Lactic acid is an organic acid. It has a molecular formula CH3CH(OH)CO2H. It is white in solid state and it is extremely soluble in water. Solubility is so high that 1 part of lactic acid can dissolve 12 parts of water. While in liquid state (dissolved state) it is a colorless solution. Production includes both artificial synthesis as well as natural sources. Lactic acid is an alpha-hydroxy acid (AHA) due to the presence of carboxyl group adjacent to the hydroxyl group. It is used as a synthetic intermediate in many organic synthesis industries and in various biochemical industries. The conjugate base of lactic acid is called lactate.
|Preferred IUPAC name
3D model (JSmol)
|E number||E270 (preservatives)|
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
|Molar mass||g·mol−1 90.078|
|Boiling point||122 °C (252 °F; 395 K) @ 15 mmHg|
|Acidity (pKa)||3.86, 15.1|
Std enthalpy of
|1361.9 kJ/mol, 325.5 kcal/mol, 15.1 kJ/g, 3.61 kcal/g|
|G01AD01 (WHO) QP53AG02 (WHO)|
Related carboxylic acids
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|what is ?)(|
In solution, it can ionize a proton from the carboxyl group, producing the lactate ion CH
2. Compared to acetic acid, its pKa is 1 unit less, meaning lactic acid is ten times more acidic than acetic acid. This higher acidity is the consequence of the intramolecular hydrogen bonding between the α-hydroxyl and the carboxylate group. Lactic acid is chiral, consisting of two enantiomers. One is known as L-(+)-lactic acid or (S)-lactic acid and the other, its mirror image, is D-(−)-lactic acid or (R)-lactic acid. A mixture of the two in equal amounts is called DL-lactic acid, or racemic lactic acid. Lactic acid is hygroscopic. DL-lactic acid is miscible with water and with ethanol above its melting point, which is around 17 or 18 °C. D-lactic acid and L-lactic acid have a higher melting point.
In animals, L-lactate is constantly produced from pyruvate via the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in a process of fermentation during normal metabolism and exercise. It does not increase in concentration until the rate of lactate production exceeds the rate of lactate removal, which is governed by a number of factors, including monocarboxylate transporters, concentration and isoform of LDH, and oxidative capacity of tissues. The concentration of blood lactate is usually 1–2 mM at rest, but can rise to over 20 mM during intense exertion and as high as 25 mM afterward. In addition to other biological roles, L-lactic acid is the primary endogenous agonist of hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 1 (HCA1), which is a Gi/o-coupled G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR).
In industry, lactic acid fermentation is performed by lactic acid bacteria, which convert simple carbohydrates such as glucose, sucrose, or galactose to lactic acid. These bacteria can also grow in the mouth; the acid they produce is responsible for the tooth decay known as caries. In medicine, lactate is one of the main components of lactated Ringer's solution and Hartmann's solution. These intravenous fluids consist of sodium and potassium cations along with lactate and chloride anions in solution with distilled water, generally in concentrations isotonic with human blood. It is most commonly used for fluid resuscitation after blood loss due to trauma, surgery, or burns.
Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele was the first person to isolate lactic acid in 1780 from sour milk. The name reflects the lact- combining form derived from the Latin word lac, which means milk. In 1808, Jöns Jacob Berzelius discovered that lactic acid (actually L-lactate) also is produced in muscles during exertion. Its structure was established by Johannes Wislicenus in 1873.
In 1856, the role of Lactobacillus in the synthesis of lactic acid was discovered by Louis Pasteur. And hence this pathway was used for the commercial by the German pharmacy Boehringer Ingelheim in 1895.
In 2006, global production of lactic acid reached 275,000 metric tons with an average annual growth of 10%.
Lactic acid is produced industrially by bacterial fermentation of carbohydrates (sugar, starch) or by chemical synthesis from acetaldehyde, that is available from coal or crude oil. In 2009 lactic acid was produced predominantly (70–90%) by fermentation. Production of racemic lactic acid consisting of a 1:1 mixture of D and L stereoisomers, or of mixtures with up to 99.9% L-lactic acid, is possible by microbial fermentation. Industrial scale production of D-lactic acid by fermentation is possible, but much more challenging.
- Fermentative production
Fermented milk products are obtained industrially by fermentation of milk or whey by Lactobacillius species: Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (Lactobacillus bulgaricus) and Lactobacillus helveticus, and furthermore Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus (Streptococcus thermophilus) and Lactococcus lactis.
