruits, desserts, hot cocoa, etc. Cooking version is formulated to resist breaking when heated (as in sauces).|
|Table cream||15–18%||Coffee cream. Also as cooking or "thick" cream 15% with added stabilizers. In Francophone areas: crème de table 15% or crème à café 18%; and for cooking, crème champêtre 15%, crème campagnarde (country cream) 15% or crème épaisse 15%.||Added as rich whitener to coffee. Ideal for soups, sauces and veloutés. Garnishing fruit and desserts. Cooking version is formulated to resist breaking when heated.|
|Half and half||10%||Cereal cream (at least one producer calls it coffee cream; another calls it Creamo™ light cream). Product with the most butterfat in the light cream category. In Francophone areas: crème à café 10% and sometimes crème légère 10%.||Poured over hot cereal as a garnish. Ideal in sauces for vegetables, fish, meat, poultry, and pasta. Also in cream soups.|
|Light cream||3–10%||Light cream 6%. In Francophone areas: mélange de lait et de crème pour café 5%, Crémette™ 5% or crème légère 3% to 10%. A mixture of milk and cream.||5% product is similar to the richest Guernsey or Jersey milk. A lower fat alternative to table cream in coffee.|
Cream in Canada is defined to be the liquid obtained from milk after separating the various components to increase the milk fat content. Canadian Food and Drug Regulations allow stabilizers and acidity regulators. For heat-treated whipping cream, regulations disallow more than 0.25% skim milk powder, 0.1% glucose solids, 0.005% calcium sulphate, 0.2% microcrystalline cellulose, and 0.02% xanthan gum. The content of milk fat present in canned cream must be displayed as a percentage followed by "milk fat", "B.F", or "M.F". Fat content may also be displayed on canned cream in Canada.
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In Japan, cream sold in supermarkets is usually between 35% and 48% butterfat.
Russia, as well as other EAC countries, legally separates cream into two classes: normal (10–34% butterfat) and heavy (35–58%), but the industry has pretty much standardized around the following types:
|English||Russian||Transliteration||Milk fat (wt%)|
|Low-fat or drinking cream||Нежирные (питьевые) сливки||Nezhirnÿe (pityevÿe) slivki||10%|
|(Normal) Cream||Сливки||Slivki||15% or 20%|
|Whipping cream||Сливки для взбивания||Slivki dlya vzbivaniya||33% or 35%|
|Double cream||Двойные (жирные) сливки||Dvoinÿe (Zhirnÿe) slivki||48%|
In Sweden, cream is usually sold as:
- Matlagningsgrädde ("cooking cream"), 10–15%
- Kaffegrädde ("Coffee cream"), 10%
- Vispgrädde (whipping cream), 36–40%
Mellangrädde (27%) is, nowadays, a less common variant. Gräddfil and Creme Fraiche are two common sour cream products.
In Switzerland, the types of cream are legally defined as follows:
|Double cream||Doppelrahm||double-crème||doppia panna||45%||45%|
crème à fouetter
panna da montare
|Half cream||Halbrahm||demi-crème||mezza panna||25%||15%|
|Coffee cream||Kaffeerahm||crème à café||panna da caffè||15%||15%|
Sour cream and crème fraîche (German: Sauerrahm, Crème fraîche; French: crème acidulée, crème fraîche; Italian: panna acidula, crème fraîche) are defined as cream soured by bacterial cultures.
Thick cream (German: verdickter Rahm; French: crème épaissie; Italian: panna addensata) is defined as cream thickened using thickening agents.
In the United Kingdom, the types of cream are legally defined as followed:
|Additional definition||Main uses|
|Clotted cream||55%||is heat-treated||Served as it is. A traditional part of a cream tea.|
|Extra-thick double cream||48%||is heat-treated then quickly cooled||Thickest available fresh cream, spooned onto pies, puddings, and desserts (cannot be poured due to its consistency)|
|Double cream||48%||Whips easily and thickest for puddings and desserts, can be piped once whipped|
|Whipping cream||35%||Whips well but lighter, can be piped once whipped|
|Whipped cream||35%||has been whipped||Decorations on cakes, topping for ice cream, fruit and so on.|
|Sterilized cream||23%||is sterilized|
|Cream or single cream||18%||is not sterilized||Poured over puddings, used in sauces|
|Sterilized half cream||12%||is sterilized|
|Half cream||Uncommon, some cocktails|
In the United States, cream is usually sold as:
|Name||Fat content||Main uses|
|Half and Half||10.5–18%||To whiten coffee (and tea).|
|Light cream||18–30%||Also called "table" cream or "coffee" cream. An old style product for whitening coffee and also as an enriching ingredient in sauces and other recipes. This product is becoming difficult to find at retail in many areas.|
|Whipping cream||30–36%||Generally 33%. Used in sauces and soups and as a pourable or whipped garnish. Whipping will only attain soft peaks. Some products labeled "whipping cream" contain small amounts of gelatin as an added stabilizer for improved whipping.|
|Heavy (whipping) cream||36% min.||For whipping when pert stable peaks are desired. Also used as a luxurious pourable garnish on fresh fruit and hot cereals.|
|Manufacturer's cream||>=40%||Used in commercial and professional production applications. Not generally available at retail until recently.|
Most cream products sold in the United States at retail contain the minimum permissible fat content for their product type, e.g., "Half and half" almost always contains only 10.5% butterfat.
