Romanization of Persian
Romanization of Persian or Latinization of Persian (Persian: لاتیننویسی فارسی, romanized: Lātinnevisiye fārsi, pronounced [lɒːtiːn.neviːˌsije fɒːɹˈsiː]) is the representation of the Persian language (Farsi, Dari and Tajik) with the Latin script. Several different romanization schemes exist, each with its own set of rules driven by its own set of ideological goals.
Because the Perso-Arabic script is an abjad writing system (with a consonant-heavy inventory of letters), many distinct words in standard Persian can have identical spellings, with widely varying pronunciations that differ in their (unwritten) vowel sounds. Thus a romanization paradigm can follow either transliteration (which mirrors spelling and orthography) or transcription (which mirrors pronunciation and phonology).
The Latin script plays in Iran the role of a second script. For the proof of this assertion it is sufficient to take a look at the city and street signs or the Internet addresses in all countries. On the other hand, experience has shown that efforts to teach millions of Iranian young people abroad in reading and writing Persian mostly prove to be unsuccessful, due to the lack of daily contact with the Persian script. It seems that a way out of this dilemma has been found; and that is the use of the Latin script parallel to the Persian script.
Transliteration (in the strict sense) attempts to be a complete representation of the original writing, so that an informed reader should be able to reconstruct the original spelling of unknown transliterated words. Transliterations of Persian are used to represent individual Persian words or short quotations, in scholarly texts in English or other languages that do not use the Arabic alphabet.
A transliteration will still have separate representations for different consonants of the Persian alphabet that are pronounced identically in Persian. Therefore, transliterations of Persian are often based on transliterations of Arabic. The representation of the vowels of the Perso-Arabic alphabet is also complex, and transliterations are based on the written form.
Non-academic English-language quotation of Persian words usually uses a simplification of one of the strict transliteration schemes (typically omitting diacritical marks) and/or unsystematic choices of spellings meant to guide English speakers using English spelling rules towards an approximation of the Persian sounds.
Transcriptions of Persian attempt to straightforwardly represent Persian phonology in the Latin script, without requiring a close or reversible correspondence with the Perso-Arabic script, and also without requiring a close correspondence to English phonetic values of Roman letters.
Main romanization schemesEdit
- DMG (1969), a strict scientific system by the German Oriental Society (Deutsche Morgenländische Gesellschaft). It corresponds to Deutsches Institut für Normung standard DIN 31635.
- ALA-LC (1997), the ALA-LC romanization.
- BGN/PCGN (1958), the BGN/PCGN romanization.
