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Bulgur (from Turkish: bulgur;[1] also burghul, from Arabic: برغل[2] groats) is a cereal food made from the parboiled groats of several different wheat species, most often from durum wheat. It originates in Middle Eastern cuisine.



Bulgur, cooked
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 83 kcal (350 kJ)
18.58 g
Sugars 0.10 g
Dietary fiber 4.5 g
0.24 g
3.08 g
Vitamin A equiv.
0.0 μg
Vitamin A 1 IU
Thiamine (B1)
0.057 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
0.028 mg
Niacin (B3)
1.000 mg
Vitamin B6
0.083 mg
Folate (B9)
18 μg
Vitamin C
0.0 mg
Vitamin E
0.01 mg
10 mg
0.96 mg
32 mg
40 mg
68 mg
5 mg
0.57 mg
Other constituents
Water 78 g

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Bulgur is recognized as a whole grain by the U.S.D.A..[3] Bulgur is sometimes confused with cracked wheat, which is crushed wheat grain that has not been parboiled.[4] Bulgur is a common ingredient in cuisines of many countries of the Middle East and Mediterranean Basin.[5][6][7] It has a light, nutty flavor.[8]

In Turkey, a distinction is made between fine-ground bulgur, called köftelik bulgur, and a coarser grind, called pilavlık bulgur. In the United States, bulgur is produced from white wheat in four distinct grinds or sizes (#1 Fine, #2 Medium, #3 Coarse and #4 Extra Coarse). The highest quality bulgur has particle sizes that are uniform, thus allowing a more consistent cooking time and result.


Bulgur can be used in pilafs, soups, bakery goods, or as stuffing. In breads, it adds a whole grain component. It is a main ingredient in tabbouleh salad and kibbeh. It is often a substitute for rice or couscous. In Indian and Pakistani cuisine, bulgur or daliya is used as a cereal with milk and sugar. In the United States, it is often used as a side dish, much like pasta or rice. In meals, bulgur is often mistaken for rice because it can be prepared in a similar manner, although it has a texture more like couscous than rice.

In Turkey, bulgur is prepared (using pilavlık bulgur) as pilaf in chicken stock, with or without sauteed noodles, or cooked with tomatoes, onions and red pepper. The fine grind (köftelik bulgur) is used for making kısır, a bulgur salad similar to tabbouleh, prepared with tomato paste, fresh tomatoes, cucumbers, parsley, olive oil, and other salad ingredients to personal taste. Pomegranate molasses (nar ekşisi in Turkish), which is more sour than sweet, is commonly used in favor of lemon juice to add tartness. A variety of mezes and main dishes are prepared with köftelik bulgur, such as çiğ köfte, içli köfte, and ezogelin soup. It also forms the base of a soup, tarhana, which is made with yogurt to which halloumi has been added.

In Cyprus, it is used to make "κούπες" (also known as bulgur köftesi in Cypriot Turkish), a variety of kibbeh. Its crust is usually made of bulgur wheat, flour, oil, salt and egg, then filled with ground meat (beef and/or pork), onions, parsley and spices. There is also vegetarian "κούπες" which substitutes the ground meat with chopped mushrooms.

The Saudi Arabian version of bulgur, popular in Nejd and Al-Hasa, is known as jarish.[9]

Nutrition factsEdit

Cooked bulgur is composed of 78% water, 19% carbohydrates, and 3% protein. In a 100 gram reference amount, it provides 83 Calories.[10]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ "Bulgur | Definition of Bulgur by Merriam-Webster". Retrieved 2015-12-25. 
  2. ^ "Burghul | Define Burghul at". Retrieved 2014-03-20. 
  3. ^ Jacqueline B. Marcus (15 April 2013). Culinary Nutrition: The Science and Practice of Healthy Cooking. Academic Press. p. 561,300. ISBN 978-0-12-391883-3. 
  4. ^ Celine Steen; Tamasin Noyes (15 November 2015). The Great Vegan Grains Book: Celebrate Whole Grains with More than 100 Delicious Plant-Based Recipes * Includes Soy-Free and Gluten-Free Recipes!. Fair Winds Press. p. 11. ISBN 978-1-62788-826-4. 
  5. ^ Irina Petrosian; David Underwood (2006). Armenian Food: Fact, Fiction & Folklore. p. 58. ISBN 978-1-4116-9865-9. 
  6. ^ LeeAnne Gelletly (17 November 2014). The Kurds. Mason Crest. p. 83. ISBN 978-1-63355-946-2. 
  7. ^ Ken Albala (25 May 2011). Food Cultures of the World Encyclopedia [4 volumes]: [Four Volumes]. ABC-CLIO. p. 261. ISBN 978-0-313-37627-6. 
  8. ^ Victoria Wise (3 December 2004). The Pressure Cooker Gourmet: 225 Recipes for Great-Tasting, Long-Simmered Flavors in Just Minutes. Harvard Common Press. p. 230. ISBN 978-1-55832-201-1. 
  9. ^ Food from Saudi Arabia
  10. ^ "Bulgar, cooked, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 26 October 2017.