Sarawak (//; Malay: [saˈrawaʔ]) is a state of Malaysia. Being the largest among 13 other states with the size almost equal to West Malaysia, Sarawak is located in northwest Borneo Island, and is bordered by the Malaysian state of Sabah to the northeast, Kalimantan (the Indonesian portion of Borneo) to the south, and the independent country of Brunei in the north. The capital city, Kuching, is the largest city in Sarawak, the economic centre of the state, and the seat of the Sarawak state government. Other cities and towns in Sarawak include Miri, Sibu, and Bintulu. As of the 2015 census, the population of Sarawak was 2,636,000. Sarawak has an equatorial climate with tropical rainforests and abundant animal and plant species. It has several prominent cave systems at Gunung Mulu National Park. Rajang River is the longest river in Malaysia; Bakun Dam, one of the largest dams in Southeast Asia, is located on one of its tributaries, the Balui River. Mount Murud is the highest point in Sarawak.
Nickname(s): Bumi Kenyalang|
Land of the Hornbills
Motto(s): Bersatu, Berusaha, Berbakti|
United, Striving, Serving
Anthem: Ibu Pertiwiku|
|• Yang di-Pertua Negeri||Abdul Taib Mahmud|
|• Chief Minister||Abang Johari Openg (GPS-PBB)|
|• Total||124,451 km2 (48,051 sq mi)|
|• Total||2,770,000 (4th)|
|Human Development Index|
|• HDI (2000)||0.757 (high) (10th)|
|Time zone||UTC+8 (MST)|
|Postal code||93xxx to 98xxx|
|Calling code||082 to 086|
|ISO 3166 code||K (MY-13, 50–53)|
|Vehicle registration||QA to QT|
|Self-government||22 July 1963|
|Malaysia Agreement||16 September 1963|
The earliest known human settlement in Sarawak at the Niah Caves dates back 40,000 years. A series of Chinese ceramics dated from the 8th to 13th century AD was uncovered at the archaeological site of Santubong. The coastal regions of Sarawak came under the influence of the Bruneian Empire in the 16th century. In 1839, James Brooke, a British explorer, arrived in Sarawak. He, and his descendants, governed the state from 1841 to 1946. During World War II, it was occupied by the Japanese for three years. After the war, the last White Rajah, Charles Vyner Brooke, ceded Sarawak to Britain, and in 1946 it became a British Crown Colony. On 22 July 1963, Sarawak was granted self-government by the British and subsequently became one of the founding members of the Federation of Malaysia, established on 16 September 1963. However, the federation was opposed by Indonesia leading to a three-year confrontation. The creation of the Federation also resulted in a communist insurgency that lasted until 1990.
The head of state is the Governor, also known as the Yang di-Pertua Negeri, while the head of government is the Chief Minister. Sarawak is divided into administrative divisions, and districts, governed by a system that is closely modelled on the Westminster parliamentary system and was the earliest state legislature system in Malaysia.
Because of its natural resources, Sarawak specialises in the export of oil and gas, timber and oil palms, but also possesses strong manufacturing, energy and tourism sectors. It is ethnically, culturally, and linguistically diverse; major ethnic groups including Iban, Malay, Chinese, Melanau, Bidayuh and Orang Ulu. English and Malay are the two official languages of the state; there is no official religion.
The generally-accepted explanation of the state's name is that it is derived from the Sarawak Malay word serawak, which means antimony. A popular alternative explanation is that it is a contraction of the four Malay words purportedly uttered by Pangeran Muda Hashim (uncle to the Sultan of Brunei), "Saya serah pada awak" (I surrender it to you), when he gave Sarawak to James Brooke, an English explorer in 1841. However, the latter explanation is incorrect: the territory had been named Sarawak before the arrival of James Brooke, and the word awak was not in the vocabulary of Sarawak Malay before the formation of Malaysia.
Sarawak is nicknamed "Land of the Hornbills" (Bumi Kenyalang). These birds are important cultural symbols for the Dayak people, representing the spirit of God. It is also believed that if a hornbill is seen flying over residences, it will bring good luck to the local community. Sarawak has eight of the world's fifty-four species of hornbills, and the Rhinoceros hornbill is the state bird of Sarawak.
Foragers are known to have lived around the west mouth of the Niah Caves (located 110 kilometres (68 mi) southwest of Miri) 40,000 years ago. A modern human skull found near the Niah Caves is the oldest human remain found in Malaysia and the oldest modern human skull from Southeast Asia. Chinese ceramics dating to the Tang and Song dynasties (8th to 13th century AD, respectively) found at Santubong (near Kuching) hint at its significance as a seaport.
The Bruneian Empire was established in the coastal regions of Sarawak by the mid-15th century, and the Kuching area was known to Portuguese cartographers during the 16th century as Cerava, one of the five great seaports of Borneo. It was also during this time that witnessed the birth of the Sultanate of Sarawak, a local kingdom that lasted for almost half a century before being reunited with Brunei in 1641. By the early 19th century, the Bruneian Empire was in decline, retaining only a tenuous hold along the coastal regions of Sarawak which were otherwise controlled by semi-independent Malay leaders. Away from the coast, territorial wars were fought between the Iban and a Kenyah-Kayan alliance.
The discovery of antimony ore in the Kuching region led Pangeran Indera Mahkota, a representative of the Sultan of Brunei, to increase development in the territory between 1824 and 1830. Increasing antimony production in the region led the Brunei Sultanate to demand higher taxes, which ultimately led to civil unrest. In 1839, Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin II (1827–1852) assigned his uncle Pangeran Muda Hashim the task of restoring order but his inability to do so caused him to request the aid of British sailor James Brooke. Brooke's success in quelling the revolt was rewarded with antimony, property and the governorship of Sarawak, which at that time consisted only of a small area centred on Kuching.
The Brooke family, later called the White Rajahs, set about expanding the territory they had been ceded. With expansion came the need for efficient governance and thus, beginning in 1841, Sarawak was separated into the first of its administrative divisions with currency, the Sarawak dollar, beginning circulation in 1858. By 1912, a total of five divisions had been established in Sarawak, each headed by a Resident. The Brooke family generally practised a paternalistic form of government with minimal bureaucracy, but were pressured to establish some form of legal framework. Since they were unfamiliar with local customs, the Brooke government created an advisory Supreme Council, mostly consisting of Malay chiefs, to provide guidance. This council is the oldest state legislative assembly in Malaysia, with the first General Council meeting taking place at Bintulu in 1867. In 1928, a Judicial Commissioner, Thomas Stirling Boyd, was appointed as the first legally trained judge. A similar system relating to matters concerning various Chinese communities was also formed. Members of the local community were encouraged by the Brooke regime to focus on particular functions within the territory: the Ibans and other Dayak people were hired as militia while Malays were primarily administrators. Chinese, both local and immigrant, were mostly employed in plantations, mines and as bureaucrats. Expanding trade led to the formation of the Borneo Company Limited in 1856. The company was, and still is, involved in a wide range of businesses in Sarawak including trade, banking, agriculture, mineral exploration, and development.
Between 1853 and 1862, there were a number of uprisings against the Brooke government but all were successfully contained with the aid of local tribes. To guard against future uprisings, a series of forts were constructed to protect Kuching, including Fort Margherita, completed in 1871. By that time Brooke's control of Sarawak was such that defences were largely unnecessary.
Charles Anthoni Brooke succeeded his uncle in 1868 as the next White Rajah. Under his rule, Sarawak gained Limbang and the Baram and Trusan valleys from the Sultan of Brunei, later becoming a protectorate in 1888 with Britain handling foreign affairs but the Brooke government retaining administrative powers. Domestically, Brooke established the Sarawak Museum – the oldest museum in Borneo – in 1891, and brokered a peace in Marudi by ending intertribal wars there. Economic development continued, with oil wells drilling from 1910 and the Brooke Dockyard opening two years later. Anthony Brooke, who would become Rajah Muda (heir apparent) in 1939, was born in 1912.
A centenary celebration of Brooke rule in Sarawak was held in 1941. During the celebration, a new constitution was introduced that would limit the power of the Rajah and grant the Sarawak people a greater role in the functioning of government. However, this constitution was never fully implemented due to the Japanese occupation.[note 1] That same year saw the British withdrawing its air and marine forces defending Sarawak to Singapore. With Sarawak now unguarded, the Brooke regime adopted a scorched earth policy where oil installations in Miri were to be destroyed and the Kuching airfield held as long as possible before being destroyed. Nevertheless, a Japanese invasion force led by Kiyotake Kawaguchi landed in Miri on 16 December 1941 and conquered Kuching on 24 December 1941, with British ground forces retreating to Singkawang in neighbouring Dutch Borneo. After ten weeks of fighting there, the Allied forces surrendered on 1 April 1942. Charles Vyner Brooke, the last Rajah of Sarawak, had already left for Sydney, Australia; his officers were captured by the Japanese and interned at the Batu Lintang camp.
Sarawak remained part of the Empire of Japan for three years and eight months. During this time it was divided into three provinces – Kuching-shu, Sibu-shu, and Miri-shu – each under their respective Provincial Governor. The Japanese otherwise preserved the Brooke administrative structure and appointed the Japanese to important government positions. Allied forces later carried out Operation Semut to sabotage Japanese operations in Sarawak. During the battle of North Borneo, the Australian forces landed at Lutong-Miri area on 20 June 1945 and had penetrated as far as Marudi and Limbang before halting their operations in Sarawak. After the surrender of Japan, the Japanese surrendered to the Australian forces at Labuan on 10 September 1945. The following day, the Japanese forces at Kuching surrendered, and the Batu Lintang camp was liberated. Sarawak was immediately placed under British Military Administration and managed by Australian Imperial Forces (AIF) until April 1946.
Lacking the resources to rebuild Sarawak after the war, Charles Vyner Brooke decided to cede Sarawak as British Crown Colony and a Cession Bill was put forth in the Council Negri (now Sarawak State Legislative Assembly), which was debated for three days. The bill was passed on 17 May 1946 with a narrow majority (19 versus 16 votes). This caused hundreds of Malay civil servants to resign in protest, sparking an anti-cession movement and the assassination of the second colonial governor of Sarawak Sir Duncan Stewart. Despite the resistance, Sarawak became a British Crown colony on 1 July 1946. Anthony Brooke opposed the cession of Sarawak to the British Crown, for which he was banished from Sarawak by the colonial government.[note 2] He was only allowed to return 17 years later after Sarawak had become part of Malaysia. In 1950 all anti-cession movements in Sarawak ceased after a clamp-down by the colonial government.