As a starting material for industrial production of lactic chemistry, that is applied for chemical synthesis, almost any carbohydrate source containing C5/C6 sugars could be used. Pure sucrose, glucose from starch, raw sugar beet juice are frequently applied. Lactic acid producing bacteria could be divided in two classes: homofermentative bacteria like Lactobacillus casei and Lactococcus lactis, producing two moles of lactate from one mole of glucose, heterofermentative species producing one mole of lactate from one mole of glucose as well as carbon dioxide and acetic acid/ethanol.
- Chemical production
Racemic lactic acid is produced in industry by addition of hydrogen cyanide to acetaldehyde and subsequent hydrolysis of forming lactonitrile. Hydrolysis performed by hydrochloric acid and ammonium chloride forms as a by-product. Japanese concern Musashino is one of the last big manufactures of lactic acid by this route. Synthesis of both racemic and enantiopure lactic acids is also possible from other starting materials (vinyl acetate, glycerol, etc.) by application of catalytic procedures.
Exercise and lactateEdit
During power exercises such as sprinting, when the rate of demand for energy is high, glucose is broken down and oxidized to pyruvate, and lactate is then produced from the pyruvate faster than the body can process it, causing lactate concentrations to rise. The production of lactate is beneficial for NAD+ regeneration (pyruvate is reduced to lactate while NADH is oxidized to NAD+), which is used up in oxidation of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate during production of pyruvate from glucose, and this ensures that energy production is maintained and exercise can continue. (During intense exercise, the respiratory chain cannot keep up with the amount of hydrogen ions that join to form NADH, and cannot regenerate NAD+ quickly enough.) In volant animals such as birds and bats, lactic acid may build up in the pectoral muscles.
The resulting lactate can be used in two ways:
- Oxidation back to pyruvate by well-oxygenated muscle cells, heart cells, and brain cells
- Pyruvate is then directly used to fuel the Krebs cycle
- Conversion to glucose via gluconeogenesis in the liver and release back into circulation; see Cori cycle
- If blood glucose concentrations are high, the glucose can be used to build up the liver's glycogen stores.
However, lactate is continually formed even at rest and during moderate exercise. Some causes of this are metabolism in red blood cells that lack mitochondria, and limitations resulting from the enzyme activity that occurs in muscle fibers having a high glycolytic capacity.
In 2004 Robergs et al. maintained that lactic acidosis during exercise is a "construct" or myth, pointing out that part of the H+ comes from ATP hydrolysis (ATP4− + H2O → ADP3− + HPO2−
4 + H+), and that reducing pyruvate to lactate (pyruvate− + NADH + H+ → lactate− + NAD+) actually consumes H+. Lindinger et al. countered that they had ignored the causative factors of the increase in [H+]. After all, the production of lactate− from a neutral molecule must increase [H+] to maintain electroneutrality. The point of Robergs's paper, however, was that lactate− is produced from pyruvate−, which has the same charge. It is pyruvate− production from neutral glucose that generates H+:
|C6H12O6 + 2 NAD+ + 2 ADP3− + 2 HPO2−
2 + 2 H+ + 2 NADH + 2 ATP4− + 2 H2O
|Subsequent lactate− production absorbs these protons:|
2 + 2 H+ + 2 NADH
2 + 2 NAD+
|C6H12O6 + 2 NAD+ + 2 ADP3− + 2 HPO2−
2 + 2 H+ + 2 NADH + 2 ATP4− + 2 H2O
2 + 2 NAD+ + 2 ATP4− + 2 H2O
Although the reaction glucose → 2 lactate− + 2 H+ releases two H+ when viewed on its own, the H+ are absorbed in the production of ATP. On the other hand, the absorbed acidity is released during subsequent hydrolysis of ATP: ATP4− + H2O → ADP3− + HPO2−
4 + H+. So once the use of the ATP is included, the overall reaction is
- C6H12O6 → 2 CH
2 + 2 H+
The generation of CO2 during respiration also causes an increase in [H+].
Although glucose is usually assumed to be the main energy source for living tissues, there are some indications that it is lactate, and not glucose, that is preferentially metabolized by neurons in the brain of several mammalian species (the notable ones being mice, rats, and humans). According to the lactate-shuttle hypothesis, glial cells are responsible for transforming glucose into lactate, and for providing lactate to the neurons. Because of this local metabolic activity of glial cells, the extracellular fluid immediately surrounding neurons strongly differs in composition from the blood or cerebrospinal fluid, being much richer with lactate, as was found in microdialysis studies.
