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Tahini /təˈhni, tɑː-/ or tahina /-nə/ (Arabic: طحينة‎, romanizedṭaḥīna [tˤaˈħiːna]) is a condiment made from toasted ground hulled sesame. It is served by itself (as a dip) or as a major ingredient in hummus, baba ghanoush, and halva.

Tahini
Tahina.JPG
Tahini next to lemon and whole garlic
Alternative namesTahina, tahine, etc.[1][2]
TypeSpread or dip
Region or stateEastern Mediterranean, West Asia, South Caucasus, parts of North Africa
Main ingredientsSesame seeds

Tahini is used in the cuisines of the Eastern Mediterranean, the South Caucasus, and the Middle East, as well as parts of North Africa. It is also used in Chinese and Southeast Asian cuisine.[citation needed]

Plain, unprocessed sesame paste with no added ingredients is sometimes known as raw tahini.[3]

Contents

EtymologyEdit

Tahini is a loanword from modern Greek tachíni (ταχίνι),[1] which is from the colloquial Levantine pronunciation of Arabic ṭaḥīna (طحينة),[4] or more accurately ṭaḥīniyya (طحينية), whence also English tahina. It is derived from the root ط ح ن Ṭ-Ḥ-N, which as a verb طحن ṭaḥana means "to grind",[5] and also produces the word طحين ṭaḥīn, "flour" in some dialects. The word tahini appeared in English by the late 1930s.[6][7]

HistoryEdit

The oldest mention of sesame is in a cuneiform document written 4000 years ago that describes the custom of serving the gods sesame wine. The historian Herodotus writes about the cultivation of sesame 3500 years ago in the region of the Tigris and Euphrates in Mesopotamia. It was mainly used as a source of oil.[8]

Tahini is mentioned as an ingredient of hummus kasa, a recipe transcribed in an anonymous 13th-century Arabic cookbook, Kitab Wasf al-Atima al-Mutada.[9] Sesame paste is an ingredient in some Chinese and Japanese dishes; Sichuan cuisine uses it in some recipes for dandan noodles. Sesame paste is also used in Indian cuisine.[10] In the United States, sesame tahini, along with other raw nut butters, was available by 1940 in health food stores.[6]

Preparation and storageEdit

Tahini is made from sesame seeds that are soaked in water and then crushed to separate the bran from the kernels. The crushed seeds are soaked in salt water, causing the bran to sink. The floating kernels are skimmed off the surface, toasted, and ground to produce an oily paste.[11]

Because of tahini's high oil content, many manufacturers recommend refrigeration to prevent spoilage. This is particularly true among makers of raw, organic tahini, who will often prepare their tahini at low temperatures and ship and store it in refrigerated cases to maximize quality and shelf life.[12][self-published source?]

Culinary usesEdit

 
Hummus and ful topped with tahini

Tahini-based sauces are common in Middle Eastern restaurants as a side dish or as a garnish, usually including lemon juice, salt and garlic, and thinned with water. Hummus is made of cooked, mashed chickpeas typically blended with tahini, olive oil, lemon juice, salt and garlic. Tahini sauce is also a popular topping for meat and vegetables in Middle Eastern cuisine.

In Armenia, tahini can be used as a sauce to put in a lahmajoun.

In Turkey, tahini (Turkish: tahin) is mixed with pekmez to form a dish called tahin-pekmez. Due to its high-caloric nature, it is served as a breakfast item or after meals as a dessert to dip pieces of bread in, especially during the wintertime.

In Iraq, tahini is known as "rashi" and is mixed with date syrup (rub) to make a sweet dessert usually eaten with bread.

Tahini is called ardeh (ارده) in Persian and harda in Kuwait. In Iran it is used to make halvardeh (حلواارده), a kind of halva made of tahini, sugar, egg whites, and other ingredients. It is also eaten during breakfast, usually with an accompanying sweet substance, usually grape syrup, date syrup, honey, jams, etc. Ardeh and halvardeh are among the souvenirs of the Iranian cities of Yazd and Ardakan.

In Cyprus, tahini, locally known as tashi, is used as a dip for bread and in pitta souvlaki rather than tzatziki, which is customary in Greece.

 
Tahini in a jar with natural oil separation visible at the top

In Greece, tahini (Greek: ταχίνι) is used as a spread on bread either alone or topped with honey or jam. Jars of tahini ready-mixed with honey or cocoa are available in the breakfast food aisles of Greek supermarkets.

In Israel, tahini (Hebrew: טחינהt'hina) is a staple foodstuff that was introduced by Mizrahi Jews . It is served as a dip with flat bread or pita, a topping for many foods such as falafel, sabich, Jerusalem mixed grill and shwarma, and as an ingredient in various spreads. It is also used as a cooking sauce for meat and fish,[13] and in sweet desserts like halva, halva parfait,[14] halva ice cream and tahini cookies. It is also served baked in the oven with kufta made of lamb or beef with spices and herbs, or with a whole fish in the coastal areas and the Sea of Galilee.

