Kalimantan

Kalimantan is the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo.[1] It comprises 73% of the island's area. The non-Indonesian parts of Borneo are Brunei and East Malaysia. In Indonesia, "Kalimantan" refers to the whole island of Borneo.[1] In 2019, the Indonesian President Joko Widodo proposed that Indonesia's capital be moved to Kalimantan.[2]

Kalimantan
Location of Kalimantan (Indonesia) in Borneo Island
Location of Kalimantan (Indonesia) in Borneo Island
Coordinates: 1°S 114°E / 1°S 114°E / -1; 114Coordinates: 1°S 114°E / 1°S 114°E / -1; 114
Country Indonesia
Province West Kalimantan
 Central Kalimantan
 South Kalimantan
 East Kalimantan
 North Kalimantan
Largest CitiesBalikpapan
Banjarmasin
Palangkaraya
Pontianak
Samarinda
Tarakan
Nunukan
Area
 • Total544,150.07 km2 (210,097.52 sq mi)
Elevation
2,278 m (7,474 ft)
Population
 (June 2017)
 • Total15,894,524
 • Density29/km2 (76/sq mi)
Time zonesUTC+7 (Indonesia Western Time)
UTC+8 (Indonesia Central Time)
ISO 3166 codeID-KA
Vehicle signDA
KB
KH
KT
KU
HDIIncrease 0.708 (High)
Map of Kalimantan (light colour) and its component provinces.

EtymologyEdit

The name Kalimantan, which is often spelled Klemantan, was derived from the Sanskrit word Kalamanthana, which means "burning weather island", or island with a very hot temperature, to describe its hot and humid tropical climate. It consists of the two words kal[a] ("time, season, period") and manthan[a] ("boiling, churning, burning").[3] The indigenous people of the eastern region of Borneo referred to their island by the term Pulu K'lemantan or "Kalimantan" by the time Portuguese explorers made contact with them under George Menesez.[4][5] Its association with the island and its peoples has also been attributed to British scientist and colonial administrator Charles Hose from the early 20th century. However, the use of this term to refer to a supposed Klemantan people has since been discontinued, as it has been deemed to be an invented term of convenience that does not properly represent the people it claims to describe.

AreaEdit

The Indonesian territory makes up 73% of the island by area, and 69.5% (13,772,543 at the 2010 Census of Indonesia) by population. The non-Indonesian parts of Borneo are of Brunei (400,000) and East Malaysia (5,625,000), the latter comprising the states of Sabah, Sarawak and the federal territory of Labuan. The region within Indonesia is also known as Indonesian Borneo.

Kalimantan's total area is 544,150 square kilometres (210,097 sq mi).[6]

AdministrationEdit

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1971 5,154,774—    
1980 6,723,086+30.4%
1990 9,099,874+35.4%
1995 10,470,843+15.1%
2000 11,331,558+8.2%
2005 12,541,554+10.7%
2010 14,297,069+14.0%
2015 15,320,017+7.2%
Sources: Statistics Indonesia[7]

Kalimantan was administered as one province between 1945 and 1956. It is now divided into five provinces. There were four provinces until 25 October 2012, when North Kalimantan was split off from East Kalimantan.

Provinces of Kalimantan
Province Area (km2) Population (2005C) Pop. (2010C) Pop. (2015C prelim) Pop. density/km2 Provincial capital Largest metro
West Kalimantan
(Kalimantan Barat)
147,307.00 4,042,817 4,393,239 4,783,209 32.5 Pontianak Pontianak
Central Kalimantan
(Kalimantan Tengah)
153,564.50 1,913,026 2,202,599 2,490,178 16.2 Palangkaraya Palangkaraya
South Kalimantan
(Kalimantan Selatan)
38,744.23 3,271,413 3,626,119 3,984,315 102.8 Banjarmasin Banjarmasin
East Kalimantan
(Kalimantan Timur)
129,067 2,840,874 3,550,586 3,422,676* 26.5 Samarinda Balikpapan
North Kalimantan
(Kalimantan Utara)
71,176.72 473,424 524,526 639,639 8.5 Tanjung Selor Tarakan
Total 544,150.07 12,541,554 14,297,069 15,320,017 28 - Banjarmasin

* North Kalimantan split off East Kalimantan with resulting population and area loss for the 2015 census.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "Kalimantan". Britannica. Retrieved 2008-02-26.
  2. ^ "Indonesia president proposes to move capital to Borneo". Reuters. 2019-08-16. Retrieved 2019-08-16.
  3. ^ "Central Kalimantan Province". archipelago fastfact. Retrieved 13 October 2014.
  4. ^ "Notice historique du royaume Banjarmasin (Bornéo) par M. le Baron T. Van Capellen, lieutenant d'artillerie , aide-de-camp de S. Exc. le gouverneur-général des indes néerlandaises" [Historical record of the Banjarmasin Kingdom (Borneo) by Baron T. Van Capellen, lieutenant of artillery, aide-de-camp of His Excellency, the Governor General of the Dutch Indies]. Le Moniteur des Indes-Orientales et Occidentales [The Monitor of the East and West Indies] (in French). The Hague, Netherlands: Belinfant Brothers. 1847. pp. 164.
  5. ^ "A Discourse Delivered at a Meeting of the Society of Arts and Sciences in Batavia, on the Twenty-fourth day of April 1813, being the Anniversary of the Institution, by the Honorable Thomas Stamford Raffles, President.". Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap, der Kunsten en Wetenschappen [Treatises of the Society of Arts and Sciences in Batavia]. 7. Batavia, Dutch East Indies: A. H. Hubbard. 1814. p. 21.
  6. ^ "Indonesia General Info". Geohive.com. Archived from the original on 2009-10-15. Retrieved 2009-08-11.
  7. ^ "Penduduk Indonesia menurut Provinsi 1971, 1980, 1990, 1995, 2000 dan 2010". Archived from the original on 2013-07-01. Retrieved 2013-07-17.

External linksEdit