Some evidence suggests that lactate is important at early stages of development for brain metabolism in prenatal and early postnatal subjects, with lactate at these stages having higher concentrations in body liquids, and being utilized by the brain preferentially over glucose. It was also hypothesized that lactate may exert a strong action over GABAergic networks in the developing brain, making them more inhibitory than it was previously assumed, acting either through better support of metabolites, or alterations in base intracellular pH levels, or both.
Studies of brain slices of mice show that beta-hydroxybutyrate, lactate, and pyruvate act as oxidative energy substrates, causing an increase in the NAD(P)H oxidation phase, that glucose was insufficient as an energy carrier during intense synaptic activity and, finally, that lactate can be an efficient energy substrate capable of sustaining and enhancing brain aerobic energy metabolism in vitro. The study, "provides novel data on biphasic NAD(P)H fluorescence transients, an important physiological response to neural activation that has been reproduced in many studies and that is believed to originate predominately from activity-induced concentration changes to the cellular NADH pools."
Blood tests for lactate are performed to determine the status of the acid base homeostasis in the body. Blood sampling for this purpose is often by arterial blood sampling (even if it is more difficult than venipuncture), because lactate differs substantially between arterial and venous levels, and the arterial level is more representative for this purpose.
|Lower limit||Upper limit||Unit|
Two molecules of lactic acid can be dehydrated to the lactone lactide. In the presence of catalysts lactide polymerize to either atactic or syndiotactic polylactide (PLA), which are biodegradable polyesters. PLA is an example of a plastic that is not derived from petrochemicals.
Pharmaceutical and cosmetic applicationsEdit
Lactic acid is also employed in pharmaceutical technology to produce water-soluble lactates from otherwise-insoluble active ingredients. It finds further use in topical preparations and cosmetics to adjust acidity and for its disinfectant and keratolytic properties.
Lactic acid is found primarily in sour milk products, such as koumiss, laban, yogurt, kefir, and some cottage cheeses. The casein in fermented milk is coagulated (curdled) by lactic acid. Lactic acid is also responsible for the sour flavor of sourdough bread.
In lists of nutritional information lactic acid might be included under the term "carbohydrate" (or "carbohydrate by difference") because this often includes everything other than water, protein, fat, ash, and ethanol. If this is the case then the calculated food energy may use the standard 4 kilocalories (17 kJ) per gram that is often used for all carbohydrates. But in some cases lactic acid is ignored in the calculation. The energy density of lactic acid is 362 kilocalories (1,510 kJ) per 100 g.
In beer brewing some styles of beer (sour beer) purposely contain lactic acid. Most commonly this is produced naturally by various strains of bacteria. These bacteria ferment sugars into acids, unlike yeast, which ferment sugar into ethanol. One such style are Belgian Lambics. After cooling the wort, yeast and bacteria are allowed to “fall” into the open fermenters. Most brewers of more common beer styles would ensure no such bacteria are allowed to enter the fermenter. Other sour styles of beer include Berliner weisse, Flanders red and American wild ale.
In winemaking, a bacterial process, natural or controlled, is often used to convert the naturally present malic acid to lactic acid, to reduce the sharpness and for other flavor-related reasons. This malolactic fermentation is undertaken by the family of lactic acid bacteria.
As a food additive it is approved for use in the EU, USA and Australia and New Zealand; it is listed by its INS number 270 or as E number E270. Lactic acid is used as a food preservative, curing agent, and flavoring agent. It is an ingredient in processed foods and is used as a decontaminant during meat processing. Lactic acid is produced commercially by fermentation of carbohydrates such as glucose, sucrose, or lactose, or by chemical synthesis. Carbohydrate sources include corn, beets, and cane sugar.
- "CHAPTER P-6. Applications to Specific Classes of Compounds". Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry : IUPAC Recommendations and Preferred Names 2013 (Blue Book). Cambridge: The Royal Society of Chemistry. 2014. p. 748. doi:10.1039/9781849733069-00648. ISBN 978-0-85404-182-4.
- Dawson RM, et al. (1959). Data for Biochemical Research. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
- Silva AM, Kong X, Hider RC (October 2009). "Determination of the pKa value of the hydroxyl group in the alpha-hydroxycarboxylates citrate, malate and lactate by 13C NMR: implications for metal coordination in biological systems". Biometals. 22 (5): 771–8. doi:10.1007/s10534-009-9224-5. PMID 19288211.
- Sigma-Aldrich Co., DL-Lactic acid.
- "Lactate Profile". UC Davis Health System, Sports Medicine and Sports Performance. Retrieved 23 November 2015.