On 27 May 1961, Tunku Abdul Rahman, the prime minister of the Federation of Malaya, announced a plan to form a greater federation together with Singapore, Sarawak, Sabah and Brunei, to be called Malaysia. On 17 January 1962, the Cobbold Commission was formed to gauge the support of Sarawak and Sabah for the plan; the Commission reported 80 percent support for federation. On 23 October 1962, five political parties in Sarawak formed a united front that supported the formation of Malaysia. Sarawak was officially granted self-government on 22 July 1963, and became federated with Malaya, North Borneo (now Sabah), and Singapore to form the federation of Malaysia on 16 September 1963. The governments of the Philippines and Indonesia opposed the federation, as did the Brunei People's Party and Sarawak-based communist groups, and in 1962, the Brunei Revolt broke out. Indonesian President Sukarno responded by deploying armed volunteers and, later, military forces into Sarawak. Thousands of Sarawak communist members went into Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo, and underwent training with the Communist Party of Indonesia. The most significant engagement of the confrontation was fought at Plaman Mapu in April 1965. The defeat at Plaman Mapu ultimately resulted in the fall of Sukarno and he was replaced by Suharto as president of Indonesia. Negotiations were restarted between Malaysia and Indonesia and led to the end of the confrontation on 11 August 1966.[note 3]
A number of communist groups existed in Sarawak, the first of which, the Sarawak Overseas Chinese Democratic Youth League, formed in 1951.[note 4] Another group, the North Kalimantan Communist Party (NKCP) (also known as Clandestine Communist Organisation (CCO) by government sources) was formally set up in 1970. Weng Min Chyuan and Bong Kee Chok were two of the more notable communist leaders involved in the insurgency. As the political scene changed, it grew progressively more difficult for the communists to operate. This led to Bong opening talks with chief minister Abdul Rahman Ya'kub in 1973 and eventually signing an agreement with the government. Weng, who had moved to China in the mid-1960s but nonetheless retained control of the CCO, pushed for a continued armed insurrection against the government in spite of this agreement. The conflict continued mostly in the Rajang Delta region but eventually ended when, on 17 October 1990, the NKCP signed a peace agreement with the Sarawak government.
|Sarawak Parties Alliance||Abang Abdul Rahman Zohari Abang Openg||Government||72||67|
|United People's Party||Wong Soon Koh||0||5|
|Pakatan Harapan||Chong Chieng Jen||Opposition||10||10|
The head of the Sarawak state is the Yang di-Pertua Negeri (also known as TYT or Governor), a largely symbolic position appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong (King of Malaysia) on the advice of the Malaysian federal government. Since 2014 this position has been held by Abdul Taib Mahmud. The TYT appoints the chief minister, currently held by Abang Johari Openg (BN), as the head of government. Generally, the leader of the party that commands the majority of the state Legislative Assembly is appointed as the chief minister; democratically elected representatives are known as state assemblymen. The state assembly passes laws on subjects that are not under the jurisdiction of the Parliament of Malaysia such as land administration, employment, forests, immigration, merchant shipping and fisheries. The state government is constituted by the chief minister, the cabinet ministers and their assistant ministers.
To protect the interests of the Sarawakians in the Malaysian federation, special safeguards have been included in the Constitution of Malaysia. These include: control over immigration in and out of the state as well as the residence status of non-Sarawakians and non-Sabahans, limitations on the practice of law to resident lawyers, independence of the Sarawak High Court from the High Court Peninsular Malaysia, a requirement that the Sarawak Chief Minister be consulted prior to the appointment of the chief judge of the Sarawak High Court, the existence of Native Courts in Sarawak and the power to levy sales tax. Natives in Sarawak enjoy special privileges such as quotas and employment in public service, scholarships, university placements, and business permits. Local governments in Sarawak are exempt from local council laws enacted by the Malaysian parliament.
Major political parties in Sarawak can be divided into three categories: native non-Muslim, native Muslim, and non-native; parties, however, may also include members from more than one group. The first political party, the Sarawak United Peoples' Party (SUPP), was established in 1959, followed by the Parti Negara Sarawak (PANAS) in 1960 and the Sarawak National Party (SNAP) in 1961. Other major political parties such as Parti Pesaka Sarawak (PESAKA) appeared by 1962.[note 5] These parties later joined the national coalition of the Alliance Party. The Alliance Party (later regrouped into Barisan Nasional) has ruled Sarawak since the formation of Malaysia. The opposition in Sarawak has consistently alleged that the ruling coalition uses various types of vote-buying tactics in order to win elections.[note 6] Stephen Kalong Ningkan was the first Chief Minister of Sarawak from 1963 to 1966 following his landslide victory in local council elections. However, he was ousted in 1966 by Tawi Sli with the help of the Malaysian federal government, causing the 1966 Sarawak constitutional crisis.
In 1969, the first Sarawak state election was held, with members of the Council Negri being directly elected by the voters. This election marked the beginning of ethnic Melanau domination in Sarawak politics by Abdul Rahman Ya'kub and Abdul Taib Mahmud. In the same year, the North Kalimantan Communist Party (NKCP) which subsequently waged a guerilla war against the newly elected Sarawak state government, was formed. The party was dissolved after the signing of a peace agreement in 1990. 1973 saw the birth of Parti Pesaka Bumiputera Bersatu (PBB) following a merger of several parties. This party would later become the backbone of the Sarawak BN coalition. In 1978, the Democratic Action Party (DAP) was the first West Malaysia-based party to open its branches in Sarawak. Sarawak originally held state elections together with national parliamentary elections. However, the then chief minister Abdul Rahman Ya'kub delayed the dissolution of the state assembly by a year to prepare for the challenges posed by opposition parties. This made Sarawak the only state in Malaysia to hold state elections separate from the national parliamentary elections since 1979. In 1983, SNAP started to fragment into several splinter parties due to recurrent leadership crises. The political climate in the state was stable until the 1987 Ming Court Affair, a political coup initiated by Abdul Taib Mahmud's uncle to topple the Taib-led BN coalition. However, the coup was unsuccessful and Taib retained his position as chief minister.
Since the 2006 state election, the Democractic Action Party (DAP) has derived the majority of its support from urban centres and became the largest opposition party in Sarawak. In 2010, it formed the Pakatan Rakyat coalition with Parti Keadilan Rakyat (PKR) and Parti Islam Se-Malaysia (PAS); the latter two parties had become active in Sarawak between 1996 and 2001. Sarawak is the only state in Malaysia where West Malaysia-based component parties in the BN coalition, especially the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO), have not been active in state politics.
On 12 June 2018, the Sarawak Parties Alliance was formed by the BN parties in the state in the aftermath of an historic meeting of party leaders in Kuching, where they decided that in light of the BN defeat in the 2018 Malaysian general election and the changing national situation and a new government, the parties will leave the BN altogether. In conjunction with the celebration of Malaysia Day in 2018 under the new government, Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad has promised to restore Sarawak (together with Sabah) status as an equal partner to Malaya who together forming the Malaysian federation in accordance to the Malaysia Agreement.
Divisions and districtsEdit
A division is divided into districts, each headed by a district officer, which are in turn divided into sub-districts, each headed by a Sarawak Administrative Officer (SAO). There is also one development officer for each division and district to implement development projects. The state government appoints a headman (known as ketua kampung or penghulu) for each village. There are a total of 26 sub-districts in Sarawak all under the jurisdiction of the Sarawak Ministry of Local Government and Community Development. The list of divisions, districts, and subdistricts is shown in the table below:
|Sri Aman||Sri Aman||Lingga|
|Telang Usan||Long Lama|
The first paramilitary armed forces in Sarawak, a regiment formed by the Brooke regime in 1862, were known as the Sarawak Rangers. The regiment, renowned for its jungle tracking skills, served in the campaign to end the intertribal wars in Sarawak. It also engaged in guerrilla warfare against the Japanese, in the Malayan Emergency (in West Malaysia) and the Sarawak Communist Insurgency against the communists. Following the formation of Malaysia, the regiment was absorbed into the Malaysian military forces and is now known as the Royal Ranger Regiment.
In 1888, Sarawak, together with neighbouring North Borneo, and Brunei, became British protectorates, and the responsibility for foreign policy was handed over to the British in exchange for military protection. Since the formation of Malaysia, the Malaysian federal government has been solely responsible for foreign policy and military forces in the country.
The Malaysian government has a number of border disputes with neighbouring countries, of which several concern Sarawak. This includes land and maritime disputes with neighbouring Brunei. In 2009, Malaysian prime minister Abdullah Ahmad Badawi claimed that in a meeting with Sultan of Brunei, Brunei agreed to drop its claim over Limbang. This was however denied by the second Foreign Minister of Brunei Lim Jock Seng, stating the issue was never discussed during the meeting. James Shoal (Betting Serupai) and the Luconia Shoals (Betting Raja Jarum/Patinggi Ali), islands in the South China Sea, fall within Sarawak's exclusive economic zone, but concerns have been raised about Chinese incursions. There are also several Sarawak–Kalimantan border issues with Indonesia.
The total land area of Sarawak is nearly 124,451 square kilometres (48,051 sq mi), making up 37.5 percent of the total area of Malaysia, and lies between the northern latitudes 0° 50′ and 5° and eastern longitudes 109° 36′ and 115° 40′ E. Its 750 kilometres (470 mi) of coastline is interrupted in the north by about 150 kilometres (93 mi) of Bruneian coast. Sarawak is separated from Kalimantan Borneo by ranges of high hills and mountains that are part of the central mountain range of Borneo. These become loftier to the north, and are highest near the source of the Baram River at the steep Mount Batu Lawi and Mount Mulu. Mount Murud is the highest point in Sarawak.
Sarawak has a tropical geography with an equatorial climate and experiences two monsoon seasons: a northeast monsoon and a southwest monsoon. The northeast monsoon occurs between November and February, bringing heavy rainfall while the southwest monsoon, which occurs between March and October, brings somewhat less rainfall. The climate is stable throughout the year except for the two monsoons, with average daily temperature varying between 23 °C (73 °F) in the morning to 32 °C (90 °F) in the afternoon at coastal areas. Miri has the lowest average temperatures in comparison to other major towns in Sarawak and has the longest daylight hours (more than six hours a day), while other areas receive sunshine for five to six hours a day. Humidity is usually high, exceeding 68 percent, with annual rainfall varying between 330 centimetres (130 in) and 460 centimetres (180 in) for up to 220 days a year. At highland areas, the temperature can vary from 16 °C (61 °F) to 25 °C (77 °F) during the day and as low as 11 °C (52 °F) during the night.
Sarawak is divided into three ecoregions. The coastal region is rather low-lying and flat with large areas of swamp and other wet environments. Beaches in Sarawak include Pasir Panjang and Damai beaches in Kuching, Tanjung Batu beach in Bintulu, and Tanjung Lobang and Hawaii beaches in Miri. Hilly terrain accounts for much of the inhabited land and is where most of the cities and towns are found. The ports of Kuching and Sibu are built some distance from the coast on rivers while Bintulu and Miri are close to the coastline where the hills stretch right to the South China Sea. The third region is the mountainous region along the Sarawak–Kalimantan border, where a number of villages such as Bario, Ba'kelalan, and Usun Apau Plieran are located. A number of rivers flow through Sarawak, with the Sarawak River being the main river flowing through Kuching. The Rajang River is the longest river in Malaysia, measuring 563 kilometres (350 mi) including its tributary, Balleh River. To the north, the Baram, Limbang and Trusan Rivers drain into the Brunei Bay.
Sarawak can be divided into two geological zones: the Sunda Shield, which extends southwest from the Batang Lupar River (near Sri Aman) and forms the southern tip of Sarawak, and the geosyncline region, which extends northeast to the Batang Lupar River, forming the central and northern regions of Sarawak. The oldest rock type in southern Sarawak is schist formed during the Carboniferous and Lower Permian times, while the youngest igneous rock in this region, andesite, can be found at Sematan. Geological formation of the central and northern regions started during the late Cretaceous period. Other types of stone that can be found in central and northern Sarawak are shale, sandstone, and chert. The Miri Division in eastern Sarawak is the region of Neogene strata containing organic rich rock formations which are the prolific oil and gas reserves. The rocks enriched in organic components are mudstones in Lambir, Miri and Tukau Formations of Middle Miocene-Lower Pliocene age. Significant quantities of Sarawak soil are lithosols, up to 60 percent, and podsols, around 12 percent, while abundant alluvial soil is found in coastal and riverine regions. 12 percent of Sarawak is covered with peat swamp forest.