- EI (1960), the system used in early editions of Encyclopædia Iranica.
- EI (2012), its contemporary modification.
- UN (1967), the Iranian national system (1966), that was approved by the UNGEGN in 1967.
- UN (2012), its contemporary modification.
|IPA||DMG (1969)||ALA-LC (1997)||BGN/PCGN (1958)||EI (1960)||EI (2012)||UN (1967)||UN (2012)||Pronunciation|
|U+0627||ا||ʔ, ∅[a]||ʾ, —[b]||ʼ, —[b]||ʾ||_____|
|U+0628||ب||b||b||B as in Bob|
|U+067E||پ||p||p||P as in pet|
|U+062A||ت||t||t||T as in tall|
|U+062B||ث||s||s̱||s̱||s̄||t͟h||ṯ||s̄||s||S as in sand|
|U+062C||ج||dʒ||ǧ||j||j||d͟j||j||j||J as in jam|
|U+0686||چ||tʃ||č||ch||ch||č||č||ch||č||Ch as in Charlie|
|U+062D||ح||h||ḥ||ḥ||ḩ/ḥ[c]||ḥ||ḥ||ḩ||h||H as in holiday|
|U+062F||د||d||d||D as in Dave|
|U+0630||ذ||z||ẕ||ẕ||z̄||d͟h||ḏ||z̄||z||Z as in zero|
|U+0631||ر||r||r||R as in Rabbit|
|U+0632||ز||z||z||Z as in zero|
|U+0698||ژ||ʒ||ž||zh||zh||z͟h||ž||zh||ž||S as in televison
or G as in Genre
|U+0633||س||s||s||S as in Sam|
|U+0634||ش||ʃ||š||sh||sh||s͟h||š||sh||š||Sh as in sheep|
|U+0635||ص||s||ṣ||ṣ||ş/ṣ[c]||ṣ||ṣ||ş||s||S as in Sam|
|U+0636||ض||z||ż||z̤||ẕ||ḍ||ż||ẕ||z||Z as in zero|
|U+0637||ط||t||ṭ||ṭ||ţ/ṭ[c]||ṭ||ṭ||ţ||t||t as in tank|
|U+0638||ظ||z||ẓ||ẓ||z̧/ẓ[c]||ẓ||ẓ||z̧||z||Z as in zero|
|U+0639||ع||∅||ʿ||ʻ||ʼ[b]||ʻ||ʻ||ʿ||ʿ||- as in Uh-Oh|
|U+0641||ف||f||f||F as in Fred|
|U+06A9||ک||k||k||C as in card|
|U+06AF||گ||ɡ||g||G as in go|
|U+0644||ل||l||l||L as in lamp|
|U+0645||م||m||m||M as in Michael|
|U+0646||ن||n||n||N as in name|
|U+0648||و||v~w[a][d]||v||v, w[e]||v||V as in vision|
|U+0647||ه||h[a]||h||h||h[f]||h||h||h[f]||h[f]||H as in hot|
|U+06CC||ی||j[a]||y||Y as in Yale|
|Unicode||Final||Medial||Initial||Isolated||IPA||DMG (1969)||ALA-LC (1997)||BGN/PCGN (1958)||EI (2012)||UN (1967)||UN (2012)||Pronunciation|
|U+064E||◌َ||◌َ||اَ||◌َ||æ||a||a||a||a||a||a||A as in cat|
|U+064F||◌ُ||◌ُ||اُ||◌ُ||o||o||o||o||u||o||o||O as in go|
|U+0648 U+064F||◌ﻮَ||◌ﻮَ||—||◌وَ||o[j]||o||o||o||u||o||o||O as in go|
|U+0650||◌ِ||◌ِ||اِ||◌ِ||e||e||i||e||e||e||e||E as in ten|
|U+064E U+0627||◌َا||◌َا||آ||◌َا||ɑː~ɒː||ā||ā||ā||ā||ā||ā||O as in hot|
|U+0622||◌ﺂ||◌ﺂ||آ||◌آ||ɑː~ɒː||ā, ʾā[k]||ā, ʼā[k]||ā||ā||ā||ā||O as in hot|
|U+064E U+06CC||◌َﯽ||—||—||◌َی||ɑː~ɒː||ā||á||á||ā||á||ā||O as in hot|
|U+06CC U+0670||◌ﯽٰ||—||—||◌یٰ||ɑː~ɒː||ā||á||á||ā||ā||ā||O as in hot|
|U+064F U+0648||◌ُﻮ||◌ُﻮ||اُو||◌ُو||uː, oː[e]||ū||ū||ū||u, ō[e]||ū||u||U as in actual|
|U+0650 U+06CC||◌ِﯽ||◌ِﯿ||اِﯾ||◌ِی||iː, eː[e]||ī||ī||ī||i, ē[e]||ī||i||Y as in happy|
|U+064E U+0648||◌َﻮ||◌َﻮ||اَو||◌َو||ow~aw[e]||au||aw||ow||ow, aw[e]||ow||ow||O as in go|
|U+064E U+06CC||◌َﯽ||◌َﯿ||اَﯾ||◌َی||ej~aj[e]||ai||ay||ey||ey, ay[e]||ey||ey||Ay as in play|
|U+064E U+06CC||◌ﯽ||—||—||◌ی||–e, –je||–e, –ye||–i, –yi||–e, –ye||–e, –ye||–e, –ye||–e, –ye||Ye as in yes|
|U+06C0||◌ﮥ||—||—||◌ﮤ||–je||–ye||–ʼi||–ye||–ye||–ye||–ye||Ye as in yes|
- Used as a vowel as well.
- Hamza and ayn are not transliterated at the beginning of words.
- The dot below may be used instead of cedilla.