- Goodwin ML, Harris JE, Hernández A, Gladden LB (July 2007). "Blood lactate measurements and analysis during exercise: a guide for clinicians". Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology. 1 (4): 558–69. doi:10.1177/193229680700100414. PMC 2769631. PMID 19885119.
- Offermanns S, Colletti SL, Lovenberg TW, Semple G, Wise A, IJzerman AP (June 2011). "International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. LXXXII: Nomenclature and Classification of Hydroxy-carboxylic Acid Receptors (GPR81, GPR109A, and GPR109B)". Pharmacological Reviews. 63 (2): 269–90. doi:10.1124/pr.110.003301. PMID 21454438.
- S Offermanns, SL Colletti, AP IJzerman, TW Lovenberg, G Semple, A Wise, MG Waters. "Hydroxycarboxylic acid receptors". IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. Retrieved 13 July 2018.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
- Badet C, Thebaud NB (2008). "Ecology of lactobacilli in the oral cavity: a review of literature". The Open Microbiology Journal. 2: 38–48. doi:10.2174/1874285800802010038. PMC 2593047. PMID 19088910.
- Nascimento MM, Gordan VV, Garvan CW, Browngardt CM, Burne RA (April 2009). "Correlations of oral bacterial arginine and urea catabolism with caries experience". Oral Microbiology and Immunology. 24 (2): 89–95. doi:10.1111/j.1399-302X.2008.00477.x. PMC 2742966. PMID 19239634.
- Aas JA, Griffen AL, Dardis SR, Lee AM, Olsen I, Dewhirst FE, Leys EJ, Paster BJ (April 2008). "Bacteria of dental caries in primary and permanent teeth in children and young adults". Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 46 (4): 1407–17. doi:10.1128/JCM.01410-07. PMC 2292933. PMID 18216213.
- Caufield PW, Li Y, Dasanayake A, Saxena D (2007). "Diversity of lactobacilli in the oral cavities of young women with dental caries". Caries Research. 41 (1): 2–8. doi:10.1159/000096099. PMC 2646165. PMID 17167253.
- Roth SM. "Why does lactic acid build up in muscles? And why does it cause soreness?". Retrieved 23 January 2006.
- "NNFCC Renewable Chemicals Factsheet: Lactic Acid". NNFCC.
- H. Benninga (1990): "A History of Lactic Acid Making: A Chapter in the History of Biotechnology". Volume 11 of Chemists and Chemistry. Springer, ISBN 0792306252, 9780792306252
- Endres H (2009). Technische Biopolymere. München: Hanser-Verlag. p. 103. ISBN 978-3-446-41683-3.
- Groot W, van Krieken J, Slekersl O, de Vos S (19 October 2010). Auras R, Lim L, Selke SE, Tsuji H (eds.). Chemistry and production of lactic acid, lactide and poly(lactic acid) in Poly(Lactic acid). Hoboken: Wiley. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-470-29366-9.
- König H, Fröhlich J (2009). Lactic acid bacteria in Biology of Microorganisms on Grapes, in Must and in Wine. Springer-Verlag. p. 3. ISBN 978-3-540-85462-3.
- Westhoff G, Starr JN (2012). "Lactic Acid". Lactic Acids. In: Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. pp. 1–8. doi:10.1002/14356007.a15_097.pub3. ISBN 9783527306732.
- Shuklov IA, Dubrovina NV, Kühlein K, Börner A (2016). "Chemo-Catalyzed Pathways to Lactic Acid and Lactates". Advanced Synthesis and Catalysis. 358 (24): 3910–3931. doi:10.1002/adsc.201600768.
- Article in "Mammalian Biology"
- McArdle WD, Katch FI, Katch VL (2010). Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance. Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Health. ISBN 978-0-683-05731-7.
- Robergs RA, Ghiasvand F, Parker D (September 2004). "Biochemistry of exercise-induced metabolic acidosis" (PDF). American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology. 287 (3): R502–16. doi:10.1152/ajpregu.00114.2004. PMID 15308499.
- Lindinger MI, Kowalchuk JM, Heigenhauser GJ (September 2005). "Applying physicochemical principles to skeletal muscle acid-base status". American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology. 289 (3): R891–4, author reply R904–910. doi:10.1152/ajpregu.00225.2005. PMID 16105823.
- Zilberter Y, Zilberter T, Bregestovski P (September 2010). "Neuronal activity in vitro and the in vivo reality: the role of energy homeostasis". Trends in Pharmacological Sciences. 31 (9): 394–401. doi:10.1016/j.tips.2010.06.005. PMID 20633934.