Not all grades are defined by all jurisdictions, and the exact fat content ranges vary. The above figures are based on the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21, Part 131
Processing and additivesEdit
Other processing may be carried out. For example, cream has a tendency to produce oily globules (called "feathering") when added to coffee. The stability of the cream may be increased by increasing the non-fat solids content, which can be done by partial demineralisation and addition of sodium caseinate, although this is expensive.:297
Other cream productsEdit
Whipped cream is made by whisking or mixing air into cream with more than 30% fat, to turn the liquid cream into a soft solid. Nitrous oxide, from whipped-cream chargers may also be used to make whipped cream.
Sour cream, common in many countries including the U.S., Canada and Australia, is cream (12 to 16% or more milk fat) that has been subjected to a bacterial culture that produces lactic acid (0.5%+), which sours and thickens it.
Smetana is a heavy cream product (15-40% milk fat) Central and Eastern European sweet or sour cream.
Reduced cream is a cream product used in New Zealand to make Kiwi dip.
Other items called "cream"Edit
Some non-edible substances are called creams due to their consistency: shoe cream is runny, unlike regular waxy shoe polish; hand/body 'creme' or "skin cream" is meant for moisturizing the skin.
Regulations in many jurisdictions restrict the use of the word cream for foods. Words such as creme, kreme, creame, or whipped topping (e.g., Cool Whip) are often used for products which cannot legally be called cream. Oreo cookies are a type of sandwich cookie in which two biscuits have a soft, sweet filling between them which is called "crème filling". In some cases foods can be described as cream although they do not contain predominantly milk fats; for example in Britain "ice cream" does not have to be a dairy product (although it must be labelled "contains non-milk fat"), and salad cream is the customary name for a condiment that has been produced since the 1920s.
- Artificial cream
- Condensed milk
- Cool Whip, a brand of imitation whipped cream.
- Crème, a culinary term for cream-like preparations
- Ice cream
- Kaymak, which is similar to clotted cream
- List of dairy products
- Non-dairy creamer
- Sour cream
- Whipped-cream charger, describes how nitrous oxide whips cream
- "Nutrition for Everyone: Basics: Saturated Fat - DNPAO - CDC". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved 16 June 2017.
- Choices, NHS. "Eat less saturated fat - Live Well - NHS Choices". www.nhs.uk. Retrieved 16 June 2017.
- ""Everything Is In Butter" - Kosher". 8 June 2013. Retrieved 16 June 2017.
- Larousse Gastronomique, 1938, translated 1961, p. 337
- Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code – Standard 2.5.2 – Cream, 2015-03-25. Retrieved on 2016-10-26.
- "Cream and Sour Cream". Choice.
- Canada, Dairy Farmers of. "5% or 6% Light Cream or Cream and Milk Blend for Coffee - Types of Cream - Cream - Dairy Goodness". www.dairygoodness.ca.
- "What Type of Cream Should I Use?". Retrieved 16 June 2017.
- "Tout sur la fabrication de la crème et ses bienfaits - La Famille du lait". metsdelacreme.com. Retrieved 16 June 2017.
- Branch, Legislative Services. "Consolidated federal laws of Canada, Food and Drug Regulations". laws.justice.gc.ca. Retrieved 2017-07-18.
- Eurasian Customs Union Technical Requirements "On milk and dairy products safety"
- Legally, the "drinking cream" term denotes pasteurized and individually packed cream, and has nothing to do with its fat content.
- "Ÿ" denotes Cyrillic letter Yery, which is here a separate vowel and shouldn't be read as a part of a diphthong.
- Verordnung des EDI über Lebensmittel tierischer Herkunft / Ordonnance du DFI sur les denrées alimentaires d'origine animale / Ordinanza del DFI sulle derrate alimentari di origine animale of 2010-11-23, SR/RS 817.022.108 (D·F·I), art. 48 (D·F·I)
- The English terms are not legally regulated
- Food Labelling Regulations 1998
- Bruhn, C.M.; Bruhn, J.C. (March 1988). "Observations on the Whipping Characteristics of Cream". Journal of Dairy Science. 71 (3): 857–862. doi:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(88)79628-9. Retrieved 12 December 2017.
- "Need Substitute For Heavy Cream? 8 Best Heavy Whipping Cream Substitutes". AMH. 2 November 2016.
- "CFR - Code of Federal Regulations Title 21". www.accessdata.fda.gov. Retrieved 16 June 2017.
- "Food and Drugs". www.access.gpo.gov. Retrieved 16 June 2017.
- Dairy Fats and Related Products, edited by Adnan Tamime. This book has a great deal of technical information on cream and other dairy fat products. Extracts available on Google books 
- "Carrageenan: food thickener and gelling agent from Hispanagar". www.hispanagar.com. Retrieved 16 June 2017.
- "Ministry of Food.—statutory rules and orders". Analyst. 70 (833): 306. 1 January 1945. doi:10.1039/AN9457000306. Retrieved 16 June 2017.