There are thirty national parks, among which are Niah with its eponymous caves, the highly developed ecosystem around Lambir Hills, and the World Heritage Site of Gunung Mulu. The last contains Sarawak Chamber, one of the world's largest underground chambers, Deer Cave, the largest cave passage in the world, and Clearwater Cave, the longest cave system in Southeast Asia.
Pinnacles at Gunung Mulu National Park
Parts of the Bako National Park
South China Sea view from Sarawak
Sarawak contains large tracts of tropical rainforest with diverse plant species, which has led to a number of them being studied for medicinal properties. Mangrove and nipah forests lining its estuaries comprise 2% of its forested area, peat swamp forests along other parts of its coastline cover 16%, Kerangas forest covers 5% and Dipterocarpaceae forests cover most mountainous areas. The major trees found in estuary forests include bako and nibong, while those in the peat swamp forests include ramin (Gonystylus bancanus), meranti (Shorea), and medang jongkong (Dactylocladus stenostachys).
Animal species are also highly varied, with 185 species of mammals, 530 species of birds, 166 species of snakes, 104 species of lizards, and 113 species of amphibians, of which 19 percent of the mammals, 6 percent of the birds, 20 percent of the snakes and 32 percent of the lizards are endemic. These species are largely found in Totally Protected Areas. There are over 2,000 tree species in Sarawak. Other plants includes 1,000 species of orchids, 757 species of ferns, and 260 species of palm. The state is the habitat of endangered animals, including the borneo pygmy elephant, proboscis monkey, orangutans and Sumatran rhinoceroses. Matang Wildlife Centre, Semenggoh Nature Reserve, and Lanjak Entimau Wildlife Sanctuary are noted for their orangutan protection programmes. Talang–Satang National Park is notable for its turtle conservation initiatives. Birdwatching is a common activity in various national parks such as Gunung Mulu National Park, Lambir Hills National Park, and Similajau National Park. Miri–Sibuti National Park is known for its coral reefs and Gunung Gading National Park for its Rafflesia flowers. Bako National Park, the oldest national park in Sarawak, is known for its 275 proboscis monkeys, and Padawan Pitcher Garden for its various carnivorous pitcher plants. In 1854, Alfred Russel Wallace visited Sarawak. A year later, he formulated the "Sarawak Law" which foreshadowed the formulation of his (and Darwin's) theory of evolution by natural selection three years later.
The Sarawak state government has enacted several laws to protect its forests and endangered wildlife species. Some of the protected species are the orangutan, green sea turtle, flying lemur, and piping hornbill. Under the Wild Life Protection Ordinance 1998, Sarawak natives are given permissions to hunt for a restricted range of wild animals in the jungles but should not possess more than 5 kilograms (11 lb) of meat. The Sarawak Forest Department was established in 1919 to conserve forest resources in the state. Following international criticism of the logging industry in Sarawak, the state government decided to downsize the Sarawak Forest Department and created the Sarawak Forestry Corporation in 1995. The Sarawak Biodiversity Centre was set up in 1997 for the conservation, protection, and sustainable development of biodiversity in the state.
Sarawak's rain forests are primarily threatened by the logging industry and palm oil plantations. The issue of human rights of the Penan and deforestation in Sarawak became an international environmental issue when Swiss activist Bruno Manser visited Sarawak regularly between 1984 and 2000. Deforestation has affected the life of indigenous tribes, especially the Penan, whose livelihood is heavily dependent on forest produce. This led to several blockades by indigenous tribes during the 1980s and 1990s against logging companies encroaching on their lands. There have also been cases where Native Customary Rights (NCR) lands have been given to timber and plantation companies without the permission of the locals. The indigenous people have resorted to legal means to reinstate their NCR. In 2001 the High Court of Sarawak fully reinstated the NCR land claimed by the Rumah Nor people, but this was overturned partially in 2005. However, this case has served as a precedent, leading to more NCR being upheld by the high court in the following years. Sarawak's mega-dam policies, such as the Bakun Dam and Murum Dam projects, have submerged thousands of hectares of forest and displaced thousands of indigenous people. Since 2013, the proposed Baram Dam project has been delayed due to ongoing protests from local indigenous tribes. Since 2014, the Sarawak government under chief minister Adenan Satem started to take action against illegal logging in the state and to diversify the economy of the state. Through the course of 2016 over 2 million acres of forest, much of it in orangutan habitats, were declared protected areas.
Sources vary as to Sarawak's remaining forest cover: former chief minister Abdul Taib Mahmud declared that it fell from 70% to 48% between 2011 and 2012, the Sarawak Forest Department and the Ministry of Resource Planning and Environment both held that it remained at 80% in 2012, and Wetlands International reported that it fell by 10% between 2005 and 2010, 3.5 times faster than the rest of Asia combined.
Historically, Sarawak's economy was stagnant during the rule of previous three white Rajahs. After the formation of Malaysia, Sarawak GDP growth rate has risen due to increase in petroleum output and the rise in global petroleum prices. However, the state economy is less diversified and still heavily dependent upon the export of primary commodities when compared to Malaysia overall. The per capita GDP in Sarawak was lower than the national average from 1970 to 1990. As of 2016, GDP per capita for Sarawak stands at RM 44,333 - the fifth highest in Malaysia. However, the urban-rural income gap remained a major problem in Sarawak.
Sarawak is abundant in natural resources, and primary industries such as mining, agriculture, and forestry accounted for 32.8% of its economy in 2013. It also specialises in the manufacture of food and beverages, wood-based and rattan products, basic metal products, and petrochemicals, as well as cargo and air services and tourism. The state's gross domestic product (GDP) grew by 5.0% per year on average from 2000 to 2009, but became more volatile later on, ranging from −2.0% in 2009 to 7.0% in 2010. Sarawak contributed 10.1% of Malaysia's GDP in the nine years leading up to 2013, making it the third largest contributor after Selangor and Kuala Lumpur. From 2006 to 2013, the oil and gas industry accounted for 34.8% of the Sarawak government's revenue. It attracted RM 9.6 billion (US$2.88 billion) in foreign investments, with 90% going to the Sarawak Corridor of Renewable Energy (SCORE), the second largest economic corridor in Malaysia.
The export-oriented economy is dominated by liquefied natural gas (LNG), which accounts for more than half of total exports. Crude petroleum accounts for 20.8%, while palm oil, sawlogs, and sawn timber account for 9.0% collectively. The state receives a 5% royalty from Petronas over oil explorations in its territorial waters. Most of the oil and gas deposits are located offshore next to Bintulu and Miri at Balingian basin, Baram basin, and around Luconia Shoals.
Sarawak is one of the world's largest exporters of tropical hardwood timber, constituting 65% of the total Malaysian log exports in 2000. The last United Nations statistics in 2001 estimated Sarawak's sawlog exports at an average of 14,109,000 cubic metres (498,300,000 cu ft) per year between 1996 and 2000.
In 1955, OCBC became the first foreign bank to operate in Sarawak, with other overseas banks following suit. Other notable Sarawak-based companies include Cahya Mata Sarawak Berhad, Naim Holdings, and Rimbunan Hijau.
Electricity in Sarawak, supplied by the state-owned Sarawak Energy Berhad (SEB), is primarily sourced from traditional coal fired power plants and thermal power stations using LNG, but diesel based sources and hydroelectricity are also utilised. There are 3 hydroelectric dams as of 2015[update] at Batang Ai, Bakun, and Murum, with several others under consideration. In early 2016, SEB signed Malaysia's first energy export deal to supply electricity to neighbouring West Kalimantan in Indonesia.
In 2008, SCORE was established as a framework to develop the energy sector in the state, specifically the Murum, Baram, and Baleh Dams as well as potential coal-based power plants, and 10 high priority industries out to 2030. The Regional Corridor Development Authority is the government agency responsible for managing SCORE. The entire central region of Sarawak is covered under SCORE, including areas such as Samalaju (near Bintulu), Tanjung Manis, and Mukah. Samalaju will be developed as an industrial park, with Tanjung Manis as a halal food hub, and Mukah as the administrative centre for SCORE with a focus on resource-based research and development.
Tourism plays a major role in the economy of the state, contributing 7.89% of the state's GDP in 2016. Foreign visitors to Sarawak are predominantly from Brunei, Indonesia, the Philippines, Singapore, China and the United Kingdom. A number of different organisations, both state and private, are involved in the promotion of tourism in Sarawak: the Sarawak Tourism Board is the state body responsible for tourism promotion in the state, various private tourism groups are united under the Sarawak Tourism Federation, and the Sarawak Convention Bureau is responsible for attracting conventions, conferences, and corporate events which are held in the Borneo Convention Centre in Kuching. The public and private bodies in Sarawak hold a biannual event to award the Sarawak Hornbill Tourism Award, an award for achievements within various categories, to recognise businesses and individuals for their efforts in the development of tourism within the state.
The Rainforest World Music Festival is the region's primary musical event, attracting more than 20,000 people annually. Other events that are held regularly in Sarawak are the ASEAN International Film Festival, Asia Music Festival, Borneo Jazz Festival, Borneo Cultural Festival, and Borneo International Kite Festival. Major shopping complexes in Sarawak include The Spring, Boulevard, Hock Lee Centre, City One shopping malls in Kuching, and Bintang Megamall, Boulevard, Imperial Mall, and Miri Plaza shopping malls in Miri.
|Key tourism indicators||2010||2011||2012||2013||2014||2015||2016||2017|
|Foreign arrivals (millions)||1.897||2.343||2.635||2.665||2.996||2.497||2.258||2.639|
|Domestic arrivals (West Malaysia and Sabah) (millions)||1.373||1.452||1.434||1.707||1.862||2.020||2.402||2.217|
|Total arrivals (millions)||3.271||3.795||4.069||4.372||4.858||4.517||4.661||4.856|
|Total tourism receipts, billions (RM)||6.618||7.914||8.573||9.588||10.686||9.870||8.37||8.59|
|Total tourism receipts, billions (equivalent USD)||1.489||2.374||2.786||2.876||3.206||N/A||N/A||N/A|
Infrastructure development in Sarawak is overseen by the Ministry of Infrastructure Development and Transportation, successor to the Ministry of Infrastructure Development and Communications (MIDCom) after it was renamed in 2016. Despite this ministerial oversight, infrastructure in Sarawak remains relatively underdeveloped compared to Peninsular Malaysia.
In 2009, 94% of urban Sarawak was supplied with electricity, but only 67% of rural areas had electricity. However, this had increased to 91% by 2014. According to a 2015 article, household internet penetration in Sarawak was lower than Malaysian national average, 41.2% versus 58.6%, with 58.5% of internet use being in urban areas and 29.9% in rural areas. In comparison, mobile telecommunication uptake in Sarawak was comparable to the national average, 93.3% against a national average of 94.2%, and on par with neighbouring Sabah. Mobile telecommunication infrastructure, specifically broadcast towers, are built and managed by Sacofa Sdn Bhd (Sacofa Private Limited), which enjoys a monopoly in Sarawak after the company was granted a 20-year exclusivity deal on the provision, maintenance and leasing of towers in the state.
A number of different bodies manage the supply of water depending on their region of responsibility, including the Kuching Water Board (KWB), Sibu Water Board (SWB), and LAKU Management Sdn Bhd, which handle water supply in Miri, Bintulu, and Limbang respectively, and the Rural Water Supply Department managing the water supply for the remaining areas. As of 2014[update], 82% of the rural areas have a fresh water supply.