- Wyss MT, Jolivet R, Buck A, Magistretti PJ, Weber B (May 2011). "In vivo evidence for lactate as a neuronal energy source" (PDF). The Journal of Neuroscience. 31 (20): 7477–85. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0415-11.2011. PMID 21593331.
- Gladden LB (July 2004). "Lactate metabolism: a new paradigm for the third millennium". The Journal of Physiology. 558 (Pt 1): 5–30. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2003.058701. PMC 1664920. PMID 15131240.
- Pellerin L, Bouzier-Sore AK, Aubert A, Serres S, Merle M, Costalat R, Magistretti PJ (September 2007). "Activity-dependent regulation of energy metabolism by astrocytes: an update". Glia. 55 (12): 1251–62. doi:10.1002/glia.20528. PMID 17659524.
- Holmgren CD, Mukhtarov M, Malkov AE, Popova IY, Bregestovski P, Zilberter Y (February 2010). "Energy substrate availability as a determinant of neuronal resting potential, GABA signaling and spontaneous network activity in the neonatal cortex in vitro". Journal of Neurochemistry. 112 (4): 900–12. doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2009.06506.x. PMID 19943846.
- Tyzio R, Allene C, Nardou R, Picardo MA, Yamamoto S, Sivakumaran S, Caiati MD, Rheims S, Minlebaev M, Milh M, Ferré P, Khazipov R, Romette JL, Lorquin J, Cossart R, Khalilov I, Nehlig A, Cherubini E, Ben-Ari Y (January 2011). "Depolarizing actions of GABA in immature neurons depend neither on ketone bodies nor on pyruvate". The Journal of Neuroscience. 31 (1): 34–45. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3314-10.2011. PMID 21209187.
- Ruusuvuori E, Kirilkin I, Pandya N, Kaila K (November 2010). "Spontaneous network events driven by depolarizing GABA action in neonatal hippocampal slices are not attributable to deficient mitochondrial energy metabolism". The Journal of Neuroscience. 30 (46): 15638–42. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3355-10.2010. PMID 21084619.
- Khakhalin AS (September 2011). "Questioning the depolarizing effects of GABA during early brain development". Journal of Neurophysiology. 106 (3): 1065–7. doi:10.1152/jn.00293.2011. PMID 21593390.
- Ivanov A, Mukhtarov M, Bregestovski P, Zilberter Y (2011). "Lactate Effectively Covers Energy Demands during Neuronal Network Activity in Neonatal Hippocampal Slices". Frontiers in Neuroenergetics. 3: 2. doi:10.3389/fnene.2011.00002. PMC 3092068. PMID 21602909.
- Kasischke K (2011). "Lactate fuels the neonatal brain". Frontiers in Neuroenergetics. 3: 4. doi:10.3389/fnene.2011.00004. PMC 3108381. PMID 21687795.
- Blood Test Results – Normal Ranges Bloodbook.Com
- Derived from mass values using molar mass of 90.08 g/mol
- "USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 28 (2015) Documentation and User Guide" (PDF). 2015. p. 13.
- For example, in this USDA database entry for yoghurt the food energy is calculated using given coefficients for carbohydrate, fat, and protein. (One must click on "Full report" to see the coefficients.) The calculated value is based on 4.66 grams of carbohydrate, which is exactly equal to the sugars.
- Greenfield H, Southgate D (2003). Food Composition Data: Production, Management and Use. Rome: FAO. p. 146. ISBN 9789251049495.
- "Brewing With Lactic Acid Bacteria". MoreBeer.
- Lambic (Classic Beer Style) – Jean Guinard
- Li Li, Xiaohong Yao, Caihong Zhong and Xuzhong Chen (January 2010). "Akebia: A Potential New Fruit Crop in China". HortScience. 45 (1): 4–10.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
- "Current EU approved additives and their E Numbers". UK Food Standards Agency. Retrieved 27 October 2011.
- "Listing of Food Additives Status Part II". US Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 27 October 2011.
- "Standard 1.2.4 – Labelling of ingredients". Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code. Retrieved 27 October 2011.
- "Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS:Lactic Acid". US FDA. Retrieved 20 May 2013.
- "Purac Carcass Applications". Purac. Retrieved 20 May 2013.
- "Agency Response Letter GRAS Notice No. GRN 000240". FDA. US FDA. Retrieved 20 May 2013.
- Druckerman P (2 October 2016). "If I Sleep for an Hour, 30 People Will Die". The New York Times.