- At the beginning of words the combination ⟨خو⟩ was pronounced /xw/ or /xʷ/ in Classical Persian. In modern varieties the glide /ʷ/ has been lost, though the spelling has not been changed. It may be still heard in Dari as a relict pronunciation. The combination /xʷa/ was changed to /xo/ (see below).
- In Dari.
- Not transliterated at the end of words.
- In the combination ⟨یة⟩ at the end of words.
- When used instead of ⟨ت⟩ at the end of words.
- Diacritical signs (harakat) are rarely written.
- After ⟨خ⟩ from the earlier /xʷa/. Often transliterated as xwa or xva. For example, خور /xor/ "sun" was /xʷar/ in Classical Persian.
- After vowels.
In the pre-Islamic period Old and Middle Persian employed various scripts including Old Persian cuneiform, Pahlavi and Avestan scripts. For each period there are established transcriptions and transliterations by prominent linguists.
|IPA||Old Persian[i][ii]||Middle Persian
|ʃ||š||š, š́, ṣ̌|
|n||n||n, ń, ṇ|
- Slash signifies equal variants.
- There exist some differences in transcription of Old Persian preferred by different scholars:
- ā = â
- ī, ū = i, u
- x = kh, ḵ, ḥ, ḫ
- c/č = ǩ
- j/ǰ = ǧ
- θ = ϑ, þ, th, ṯ, ṭ
- ç = tr, θʳ, ϑʳ, ṙ, s͜s, s̀
- f = p̱
- y, v = j, w.
A sample romanization (a poem by Hafez)
Yusef-e gomgašte bāz āyad be kan'ān qam maxor
kolbe-ye ahzān šavad ruzi golestān qam maxor
یوسف گم گشته باز آید به کنعان غم مخور/کلبه ی احزان شود روزی گلستان غم مخور
The lost Joseph will get back to Canaan don't be sad
The hut of madness will become a garden one day, don't be sad
Other romanization schemesEdit
Baháʼí Persian romanizationEdit
Baháʼís use a system standardized by Shoghi Effendi, which he initiated in a general letter on March 12, 1923. The Baháʼí transliteration scheme was based on a standard adopted by the Tenth International Congress of Orientalists which took place in Geneva in September 1894. Shoghi Effendi changed some details of the Congress's system, most notably in the use of digraphs in certain cases (e.g. s͟h instead of š), and in incorporating the solar letters when writing the definite article al- (Arabic: ال) according to pronunciation (e.g. ar-Rahim, as-Saddiq, instead of al-Rahim, al-Saddiq).
A detailed introduction to the Baháʼí Persian romanization can usually be found at the back of a Baháʼí scripture.
ASCII Internet romanizationsEdit
|آ،ا||a, aa, ā|
|چ||ch, č, c|
|ع،ء||a, e, ê|
|و||o, u, v, w|
It is common to write Persian language with only the Latin alphabet (as opposed to the Persian alphabet) especially in online chat, social networks, emails and SMS. It has developed and spread due to a former lack of software supporting the Persian alphabet, and/or due to a lack of knowledge about the software that was available. Although Persian writing is supported in recent operating systems, there are still many cases where the Persian alphabet is unavailable and there is a need for an alternative way to write Persian with the basic Latin alphabet. This way of writing is sometimes called Fingilish or Pingilish (a portmanteau of Farsi or Persian and English). In most cases this is an ad hoc simplification of the scientific systems listed above (such as ALA-LC or BGN/PCGN), but ignoring any special letters or diacritical signs. ع may be written using the numeral "3", as in the Arabic chat alphabet (though this is rarely done). The details of the spelling also depend on the contact language of the speaker; for example, the vowel [u] is often spelt "oo" after English, but Persian speakers from Germany and some other European countries are more likely to use "u".