Much like many former British territories, Sarawak uses a dual carriageway with the left-hand traffic rule. As of 2013, Sarawak had a total of 32,091 kilometres (19,940 mi) of connected roadways, with 18,003 kilometres (11,187 mi) being paved state routes, 8,313 kilometres (5,165 mi) of dirt tracks, 4,352 kilometres (2,704 mi) of gravel roads, and 1,424 kilometres (885 mi) of paved federal highway. The primary route in Sarawak is the Pan Borneo Highway, which runs from Sematan, Sarawak, through Brunei to Tawau, Sabah. Despite being a major highway, the condition of the road is poor leading to numerous accidents and fatalities. 16 billion ringgit worth of contracts were awarded to a number of local companies in December 2016 to add new vehicle and pedestrian bridges, interchanges and bus shelters to the highway as part of a multi-phase project.
A railway line existed before the war, but the last remnants of the line were dismantled in 1959. A rail project was announced in 2008 to be in line with the transport needs of SCORE, but as yet no construction work has begun despite an anticipated completion date in 2015. In 2017, the Sarawak government proposed a light rail system (Kuching Line) connecting Kuching, Samarahan and Serian divisions with anticipated completion in 2020. Currently, buses are the primary mode of public transportation in Sarawak with interstate services connecting the state to Sabah, Brunei, and Pontianak (Indonesia).
Sarawak is served by a number of airports with Kuching International Airport, located south west of Kuching, being the largest. Flights from Kuching are mainly to Kuala Lumpur but also to Johor Bahru, Penang, Sabah, Kelantan, Singapore and Pontianak, Indonesia. A second airport at Miri serves flights primarily to other Malaysian states as well as services to Singapore. Other smaller airports such as Sibu Airport, Bintulu Airport, Mukah Airport, Marudi Airport, Mulu Airport, and Limbang Airport provide domestic services within Malaysia. There are also a number of remote airstrips serving rural communities in the state. Three airlines serve flights in Sarawak, Malaysia Airlines, Air Asia, and MASwings all of which use Kuching Airport as their main hub. The state owned Hornbill Skyways is an aviation company that largely provides private chartered flights and flight services for public servants.
Sarawak has four primary ports located at Kuching, Sibu, Bintulu, and Miri. The busiest seaport at Bintulu is under the jurisdiction of the Malaysian federal government and mainly handles LNG products and regular cargo. The remaining ports are under the respective state port authorities. The combined throughput of the four primary ports was 61.04 million freight weight tonnes (FWT) in 2013. Sarawak has 55 navigable river networks with a combined length of 3,300 kilometres (2,100 mi). For centuries, the rivers of Sarawak have been a primary means of transport as well as a route for timber and other agricultural goods moving downriver for export at the country's major ports. Sibu port, located 113 kilometres (70 mi) from the river's mouth, is the main hub along the Rajang River mainly handling timber products. However, the throughput of Sibu port has declined over the years after Tanjung Manis Industrial Port (TIMP) began operating further downriver.
Health care in Sarawak is provided by three major government hospitals, Sarawak General Hospital, Sibu Hospital, and Miri Hospital, as well as numerous district hospitals, public health clinics, 1Malaysia clinics, and rural clinics. Besides government-owned hospitals and clinics, there are several private hospitals in Sarawak such as the Normah Medical Specialists Centre, Timberland Medical Specialists Centre, and Sibu Specialist Medical Centre. Hospitals in Sarawak typically provide the full gamut of health care options, from triage to palliative care for the terminally ill. In 1994, Sarawak General Hospital Department of Radiotherapy, Oncology & Palliative Care instituted an at-home care, or hospice care, program for cancer patients. The non profit Sarawak Hospice Society was established in 1998 to promote this program. In comparison to the number of other medical facilities, mental health is only serviced by a single facility, Hospital Sentosa. This abundance of medical services has made Sarawak a medical tourism destination for visitors from neighbouring Brunei and Indonesia.
In comparison to the prevalence of health services in urban regions, much of rural Sarawak is only accessible by river transport, which limits access. Remote rural areas that are beyond the operating areas of health clinics, about 12 kilometres (7.5 mi), and inaccessible by land or river are serviced by a monthly flying doctor service, which was established in 1973. A village health promoter program, where volunteers are provided with basic medical training, was established in 1981 but difficulty in providing medical supplies to remote villages, as well as a lack of incentive, resulted in a decline of the program. A variety of traditional medicine practices are still being used by the various communities in Sarawak to supplement modern medical practices but this practice is also declining. However, since 2004, there has been a resurgence in traditional medicine in Malaysia resulting in the establishment of a traditional medicine division within the Ministry of Health. A 2006 government program to have integrated hospitals led to numerous universities starting programs to teach traditional medicine and major hospitals, including Sarawak General Hospital, providing traditional therapies.
Education in Malaysia falls under the remit of two federal ministries; the Malaysian Ministry of Education is responsible for primary and secondary education, while the Ministry of Higher Education has oversight over public universities, polytechnic and community colleges. Early childhood education is not directly controlled by the Ministry of Education as it does with primary and secondary education. However, the ministry does oversee the licensing of private kindergartens, the main form of early childhood education, in accordance with the National Pre-School Quality Standard, which was launched in 2013.
Around the time of Federation, overall literacy in Sarawak was quite low. In 1960, the overall literacy rate was 25%, with a heavy slant in the literacy rate towards the Chinese population, 53%, compared with that of indigenous peoples which was substantially lower, only 17%. By 2007, overall literacy in adults aged 15 and over had significantly increased to 92.3% and in 2012, this had climbed to 96%.
There were 1480 schools in Sarawak in 2014, of which 1271 were primary, 202 were secondary and 7 were vocational/technical secondary schools. Among these are a number of schools that date from the Brooke era, including St. Thomas's School Kuching (1848), St Mary's School Kuching (1848), and St Joseph's School Kuching (1882). As well as government schools, there are four international schools: Tunku Putra School, a primary and secondary school offering national and Cambridge curricula, Lodge International School, which is also open to local students and uses both the British National and Cambridge systems, Kidurong International School, which is owned by Shell and offers primary education mainly to children of employees but local children may enter depending on space availability, and Tenby International School, which opened in 2014 and is open to both local and expatriate children. There are also 14 Chinese independent secondary schools in Sarawak that teach in Chinese rather than English or Malay. Previously, only Chinese students were enrolled in these schools, but mobility of the workforce has led to increasing turnover of students as parents move to other areas for employment. This has led to an increasing number of bumiputera students being enrolled in Chinese schools.
Sarawak is home to three public universities – Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Universiti Teknologi Mara at Kota Samarahan, and Universiti Putra Malaysia – as well as the private Curtin University, Malaysia and Swinburne University of Technology Sarawak Campus. The latter two are satellite campuses of Curtin University in Perth and Swinburne University of Technology in Melbourne, Australia.
With the establishment of SCORE and the associated potential of 1.6 million more jobs by 2030, the state government allocated RM1 billion from 2016 to 2020 to a Skills Development Fund for vocational education. In 2015, Petronas provided vocational scholarships to 150 underprivileged Sarawak students as part of its Vocational Institution Sponsorship and Training Assistance program, although it had been criticised for under-representing local students in its previous allocations; the company also provided support to other Sarawak vocational education centres.
The 2015 census of Malaysia reported a population of 2,636,000 in Sarawak, making it the fourth most populous state. However, this population is distributed over a large area resulting in Sarawak having the lowest population density in the country with only 20 people per km2. Although it has a low population density, the average population growth rate of 1.8%, from 2000 to 2010, is very close to the national average of 2.0%. In 2014, 58% of the population resided in urban areas with the remainder in rural areas, but over the next 10 years it is predicted that the urban population would rise to 65%. As of 2011[update], the crude birth rate in Sarawak was 16.3 per 1000 individuals, the crude death rate was 4.3 per 1000 population, and the infant mortality rate was 6.5 per 1000 live births.
Urban populations consist predominantly of Malays, Melanaus, Chinese, and a small population of urban Ibans and Bidayuhs who migrated from their home villages seeking employment. The latter two are among the more than 40 sub-ethnic groups of Sarawak, many of whom still inhabit remote areas and are referred to as Orang Asal. The Orang Asal, and Malays, of Peninsular Malaysia, Sarawak and Sabah are referred to collectively as Bumiputera (son of the soil). This classification grants them special privileges in education, jobs, finance, and political positions.
The registration for, and issuing of, National identity cards, a legally required document for accessing various services, to these remote tribes has been problematic for many years, and in the past had even resulted in a large number of people from the Penan ethnic group being rendered effectively stateless. In recent years, this issue has seen progressive improvement with the implementation of systems such as mobile registration units.
Sarawak has a large immigrant work force with as many as 150,000 registered foreign migrant workers working as domestic workers or in plantation, manufacturing, construction, services and agriculture. However, this population of legally registered workers is overshadowed by a large population of between 320,000 and 350,000 illegal workers.
Sarawak has six major ethnic groups, Iban, Chinese, Malay, Bidayuh, Melanau, and Orang Ulu, as well as a number of ethnic groups with smaller but still substantial populations, such as the Kedayan, Javanese, Bugis, Murut, and Indian. In 2015, the Bidayuh and Iban, both indigenous ethnic groups of Sarawak, were officially recognised by the government of Malaysia as comprising the Dayak people.
The population of 745,400 of the Iban people in Sarawak, based on 2014 statistics, makes it the largest ethnic group in the state. The Iban were, in the past, a society that paid particular attention to social status, especially to those who displayed martial prowess as well as to those who demonstrated expertise in various fields such as farming and oratory. Specific terms were used to refer to those who belonged to particular social strata, such as the raja berani (rich and the brave), orang mayuh (ordinary people), and ulun (slaves). Despite modern influences, Iban still observe many of their traditional rituals such as Gawai Antu (festival of the dead) and Gawai Dayak (Harvest Festival).
Although the presence of Chinese in Sarawak dates back to the 6th century AD when traders first came to the state, the Chinese population today largely consists of communities originating from immigrants during the Brooke era. This migration was driven by the employment opportunities at gold mines in Bau. Sarawak Chinese are primarily Buddhist and Christian, and speak a multitude of dialects: Cantonese, Foochow, Hakka, Hokkien, Teochew, and Henghua (Putian people). They celebrate major cultural festivals such as Hungry Ghost Festival and the Chinese New Year much as their ancestors did. Chinese settlers in Sarawak were not limited to any one area. Those who settled in Kuching did so near the Sarawak River in an area that is now referred to as Chinatown. Immigrants from Fujian, led by Wong Nai Siong in 1901, settled along the Rajang River in what is now Sibu, while those who arrived in Miri sought work in the coal mines and oilfields.
During the Brooke era, Sarawak Malays were predominantly fishermen, leading to their villages being concentrated along river banks. However, with the advent of urban development, many Malays have migrated to seek employment in public and private sectors. Traditionally, they are known for their silver and brass crafts, wood carvings, and textiles.
The Melanau are a native people of Sarawak that lived in areas primarily around the modern city of Mukah, where they worked as fishermen and craftsmen as well renowned boat-builders. Historically the Melanau practised Animism, a belief that spirits inhabited objects in their environment, and while this is still practised today, most Melanau have since been converted to Christianity and Islam.[note 7]
The Bidayuh are a southern Sarawak people, that were referred to by early European settlers as Land Dayaks because they traditionally live on steep limestone mountains. They account for 8.4 percent of the population of Sarawak and are the second most numerous of the indigenous Dayak people, after the Iban. The Bidayuh are indigenous to the areas that comprise the modern day divisions of Kuching and Samarahan. Although considered one people, their language is regionally distinct resulting in dialects that are unintelligible to Bidayuh from outside the immediate locale, resulting in English and Malay being the lingua franca. Like many other indigenous peoples, the majority of the Bidayuh have been converted to Christianity, but still live in villages consisting of longhouses, with the addition of the distinctive round baruk where communal gatherings were held.