In the Gaza Strip, a rust colored variety known as "red tahina" is served in addition to ordinary tahina. It is achieved by a different and lengthier process of roasting the sesame seeds, and has a more intense taste. Red tahina is used in sumagiyya (lamb with chard and sumac) and salads native to the falaheen from the surrounding villages, as well as southern Gaza. In the Palestinian city of Nablus, tahina is mixed with qizha paste to make "black tahina", used in baking.[15]

In the Levant, tahini (Levantine Arabic: t'hine) is a staple foodstuff prepared with salt, lemon juice, and optionally mashed garlic. It is served as a dip with pita, a topping for falafel and shwarma, and as an ingredient in various spreads. It is also used as a cooking sauce for meat and always served as a side with fish. It is also a main ingredient in a seafood dish called Siyadiyeh. Tahini is in sweet desserts like halva and halva with pistachios.

In East Asia, sesame paste (Chinese: 芝麻醬) is a major condiment used in dry noodles (hot or cold). Sesame paste can also be eaten as a dessert, known as black sesame soup.

A sweet spread, halawa taḥīniyya حلاوة طحينية 'sweet tahini' is a type of halva sweet. It sometimes has mashed or sliced pistachio pieces sprinkled inside or on top. It is usually spread on bread and eaten as a quick snack.

Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy2,489 kJ (595 kcal)
3 g
53.76 g
17.00 g
VitaminsQuantity %DV
Vitamin A67 IU
Thiamine (B1)
106%
1.220 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
39%
0.473 mg
Niacin (B3)
36%
5.450 mg
Pantothenic acid (B5)
14%
0.693 mg
Vitamin B6
11%
0.149 mg
Folate (B9)
25%
98 μg
Vitamin B12
0%
0.00 μg
MineralsQuantity %DV
Calcium
43%
426 mg
Iron
69%
8.95 mg
Magnesium
27%
95 mg
Manganese
69%
1.456 mg
Phosphorus
105%
732 mg
Potassium
9%
414 mg
Sodium
8%
115 mg
Zinc
49%
4.62 mg
Other constituentsQuantity
Water3.05 g
Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.

Nutritional informationEdit

Tahini is a source of calcium, manganese, the amino acid methionine, and omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids.[16][unreliable source?]

Tahini made from raw sesame seeds is lower in fat than tahini made from roasted seeds.[17][18]

Tahini's relatively high levels of calcium and protein make it a useful addition to vegetarian and vegan diets, as well as to raw food diets when eaten in its unroasted form. Compared to peanut butter, tahini has higher levels of fiber and calcium and lower levels of sugar and saturated fats.[19]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "tahini". Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 19 April 2019.
  2. ^ "tahina". Oxford English Dictionary (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press. 1989.
  3. ^ Laniado, Limor (12 April 2012). "Get your juices going again". Haaretz.com. Retrieved 18 January 2013.
  4. ^ "tahini". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. 2014. Retrieved 11 May 2019.
  5. ^ Ghillie Basan, Jonathan Basan (2006), The Middle Eastern Kitchen: A Book of Essential Ingredients with Over 150 Authentic Recipes, p.146, Hippocrene Books
  6. ^ a b Mariposa, Hollywood Glamour Cook Book, 1940, p. 101.
  7. ^ Treasury decisions under customs and other laws, 1938, p. 1080 snippet
  8. ^ Laniado, Limor (12 May 2011). "The glory of tahini". Haaretz.com. Retrieved 18 January 2013.
  9. ^ Alice Fordham (10 October 2008). "Middle Eats: What are Lebanon's chances of legally laying claim to hummus?". NOW Lebanon. Archived from the original on 12 December 2008. Retrieved 25 November 2008.
  10. ^ Sanjeev Kapoor, Khazana of Indian Vegetarian Recipes, p. 94
  11. ^ Helou, Anissa (2014). Davidson, Alan (ed.). The Oxford Companion to Food. Oxford University Press. pp. 802–803. ISBN 9780191040726 – via Google Books.
  12. ^ "Refrigerated or Not, How Long Does Tahini Last?". Ochef. Archived from the original on 20 January 2013. Retrieved 18 January 2013.
  13. ^ Claudia, Roden (1997) The Book of Jewish Food: An Odyssey from Samarkand to New York, Knopf, New York ISBN 0-394-53258-9
  14. ^ Rogov, Daniel, Halvah Parfait
  15. ^ Berger, Miriam. "Is the world ready for this Palestinian dish?". www.bbc.com. Retrieved 28 March 2019.
  16. ^ "The health benefits of tahini". Livestrong.com. Retrieved 18 January 2013.
  17. ^ "Nutrient data for 12198, Seeds, sesame butter, tahini, from raw and stone ground kernels".
  18. ^ "Nutrient data for 12166, Seeds, sesame butter, tahini, from roasted and toasted kernels".
  19. ^ "Nutrient data for 16167, USDA Commodity, Peanut Butter, smooth".