Tajik Latin alphabetEdit
The Tajik language or Tajik Persian is a variety of the Persian language. It was written in Tajik SSR in a standardized Latin script from 1926 until the late 1930s, when the script was officially changed to Cyrillic. However, Tajik phonology differs slightly from that of Persian in Iran. As a result of these two factors romanization schemes of the Tajik Cyrillic script follow rather different principles.
|A a||B ʙ||C c||Ç ç||D d||E e||F f||G g||Ƣ ƣ||H h||I i||Ī ī|
|J j||K k||L l||M m||N n||O o||P p||Q q||R r||S s||Ş ş||T t|
|U u||Ū ū||V v||X x||Z z||Ƶ ƶ||ʼ|
Variation proposed by Mir Shamsuddin Adib-SoltaniEdit
The renowned contemporary linguist Mir Shamsuddin Adib-Soltani has proposed  the use of a variation of the Latin alphabet. This variation, also sometimes called "Pârstin", has been commonly used by other linguists, such as David Neil MacKenzie for the transliteration of the Perso-Arabic scripture.
The letters of this variation of the Latin alphabet are the basic Latin letters: Aa, Bb, Cc, Dd, Ee, Ff, Gg, Hh, Ii, Jj, Kk, Ll, Mm, Nn, Oo, Pp, Qq, Rr, Ss, Tt, Uu, Vv, Xx, Yy, Zz, plus the additional letters to support the native sounds: Ââ, Čč, Šš, Žž.
Besides being one of the simplest variations proposed for the Latinization of the Persian alphabet, this variation is based on the Alphabetic principle. Based on this principle, each individual speech sound is represented by a single letter and there is a one-to-one correspondence between sounds and the letters that represent them. This principle, besides increasing the clarity of the text and preventing confusion for the reader, is specifically useful for representing the native sounds of the Persian language, for which there are no equivalents in most other languages written in a Latin-based alphabet. For instance, compound letters used in the other variations, such as kh and gh, in addition to sh and zh are respectively represented by x, q, š and ž.
Persian Rumi AlphabetEdit
Anwar Wafi Hayat, Afghan writer and researcher, proposed new Latin alphabet in 2019, called Rumi script for Persian spoken in Afghanistan. His research revealed the various reading and writing problems with the current Perso-Arabic script adding that the script has slowed down literacy acquisition and hiked the poverty rate. Based on his study, the new Rumi Persian alphabet will improve literacy acquisition and help in digitizing the Persian language and will also help the foreigner learners of Persian to learn this language easily and quickly. The Rumi Persian alphabet contains 33 letters.
|Arabic||َ زبر||ا، آ||ب||د||ی||غ||ف||گ||ح ، ه||ِ زېر||ي||ج||ژ||ک||ل||م||ن||و||پ||ق|
|Latin||Rr||Ss||Šš/S̈̇s̈̇||Tt||Kh kh||Ch ch||Uu||Ūū||Ww||Yy||Zz||Ai ai||Êê|
|Arabic||ر||س||ش||ت||خ||چ||ُ پیش||وُ||و||ی||ذ، ز، ظ||ئ||ع|
Example of Persian text in Rumi Persian script.
|Persian in Rūmi Script||Persian in Arabic Script|
|S̈̇uārimā barādarî o bāhamî
Saādato nawāye sulhi dāyemî
|شعار ما برادری و باهمی
سعادت و نوای صلح دایمی
|Salāmo amno ittihādo yak dilî
Barāye kāfai milal barābari
|سلام و امن و اتحاد و یک دلی
برای کافه ملل برابری
|Khamūs̈̇ bād zanghāye janghā
Mabād zinda imtiyāzi rangha
|خموش باد زنگهای جنگ ها
مباد زنده امتیاز رنگ ها
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- Effendi, Shoghi (1974). Baháʼí Administration. Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Baháʼí Publishing Trust. p. 43. ISBN 0-87743-166-3.
- Lambert, James. 2018. A multitude of 'lishes': The nomenclature of hybridity. English World-wide, 39(1): 10. DOI: 10.1075/eww.38.3.04lam
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- Perry, John R. (2005). A Tajik Persian Reference Grammar. Brill. pp. 34–35.
- Adib-Soltani, Mir Shamsuddin (1976). An introduction to the writing of the Persian script. Tehran, Iran: Amirkabir Publications.
- Hayat, Anwar (January 2019). "The Impact of Arabic Orthography on Literacy and Economic Development in Afghanistan".