The numerous tribes who reside in Sarawak's interior such as the Kenyah, Kayan, Lun Bawang, Kelabit, Penan, Bisaya, and Berawan are collectively referred to as Orang Ulu. In the Iban language this name means "Upriver People," reflecting the location these tribes settled in; most of them reside near the drainage basin of the Baram River. Both woodworking and artistry are highly visible aspects of Orang Ulu culture exemplified by mural covered longhouses, carved wooden boats, and tattooing. Well-known musical instruments from the Orang Ulu are the Kayans' sapeh and Kenyah's sampe' and Lun Bawang's bamboo band. The Kelabit and Lun Bawang people are known for their production of fragrant rice. As with the many other indigenous peoples of Sarawak, the majority of Orang Ulu are Christians.
Although Islam is the official religion of the federation, Sarawak has no official state religion. However, during the chieftainship of Abdul Rahman Ya'kub, the Constitution of Sarawak was amended to make the Yang di-Pertuan Agong as the head of Islam in Sarawak and empower the state assembly to pass laws regarding Islamic affairs. With such provisions, Islamic policies can be formulated in Sarawak and the establishment of Islamic state agencies is possible. The 1978 Majlis Islam Bill enabled the setting up of Syariah Courts in Sarawak with jurisdictions over matrimonial, child custody, betrothal, inheritance, and criminal cases in the state. An appeals court and Courts of Kadi were also formed.[note 8]
Sarawak is the only state in Malaysia where Christians outnumber Muslims. The earliest Christian missionaries in Sarawak were Church of England (Anglicans) in 1848, followed by Roman Catholics a few years later, and Methodists in 1903. Evangelizing first took place among the Chinese immigrants before spreading to indigenous animists. Other Christian denominations in Sarawak are Borneo Evangelical Mission (or Sidang Injil Borneo), and Baptists. Indigenous people such as the Iban, Bidayuh, and Orang Ulu have adopted Christianity although they do retain some of their traditional religious rites. Many Muslims come from the Malay, Melanau, and Kayan ethnic groups. Buddhism, Taoism, and Chinese folk religion are predominantly practised by Chinese Malaysians. Other minor religions in Sarawak are Baha'i, Hinduism, Sikhism, and animism.
English was the official language of Sarawak from 1963 to 1974 due to opposition from First Chief Minister of Sarawak Stephen Kalong Ningkan to the use of the Malay language in Sarawak. In 1974 the new Chief Minister Abdul Rahman Ya'kub recognised Malay alongside English as an official language of Sarawak.[note 9] This new status given to the Malay language was further reinforced by new education standards transitioning curriculum to Malay. In 1985 English lost the status of an official language, leaving only Malay.[note 10] Despite official policy, Sarawak opposition members argue that English remained the de facto official language of Sarawak. English is still spoken in the legal courts, and state legislative assembly. In 2015, Chief Minister Adenan Satem announced that English will be reinstated as an official language.
Although the official form of Malay, Bahasa Malaysia, is spoken by the government administration, it is used infrequently in colloquial conversation. The local dialect of Bahasa Sarawak (Sarawak Malay) dominates the vernacular. Bahasa Sarawak is the most common language of Sarawak Malays and other indigenous tribes. The Iban language, which has minor regional variations, is the most widely spoken native language, with 34 percent of the Sarawak population speaking it as a first language. The Bidayuh language, with six major dialects, is spoken by 10 percent of the population. The Orang Ulu have about 30 different language dialects. While the ethnic Chinese originate from a variety of backgrounds and speak many different dialects such as Cantonese, Hokkien, Hakka, Fuzhou, and Teochew, they also converse in Malaysian Mandarin.
The location and history of Sarawak has resulted in a broad diversity of ethnicity, culture and languages. Among the indigenous peoples of Sarawak, outside influences have led to many changes over time. The Iban tribal culture in Sarawak centred on the concept of the warrior and the ability to take heads from other tribes in battle. This practice, central as it was to the Iban people, was made illegal under James Brooke's rule and ultimately faded away although reminders of the practice are still seen in some long houses. Two other tribal peoples of the Sarawak Highlands, the Kelabit and Lun Bawang, have seen fundamental changes to their ethnic identities as a direct result of their conversion to Christianity. One major change was the shift in the focal point of their social interactions from the traditional long house to the local church. Their religious devotion has also helped shape their worldview outside of their village, particularly in response to change. For the Penan people, one of the last tribes to still be practising a nomadic lifestyle within the jungle, outside influence, particularly education, has resulted in a significant decline in the population that practice the nomadic lifestyle. Others settle down after intermixing with members of different tribes, such as the Orang Ulu. One direct result of this diversity in cultures, engendered by a policy of tolerance to all races, is the increasing numbers of tribal peoples marrying not only other Sarawakian tribes, but also to Chinese, Malays as well as citizens of European or American descent.
The indigenous tribes of Sarawak traditionally used oratory to pass on their culture from one generation to the next;[note 11] examples of these traditional practices include the Iban's Ngajat dances, Renong (Iban vocal repertory), Ensera (Iban oral narratives),[note 12] and epic storytelling by the Kayan and Kenyah.
In the years before federation, the colonial government recognised that British education and indigenous culture was influencing a new generation of Iban teachers. Thus, on 15 September 1958, the Borneo Literature Bureau was inaugurated with a charter to nurture and encourage local literature while also supporting the government in its release of documentation, particularly in technical and instructional manuscripts that were to be distributed to the indigenous peoples of Sarawak and Sabah. As well as indigenous languages, documents would also be published in English, Chinese and Malay. In 1977, the bureau came under the authority of the federal government language planning and development agency, the Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka (DBP), which advocated publication only in Malay ultimately causing the demise of fledgling indigenous literature.[note 13]
It was a number of decades before print media began to appear in Sarawak. The Sarawak Gazette, published by the Brooke government, recorded a variety of news relating to economics, agriculture, anthropology, archaeology, began circulation in 1870 and continues in modern times. However, in the decades following federation, restrictive laws and connections to businesses have meant that the media is a largely state-owned enterprise.[note 14] One of the earliest known text publications in Borneo, Hikayat Panglima Nikosa (Story of Nikosa the Warrior), was first printed in Kuching, 1876.
There are a number of museums in Sarawak that preserve and maintain artefacts of Sarawak's culture. At the foot of Mount Santubong, Kuching, is Sarawak Cultural Village, a "living museum" that showcases the various ethnic groups carrying out traditional activities in their respective traditional houses. The Sarawak State Museum houses a collection of artefacts such as pottery, textiles, and woodcarving tools from various ethnic tribes in Sarawak, as well as ethnographic materials of local cultures. Orang Ulu's Sapeh (a dug-out guitar) is the best known traditional musical instrument in Sarawak and was played for Queen Elizabeth II during her official visit to Sarawak in 1972.
Sarawakians observe a number of holidays and festivals throughout the year. Apart from national Hari Merdeka and Malaysia Day celebrations, the state also celebrates Sarawak self-government Day on 22 July and the State Governor's birthday. Ethnic groups also celebrate their own festivals. The open house tradition allows other ethnic groups to join in the celebrations. Sarawak is the only state in Malaysia to declare the Gawai Dayak celebration a public holiday.
Sarawak being home to diverse communities, Sarawakian cuisine has a variety of ethnically influenced cuisines and cooking styles rarely found elsewhere in Malaysia. Notable dishes in the state include Sarawak laksa, kolo mee, and ayam pansuh. The state is also known for its Sarawak layer cake dessert.
Sarawak sent its own teams to participate in the 1958 and 1962 British Empire and Commonwealth Games, and 1962 Asian Games; after 1963, Sarawakians competed as part of the Malaysian team. Sarawak hosted the Malaysian SUKMA Games in 1990 and 2016, and was overall champion in the 1990, 1992, and 1994 SUKMA games. Sarawak has been overall champion for 11 consecutive years at the Malaysia Para Games since 1994.
- Ooi, 2013. Rajah aborgated his absolute powers...(page 103)
- Ooi, 2013. This denial of entry to Anthony ... (page 93) ... The anti-cession movement was by the early 1950s effectively "strangled" a dead letter.(page 98)
- Ishikawa, 2010 (page 87)
- The first Communist group to be formed in Sarawak ... (page 95)
- Alastair, 1993. The first political party, the Sarawak United Peoples' Party (SUPP) ... (page 118) ... By 1962, there were six parties ... (page 119)
- Faisal, 2012. ...dispensed state funds for development projects in order to buy votes... (page 14)
- Ishikawa, 2010 (page 169)
- Faisal, 2012. Negri is empowered to make provisions for regulating Islamic affairs... (page 86)
- Faisal, 2012 ... to make Bahasa Malaysia and English as negeri's official languages. (page 84)
- Postill, 2006 ... Malay was accepted as the official language of Sarawak alongside English until 1985, when English was finally dropped. (page 64)
- Pandian, 2014. it became the primary means of passing culture, history, and valued traditions. ... in the fact that oral literature is actualised only in performances; (page 95)
- Postill, 2006. ... four were oral narratives ... (page 51)
- Postill, 2006. ;... to encourage local authorship and meet local needs ... (page 51) ... The Bureau ceased to exist in 1977 when it was taken over by the federal body Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.(page 55) ... He concludes that DBP cannot publish books in regional languages (pages 59 and 60)
- Postill, 2006. ... the government controls virtually all newspapers in Sarawak (page 76)
- "Profil Negeri Sarawak (Sarawak state profile)". Jabatan Penerangan Malaysia (Malaysian Information Department). Archived from the original on 21 April 2015. Retrieved 12 January 2016.
- "Sarawak State Anthem". Sarawak Government. Archived from the original on 7 September 2015. Retrieved 12 January 2016.
- "Sarawak @ a Glance". Department of Statistics, Malaysia. Retrieved 29 December 2017.
- "General Information". Centre for public policies studies. Archived from the original on 20 October 2015. Retrieved 19 November 2016.
- "Facts of Sarawak". The Sarawak Government. Archived from the original on 23 July 2015. Retrieved 23 July 2015.
- "Postal codes in Sarawak". cybo.com. Retrieved 23 July 2015.
- "Postal codes in Miri". cybo.com. Retrieved 23 July 2015.
- "Area codes in Sarawak". cybo.com. Retrieved 22 July 2015.
- Lian Cheng (17 February 2016). "It's 13, 50 to 53 for Sarawak". The Borneo Post. Archived from the original on 19 May 2017. Retrieved 19 May 2017.
- "State Code". Malaysian National Registration Department. Archived from the original on 19 May 2017. Retrieved 19 May 2017.
- Soon, Teh Wei (23 March 2015). "Some Little Known Facts On Malaysian Vehicle Registration Plates". Malaysian Digest. Archived from the original on 8 July 2015. Retrieved 8 July 2015.
- Vernon L. Porritt (1997). British Colonial Rule in Sarawak, 1946–1963. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-983-56-0009-8. Retrieved 7 May 2016.
- Philip Mathews (28 February 2014). Chronicle of Malaysia: Fifty Years of Headline News, 1963–2013. Editions Didier Millet. p. 15. ISBN 978-967-10617-4-9.
- "Malaysia Act 1963 (Chapter 35)" (PDF). The National Archives. United Kingdom legislation. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 November 2012. Retrieved 12 August 2011.
- Governments of United Kingdom of Great Britain; Northern Ireland, Federation of Malaya, North Borneo, Sarawak; Singapore (1963). Agreement relating to Malaysia between United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Federation of Malaya, North Borneo, Sarawak and Singapore. Wikisource. p. 1.
- Tang Ruxyn (26 April 2017). "The Stories And Facts Behind How The 13 States Of Malaysia Got Their Names". Says.com. Archived from the original on 13 January 2018. Retrieved 13 January 2018.
- Kris, Jitab (23 February 1991). "Wrong info on how Sarawak got its name". New Sunday Times. Retrieved 14 November 2015.
- "The magnificent hornbills of Sarawak". The Borneo Post. 12 July 2015. Archived from the original on 6 August 2015. Retrieved 17 January 2017.
- Rozan Yunos (28 December 2008). "Sultan Tengah — Sarawak's first Sultan". The Brunei Times. Archived from the original on 3 April 2014. Retrieved 3 April 2014.
- Ib Larsen (2012). "The First Sultan of Sarawak and His Links to Brunei and the Sambas Dynasty, 1599-1826: A Little-known Pre-Brooke History". Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. Project MUSE. pp. 1–16. doi:10.1353/ras.2012.0006. Retrieved 5 November 2017.
- "Niah National Park – Early Human settlements". Sarawak Forestry. Archived from the original on 18 February 2015. Retrieved 23 March 2015.
- Faulkner, Neil (7 November 2003). Niah Cave, Sarawak, Borneo. Current World Archaeology Issue 2. Archived from the original on 23 March 2015. Retrieved 23 March 2015.
- "History of the Great Cave of Niah". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Archived from the original on 22 November 2014. Retrieved 23 March 2015.
- "Niah Cave". humanorigins.si.edu. Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. Archived from the original on 22 November 2013. Retrieved 23 March 2015.
- Zheng, Dekun (1 January 1982). Studies in Chinese Archeology. The Chinese University Press. pp. 49, 50. ISBN 978-962-201-261-5. Retrieved 29 December 2015.
In case of Santubong, its association with T'ang and Sung porcelain would necessary provide a date of about 8th – 13th century A.D.
- David Lea; Colette Milward (2001). A Political Chronology of South-East Asia and Oceania. Psychology Press. pp. 16–. ISBN 978-1-85743-117-9.
- Donald F, Lach (15 July 2008). Asia in the Making of Europe, Volume I: The Century of Discovery, Book 1. University of Chicago Press. p. 581. ISBN 978-0-226-46708-5. Retrieved 21 March 2016.
... but Castanheda lists five great seaports that he says were known to the Portuguese. In his transcriptions they are called "Moduro" (Marudu?), "Cerava" (Sarawak?), "Laue" (Lawai), "Tanjapura" (Tanjungpura), and "Borneo" (Brunei) from which the island derives its name.
- Broek, Jan O.M. (1962). "Place Names in 16th and 17th Century Borneo". Imago Mundi. 16 (1): 134. doi:10.1080/03085696208592208. JSTOR 1150309.
Carena (for Carena), deep in the bight, refers to Sarawak, the Kuching area, where there is clear archaeological evidence of an ancient trade center just inland from Santubong.
- Alastair, Morrison (1 January 1993). Fair Land Sarawak: Some Recollections of an Expatriate Official. SEAP Publications. p. 10. ISBN 978-0-87727-712-5. Retrieved 29 October 2015.
- Trudy, Ring; Noelle, Watson; Paul, Schellinger (12 November 2012). Asia and Oceania: International Dictionary of Historic Places. SEAP Publications. p. 497. ISBN 978-0-87727-712-5. Retrieved 29 October 2015.
- James Leasor (1 January 2001). Singapore: The Battle That Changed the World. House of Stratus. pp. 41–. ISBN 978-0-7551-0039-2.
- Graham, Saunders (5 November 2013). A History of Brunei. Routledge. pp. 74–77. ISBN 978-1-136-87394-2. Retrieved 24 November 2016.
- Mike, Reed. "Book review of "The Name of Brooke – The End of White Rajah Rule in Sarawak" by R.H.W. Reece, Sarawak Literary Society, 1993". sarawak.com.my. Archived from the original on 8 June 2003. Retrieved 7 August 2015.
- Lim, Kian Hock (16 September 2011). "A look at the civil administration of Sarawak". The Borneo Post. Archived from the original on 6 February 2015. Retrieved 21 November 2015.
- Cuhaj, George S (2014). Standard Catalog of World Paper Money, General Issues, 1368–1960. F+W Media. p. 1058. ISBN 978-1-4402-4267-0. Retrieved 13 January 2016.
Sarawak was recognised as a separate state by the United States (1850) and Great Britain (1864), and voluntarily became a British protectorate in 1888.
- "Bintulu – Places of Interest". Bintulu Development Authority. Archived from the original on 19 November 2016. Retrieved 19 July 2015.
- Ooi, Keat Gin (2013). Post-war Borneo, 1945–50: Nationalism, Empire and State-Building. Routledge. p. 7. ISBN 978-1-134-05803-7. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
- Marshall, Cavendish (2007). World and Its Peoples: Eastern and Southern Asia, Volume 9. Bangladesh: Marshall Cavendish. p. 1182. ISBN 978-0-7614-7642-9. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
- "The Borneo Company Limited". National Library Board. Archived from the original on 12 October 2015. Retrieved 25 January 2016.
- Simon, Elegant (13 July 1986). "SARAWAK: A KINGDOM IN THE JUNGLE". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 2 November 2015. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
- Charles, de Ledesma; Mark, Lewis; Pauline, Savage (2003). Malaysia, Singapore, and Brunei. Rough Guides. p. 723. ISBN 978-1-84353-094-7. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
In 1888, the three states of Sarawak, Sabah, and Brunei were transformed into protectorates, a status which handed over the responsibility for their foreign policy to the British in exchange for military protection.
- Saiful, Bahari (23 June 2015). "Thrill is gone, state museum stuck in time — Public". The Borneo Post. Archived from the original on 2 October 2015. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
- "History of Sarawak". Brooke Trust. Archived from the original on 29 November 2016. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
- Ogmore (15 November 1956). "SARAWAK HL Deb 15 November 1956 vol 200 cc328-68". UK parliament. Retrieved 26 June 2017.
- Klemen, L (1999). "The Invasion of British Borneo in 1942". dutcheastindies.webs.com. Archived from the original on 1 April 2015. Retrieved 3 November 2015.
- "The Japanese Occupation (1941 – 1945)". The Sarawak Government. Retrieved 3 November 2015.
- Kratoska, Paul. H (13 May 2013). Southeast Asian Minorities in the Wartime Japanese Empire. Routledge. p. 136. ISBN 9781136125065. Retrieved 27 June 2017.
- Ooi, Keat Gin. "Prelude to invasion: covert operations before the re-occupation of Northwest Borneo, 1944–45". Journal of the Australian War Memorial. Retrieved 3 November 2015.
- Gavin Long (1963). Australia in the War of 1939-1945. Series 1 - Army - Volume VII - The Final Campaigns (1st edition, 1963) - Chapter 20 - Securing British Borneo. Australia: The Australian War Memorial. p. 491. Retrieved 18 June 2017.
- "Historical Monument – Surrender Point". Official Website of Labuan Corporation. Labuan Corporation. Retrieved 3 November 2015.
- Rainsford, Keith Carr. "Surrender to Major-General Wootten at Labuan". Australian War Memorial. Retrieved 3 November 2015.
- Patricia, Hului (12 September 2016). "Celebrating Batu Lintang Camp liberation day on Sept 11". The Borneo Post. Retrieved 17 June 2017.
- "British Military Administration (August 1945 – April 1946)". The Sarawak Government. Retrieved 3 November 2015.
- Ooi, Keat Gin (2004). Southeast Asia: A Historical Encyclopedia, from Angkor Wat to East Timor. ABC-CLIO. p. 763. ISBN 9781576077702. Retrieved 27 June 2017.
- "Sarawak as a British Crown Colony (1946–1963)". The Official Website of the Sarawak Government. Retrieved 7 November 2015.
- Mike, Thomson (14 March 2012). "The stabbed governor of Sarawak". BBC News. Retrieved 3 November 2015.
- "Anthony Brooke". The Daily Telegraph. 6 March 2011. Retrieved 3 November 2015.
- "Formation of Malaysia 16 September 1963". National Archives of Malaysia. Retrieved 8 November 2015.
- JC, Fong (16 September 2011). "Formation of Malaysia". The Borneo Post. Retrieved 8 November 2015.
- Tai, Yong Tan (2008). "Chapter Six: Borneo Territories and Brunei". Creating "Greater Malaysia": Decolonization and the Politics of Merger. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. pp. 154–169. ISBN 978-981-230-747-7. Retrieved 8 November 2015.
- "Trust and Non-self governing territories". United Nations. Archived from the original on 3 May 2011. Retrieved 2 April 2016.
- "United Nations Member States". United Nations. 3 July 2006. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 1 April 2016.
- "Brunei Revolt breaks out – 8 December 1962". National Library Board (Singapore). Retrieved 9 November 2015.
- United Nations Treaty Registered No. 8029, Manila Accord between Philippines, Federation of Malaya and Indonesia (31 July 1963) Archived 11 October 2010 at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved on 12 August 2011.
- United Nations Treaty Series No. 8809, Agreement relating to the implementation of the Manila Accord Archived 12 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved on 12 August 2011.
- Allen, Charles (1990). Savage Wars of Peace: Soldiers' Voices, 1945-1989. Joseph. p. 159. ISBN 9780718128821. Retrieved 27 June 2017.
- Ishikawa, Noboru (15 March 2010). Between Frontiers: Nation and Identity in a Southeast Asian Borderland. Ohio University Press. pp. 86–87. ISBN 978-0-89680-476-0. Retrieved 9 November 2015.
- Hara, Fujio (December 2005). "The North Kalimantan Communist Party and People's Republic of China" (PDF). The Developing Economies: 495. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 December 2016. Retrieved 2 April 2017.
- James, Chin. "Book Review: The Rise and Fall of Communism in Sarawak 1940–1990". Kyoto Review of South East Asia. Retrieved 10 November 2015.
- Chan, Francis; Wong, Phyllis (16 September 2011). "Saga of communist insurgency in Sarawak". The Borneo Post. Retrieved 10 January 2013.
- "About Sarawak – Governance". Official website of State Planning Unit – Chief Minister's Department of Sarawak. Archived from the original on 13 September 2013. Retrieved 14 November 2015.
- "Yang di-Pertua Negeri". Sarawak Government. Archived from the original on 7 September 2015. Retrieved 12 January 2016.
- "Abang Johari Ketua Menteri baharu Sarawak". BH Online. Berita Harian. Retrieved 13 January 2017.
- "My Constitution: Sabah, Sarawak and special interests". Malaysian Bar. 2 February 2011. Archived from the original on 19 November 2016. Retrieved 13 November 2015.
- "My Constitution: About Sabah and Sarawak". Malaysian Bar. 10 January 2011. Archived from the original on 4 February 2012. Retrieved 13 November 2015.
- Article 95D, Constitution of Malaysia. Accessed on 6 August 2008.
- R.S, Milne; K.J, Ratnam (2014). Malaysia: New States in a New Nation. Routledge. p. 71. ISBN 978-1-135-16061-6. Retrieved 14 November 2015.
... the major parties in each state fall quite neatly into three categories: native-non-Muslim, native-Muslim, and non-native.
- Faisal, S Hazis (2012). Domination and Contestation: Muslim Bumiputera Politics in Sarawak. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. p. 91. ISBN 978-981-4311-58-8. Retrieved 11 December 2015.
The strongman-politician postponed the negeri election ... (page 91)
- "Vote-buying, treating, illegal campaigning mars Sarawak polls, says Bersih 2.0". Aliran. 17 May 2016. Archived from the original on 27 May 2016. Retrieved 18 June 2017.
- Chin, James (1996). "The Sarawak Chinese Voters and Their Support for the Democratic Action Party (DAP)" (PDF). Southeast Asian Studies. Kyoto University Research Information Repository. 34 (2): 387–401. Retrieved 19 June 2014.
- Cheng, Lian (7 April 2013). "Why Sarawak is electorally unique". The Borneo Post. Archived from the original on 23 June 2015. Retrieved 12 January 2016.
For this reason, Sarawak held its state and parliamentary elections separately – and has been adhering to the practice since 1979 whereas all the other states still hold the two elections concurrently (see Table).
- Tawie, Joseph (9 January 2013). "SNAP faces more resignations over BN move". Free Malaysia Today. Retrieved 19 June 2014.
- Mering, Raynore (23 May 2014). "Analysis: Party loyalty counts for little in Sarawak". The Malay Mail. Retrieved 19 June 2014.
- "SPECIAL REPORT: The Ming Court Affair (subscription required)". Malaysiakini. 9 January 2013. Retrieved 23 June 2014.
- "BN retains Sarawak, Taib sworn in as CM". Free Malaysia Today. 16 April 2011. Retrieved 23 June 2014.
- Chua, Andy (24 April 2010). "DAP: Sarawak Pakatan formed to promote two-party system". The Star (Malaysia). Star Publications. Archived from the original on 25 April 2010. Retrieved 23 June 2014.
- Ling, Sharon (14 February 2014). "Muhyiddin: Umno need not be in Sarawak". The Star (Malaysia). Retrieved 23 June 2014.
- Sharon Ling; Geryl Ogilvy (12 June 2018). "Sarawak BN parties pull out of coalition to form independent state-based pact". The Star. Retrieved 12 June 2018.
- Stephanie Lee; Fatimah Zainal (16 September 2018). "Sabah, Sarawak to be restored as equal partners forming Malaysia, says Dr M". The Star. Retrieved 17 September 2018.
- "Sabah, Sarawak to be restored as equal partners forming Malaysia, not just component states, says PM Mahathir". The Star/Asia News Network. The Straits Times. 16 September 2018. Archived from the original on 17 September 2018. Retrieved 17 September 2018.
- "Sarawak population". The Official Portal of the Sarawak Government. Archived from the original on 7 September 2015. Retrieved 14 November 2015.
- Samuel Aubrey (12 April 2015). "Serian now a division". The Borneo Post. Archived from the original on 14 July 2015. Retrieved 15 May 2015.
- "Administrative Divisions and Districts". The Sarawak Government. Archived from the original on 23 July 2015. Retrieved 23 July 2015.
- "Organisation Structure". Official Website of Ministry of Local Government and Community Development. Archived from the original on 7 September 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2015.
- "Sarawak – Facts and Figures 2011" (PDF). Sarawak State Planning Unit, Chief Minister Department. pp. 5, 9, 15, 22. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 November 2015. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
- Nicholas, Taring (29 August 2003). Imperialism in Southeast Asia. Routledge. p. 319. ISBN 978-1-134-57081-2. Retrieved 23 December 2015.
Charles Brooke set up the Sarawak Rangers in 1862 as a paramilitary force for pacifying 'ulu' Dayaks.
- "Royal Ranger Regiment (Malaysia)". discovermilitary.com. Archived from the original on 8 December 2012. Retrieved 22 December 2015.
- "Ninth schedule – Legislative lists". Commonwealth Legal Information Institute. Archived from the original on 15 September 2014. Retrieved 22 December 2015.
- Chin Huat, Wong (27 September 2011). "Can Sarawak have an army?". Free Malaysia Today. Archived from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 22 December 2015.
- R. Haller-Trost (1994). The Brunei-Malaysia Dispute Over Territorial and Maritime Claims in International Law. IBRU. pp. 20–. ISBN 978-1-897643-07-5.
- Ubaidillah Masli (17 March 2009). "Brunei drops all claims to Limbang". The Brunei Times. Archived from the original on 12 July 2014. Retrieved 23 August 2013.
- Ubaidillah Masli (18 March 2009). "Limbang issue was never discussed: Pehin Dato Lim". The Brunei Times. Archived from the original on 15 February 2014. Retrieved 23 August 2013.
- "Loss of James Shoal could wipe out state's EEZ". The Borneo Post. 5 February 2014. Retrieved 17 May 2014.
- Jenifer Laeng (3 June 2015). "China Coast Guard vessel found at Luconia Shoals". The Borneo Post. Retrieved 3 June 2015.
- "Presence of China Coast Guard ship at Luconia Shoals spooks local fishermen". The Borneo Post. 27 September 2015. Retrieved 28 September 2015.
- "Border disputes differ for Indonesia, M'sia". Daily Express. 16 October 2015. Archived from the original on 16 February 2016. Retrieved 16 October 2015.
- "Geography of Sarawak". Official website of state planning unit Chief Minister's Department of Sarawak. Archived from the original on 23 April 2015. Retrieved 14 November 2015.
- Frans Welman. Borneo Trilogy Sarawak: Volume 2. Booksmango. pp. 132, 134, 136–138, 177. ISBN 978-616-245-089-1. Retrieved 28 August 2013.
- "The Geography of Sarawak". The official website of Sarawak Government. Sarawak Government. Retrieved 18 June 2017.
- "Pasir Panjang, Kuching". Sarawak Tourism Board. Archived from the original on 27 December 2015. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- "Damai Beach Resort". Sarawak Tourism Board. Archived from the original on 27 December 2015. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- "Tanjung Batu Beach, Bintulu". Sarawak Tourism Board. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- "Brighton Beach/Tanjung Lobang". Sarawak Tourism Board. Archived from the original on 13 April 2015. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- "Hawaii Beach". Sarawak Tourism Board. Archived from the original on 13 April 2015. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- Togunwa, Olayinka; Abdullah, Wan (2017-08-10). "Geochemical characterization of Neogene sediments from onshore West Baram Delta Province, Sarawak: paleoenvironment, source input and thermal maturity". Open Geosciences. 9 (1): 302–313. doi:10.1515/geo-2017-0025. ISSN 2391-5447.
- "Sarawak National Parks". Sarawak Forestry Department. Retrieved 25 June 2017.
- "Niah National Park, Miri". Sarawak Tourism Board. Archived from the original on 26 December 2015. Retrieved 26 December 2015.
- "Lambir Hills National Park". Sarawak Forestry Corporation. Archived from the original on 30 May 2015. Retrieved 26 December 2015.
- "Gunung Mulu National Park". UNESCO. Archived from the original on 16 October 2015. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- "Gunung Mulu National Park (Malaysia)". UNESCO. Archived from the original on 16 November 2015. Retrieved 19 March 2017.
- Vergano, Dan (27 September 2014). "China's "Supercave" Takes Title as World's Most Enormous Cavern". National Geographic. Archived from the original on 31 January 2017. Retrieved 6 April 2017.
- "Deer Cave and Lang's Cave". Mulu National Park. Archived from the original on 12 July 2015. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- "Clearwater cave and Wind Cave". Gunung Mulu National Park. Archived from the original on 12 July 2015. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- "Gunung Mulu National Park". Malaysia Tourism Promotion Board. Archived from the original on 17 October 2015. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- "Borneo plants". World Wide Fund for Nature. Archived from the original on 25 April 2016. Retrieved 2 December 2016.
- "Medicinal plants around us". The Malaysian Nature Society. The Borneo Post. 24 August 2014. Archived from the original on 30 August 2014. Retrieved 16 November 2015.
- "Sarawak National Park – Biodiversity Conservation". Sarawak Forestry Department. Retrieved 17 November 2015.
- "Rainforest is destroyed for palm oil plantations on Malaysia's island state of Sarawak (Image 1 and Image 2)". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 6 February 2011. Retrieved 21 August 2014.
• "Rainforest is destroyed for palm oil plantations on Malaysia's island state of Sarawak (Image 3)". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 7 February 2011. Retrieved 21 August 2014.
• "Sumatran Orangutans' rainforest home faces new threat". Agence France-Presse. The Borneo Post. 5 May 2013. Retrieved 21 August 2014.
• Meijaard, E.; Nijman, V. & Supriatna, J. (2008). "Nasalis larvatus". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008: e.T14352A4434312. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T14352A4434312.en. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
- "25 success stories". International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO). pp. 44–45. Archived from the original on 13 June 2015. Retrieved 16 November 2015.
- "Semenggoh Nature Reserve". Sarawak Tourism Board. Archived from the original on 8 May 2015. Retrieved 16 November 2015.
- "Matang Wildlife Centre". Sarawak Tourism Board. Archived from the original on 14 May 2015. Retrieved 16 November 2015.
- "Talang-Satang National Park". Sarawak Tourism Board. Archived from the original on 16 November 2015. Retrieved 16 November 2015.
- "Birding in Sarawak". Sarawak Tourism Board. Archived from the original on 16 May 2015. Retrieved 16 November 2015.
- "Similajau National Park". Sarawak Toursim Board. Archived from the original on 8 May 2015. Retrieved 16 November 2015.
- "Diving in Miri-Sibuti Coral Reefs National Park". Sarawak Tourism Board. Archived from the original on 4 May 2015. Retrieved 16 November 2015.
- "Gunung Gading National Park". Sarawak Tourism Board. Archived from the original on 16 May 2015. Retrieved 16 November 2015.
- "Bako National Park". Sarawak Forestry Corporation. Archived from the original on 25 September 2015. Retrieved 26 December 2015.
- "Padawan Pitcher Plant & Wild Orchid Centre". Sarawak Tourism Board. Archived from the original on 9 April 2015. Retrieved 16 November 2015.
- Rogers, Alan (14 July 2013). "Wallace and the Sarawak Law". The Borneo Post. Archived from the original on 15 November 2016. Retrieved 15 November 2016.
- Lian, Cheng (31 March 2013). "Protected wildlife on the menu". The Borneo Post. Archived from the original on 1 April 2013. Retrieved 16 November 2015.
- "History". Official website of Forest Department Sarawak. Retrieved 16 November 2015.
Mr. J.P. Mead became the first Conservator of Forests, Sarawak Forest Department, in 1919. The objectives of the Department were to manage and conserve the State's forest resources.
- Barney, Chan. "6. INSTITUTIONAL RESTRUCTURING IN SARAWAK, MALAYSIA". Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Archived from the original on 19 July 2012. Retrieved 16 November 2015.
- "Sarawak Forestry Corporation – About Us – FAQ". Sarawak Forestry Corporation. Archived from the original on 12 May 2015. Retrieved 16 November 2015.
- "About Sarawak Biodiversity Centre – Profile". Sarawak Biodiversity Centre. Archived from the original on 6 December 2014. Retrieved 16 November 2015.
- Tom, Young (2 February 2011). "Malaysian palm oil destroying forests, report warns". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 29 May 2014. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
- Elegant, Simon (3 September 2001). "Without a Trace". Time magazine Asia. Retrieved 14 August 2014. (Subscription required (. ))
- "Sarawak and the Penan". Archived from the original on 8 July 2015. Retrieved 17 November 2015.
- "Native Customary Rights in Sarawak". Cultural Survival. Archived from the original on 5 October 2015. Retrieved 17 November 2015.
- "Rumah Nor: A Land Rights Case for Malaysia". The Borneo Project. Retrieved 17 November 2015.
- Jessica, Lawrence. "Earth Island News – Borneo Project – Indigenous victory overturned". Earth Island Institute. Retrieved 17 November 2015.
- Rhett, Butler. "Power, profit, and pollution: dams and the uncertain future of Sarawak". Mongabay. Retrieved 17 November 2015.
One dam has already displaced 10,000 native people and will flood an area the size of Singapore.
- "Bakun Dam". International Rivers. Retrieved 17 November 2015.
- "Sarawak, Malaysia". International Rivers. Retrieved 17 November 2015.
Work on access roads to the dam site began but came to a halt in October 2013 when local communities launched two blockades to stop construction and other project preparations from proceeding.
- Vanitha, Nadaraj (21 September 2015). "Battle Against Illegal Logging in Sarawak Begins". The Establishment Post. Archived from the original on 21 September 2015. Retrieved 18 November 2015.
- Mike Gaworecki (19 August 2016). "Sarawak establishes 2.2M acres of protected areas, may add 1.1M more". Mongabay. Retrieved 22 August 2016.
- Joseph, Tawie (25 October 2012). "'What's really left of our forest, Taib?'". Free Malaysia Today. Archived from the original on 2 November 2012. Retrieved 16 November 2015.
- "Types and Categories of Sarawak's Forests". Sarawak Forest Department. Retrieved 16 November 2015.
- "Impact of oil palm plantations on peatland conversion in Sarawak 2005-2010" (PDF). Wetlands International. January 2011. Retrieved 25 June 2017.
- "GDP By State (2010–2016)". Department of Statistics, Malaysia. 6 September 2017. Archived from the original on 4 August 2018. Retrieved 19 July 2018.
- Furuoka, Fumitaka (2014). "Economic development in Sarawak, Malaysia. An overview" (PDF). Munich Personal RePEc Archive (60477): 1–13. Retrieved 18 June 2017.
- "Government aims to close income gap between urban, rural areas – Uggah". The Borneo Post. 29 September 2016. Archived from the original on 5 October 2016. Retrieved 18 June 2017.
- "The State of Sarawak". Malaysia Rating Corporation. Retrieved 12 November 2015.
- Chang, Ngee Hui (2009). "High Growth SMEs and Regional Development – The Sarawak Perspective". State Planning Unit, Sarawak Chief MInister Department. Archived from the original on 21 November 2015. Retrieved 21 November 2015.
- Desmond, Davidson (6 August 2015). "Adenan pledges to keep fighting for 20% oil royalty". The Malaysian Insider. Archived from the original on 12 August 2015. Retrieved 19 November 2015.
Sarawak Chief Minister Tan Sri Adenan Satem today admitted the oil and gas royalty negotiations – for a hike of 15% from 5% to 20% – with Petronas and Putrajaya have ended in deadlock, but has vowed to fight for it "as long as I'm alive".
- Rasoul, Sorkhabi (2012). "Borneo's Petroleum Plays". 9 (4). GEO Ex Pro. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
A simplified map showing the distribution of major sedimentary basins onshore and offshore Borneo.
- "An overview of forest products statistics in South and Southeast Asia – National forest products statistics, Malaysia". Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). Archived from the original on 24 July 2015. Retrieved 18 November 2015.
In 2000, of the country's total sawlog production of 23 million m3, Peninsular Malaysia contributed 22 percent, Sabah 16 percent, and Sarawak 62 percent. Sawlog production figures for 1996–2000 are shown in Table 2.
- Sharon, Kong (1 September 2013). "Foreign banks in Sarawak". The Borneo Post. Archived from the original on 12 September 2013. Retrieved 21 November 2015.
- "Sarawak shakers". The Star (Malaysia). 27 March 2010. Retrieved 21 November 2015.
- "Generation Portfolio". Sarawak Energy. Archived from the original on 24 November 2013. Retrieved 23 November 2015.
- "Core Business Activities". Sarawak Energy. Archived from the original on 10 July 2015. Retrieved 23 November 2015.
- "Hydroelectric Power Dams in Sarawak". Sarawak Integrated Water Resources – Management Master Plan. Archived from the original on 23 November 2015. Retrieved 23 November 2015.
- Jack, Wong (22 July 2014). "Bakun at 50% capacity producing 900MW". The Star (Malaysia). Retrieved 23 November 2015.
- Christopher, Lindom (11 July 2015). "Making HEPs in Sarawak safe". New Sarawak Tribune. Archived from the original on 23 November 2015. Retrieved 23 November 2015.
... Murum HEP had officially started commercial operation on 8 June 2015,"...
- CK Tan (12 May 2016). "Malaysia exports electricity to Indonesia". Nikkei Asian Review. Archived from the original on 15 May 2016. Retrieved 15 May 2016.
- "Development Strategy". Regional Corridor Development Authority. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 22 November 2015.
- "What is SCORE?". Regional Corridor Development Authority. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 22 November 2015.
- "Sarawak Corridor of Renewable Energy – Register your interest". Sarawak Corridor of Renewable Energy. Archived from the original on 27 June 2014. Retrieved 26 July 2015.
- "What is RECODA". Regional Corridor Development Authority. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 22 November 2015.
- "SCORE Areas". Sarawak Corridor of Renewable Energy. Archived from the original on 27 June 2014. Retrieved 31 July 2015.
- "Samalaju – SCORE". Regional Corridor Development Authority. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 22 November 2015.
- "Tanjung Manis – SCORE". Regional Corridor Development Authority. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 22 November 2015.
- "Mukah – SCORE". Regional Corridor Development Authority. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 22 November 2015.
- Chen Ai Shih (16 March 2017). "RM60 million boost for state tourism". The Borneo Post. Retrieved 19 July 2018.
- "Higher visitor arrivals in 2017, over RM8 billion earned — Minister". The Borneo Post. 17 July 2018. Retrieved 19 July 2018.
- "Sarawak's tourism strategy focuses on sustainable development". Oxford Business Group. Archived from the original on 21 November 2015. Retrieved 21 November 2015.
- Ava, Lai (29 July 2015). "Valuable prizes await Hornbill winners". The Star (Malaysia). Retrieved 20 November 2015.
- "Sarawak fest certain to be a rare treat". Bangkok Post. 22 February 2011. Retrieved 20 November 2015. (Subscription required (. ))
- "Shopping Malls in Kuching". Sarawak Tourism Board. Archived from the original on 28 December 2015. Retrieved 28 December 2015.
- "Shopping Malls in Miri". Sarawak Tourism Board. Archived from the original on 4 February 2015. Retrieved 28 December 2015.
- "Fewer tourists visited Sarawak last year, DUN told". The Borneo Post. Retrieved 16 June 2016.
- "Pulling more tourists to Sarawak". The Borneo Post. Archived from the original on 19 August 2015. Retrieved 7 July 2015.
- "Visitor Arrivals into Sarawak 2015" (PDF). Ministry of Tourism, Arts and Culture Sarawak. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 July 2016. Retrieved 31 May 2016.
- "About Us". MIDCom. Retrieved 17 December 2015.
- OECD Investment Policy Reviews OECD Investment Policy Reviews: Malaysia 2013. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Publishing. 30 October 2013. p. 234. ISBN 978-92-64-19458-8. Retrieved 17 December 2015.
All the same, there are important variations in the quantity and quality of infrastructure stocks, with infrastructure more developed in peninsular Malaysia than in Sabah and Sarawak.
- H., Borhanazad; S., Mekhilef; R, Saidur; G., Boroumandijazi (2013). "Potential application of renewable energy for rural electrification in Malaysia" (PDF). Renewable Energy. 59: 211. doi:10.1016/j.renene.2013.03.039. Retrieved 23 November 2015.
- Alexandra, Lorna; Doreen, Ling (9 October 2015). "Infrastructure crucial to state's goals". New Sarawak Tribune. Archived from the original on 16 December 2015. Retrieved 16 December 2015.
"In 2014, 82% of houses located in Sarawak rural areas have access to water supply in comparison to 59% in 2009." Fadillah also said that the rural electricity coverage had improved over the last few years with 91% of the households in Sarawak having access to electricity in 2014 compared to 67% in 2009.
- "New technologies play a major role in Sarawak's development plans". Oxford Business Group. Archived from the original on 17 December 2015. Retrieved 17 December 2015.
- Mohd, Hafiz Mahpar (2 April 2015). "Cahya Mata Sarawak buys 50% of Sacofa for RM186m". The Star (Malaysia). Retrieved 17 December 2015.
- "Transport and Infrastructure". Official Website of the Sarawak Government. Archived from the original on 7 September 2015. Retrieved 17 December 2015.
- Harun, Jau (8 August 2015). "New department being set up". New Sarawak Tribune. Archived from the original on 17 December 2015. Retrieved 17 December 2015.
- Thiessen, Tamara (2012). Borneo:Sabah, Brunei, Sarawak. Bradt Travel Guides. p. 98. ISBN 978-1-84162-390-0. Retrieved 26 January 2016.
All major roads are dual carriageways; there are no multi-lane expressways. In Malaysia, you drive on the left-hand side of the road and cars are right-hand drive.
- "New land, air and sea transport links will help meet higher demand in Sarawak". Oxford Business Group. Archived from the original on 17 December 2015. Retrieved 17 December 2015.
- Then, Stephen (13 September 2013). "Repair Pan Borneo Highway now, says Bintulu MP following latest fatal accident". The Star (Malaysia). Retrieved 23 June 2014.
- Wong, Jack (19 December 2016). "RM16bil Pan Borneo Highway jobs awarded". The Star (Malaysia). Retrieved 28 March 2017.
- "Sarawak Government Railway". Asian Railways. Archived from the original on 14 March 2016. Retrieved 14 March 2016.
- "Sarawak's rapid railway ready by 2015". The Brunei Time. Archived from the original on 14 March 2016. Retrieved 29 March 2017.
- "Sarawak's LRT to be ready in three years, says CM". Malaysiakini. 19 April 2017. Archived from the original on 19 April 2017. Retrieved 13 May 2017.
- "Airlines flying from Malaysia to Kuching". Archived from the original on 30 March 2016. Retrieved 30 March 2016.
- "Hornbill Skyways – Wings to your destination". Hornbill Skyways. Archived from the original on 9 March 2016. Retrieved 30 March 2016.
- Lim, How Pim (18 August 2014). "Sarawak gets 3 more hospitals". The Borneo Post. Archived from the original on 22 August 2014. Retrieved 19 December 2015.
- "Alternative pathways to overcome the lack of specialists in Sarawak". The Borneo Post. 15 November 2014. Retrieved 19 December 2015.
Dr Jerip said there were currently 248 specialists distributed among the major hospitals in the state, comprising the Sarawak General Hospital, Sibu Hospital and Miri Hospital, as well as several divisional hospitals.
- "Sarawak makes efforts to boost access to health care". Oxford Business Group. Retrieved 19 December 2015.
Sarawak's 221 public health clinics include only seven rural clinics. Services for the poor are also provided at 1Malaysia clinics, where assistant medical officers provide basic health care, but again, these clinics – of which the state has 18 – have historically been located mainly in urban areas.
- Nigel, Edgar (4 December 2013). "Wednesday, 4 December 2013 Sarawak recognises importance of private hospitals such as Borneo Medical Centre". The Star (Malaysia). Retrieved 19 December 2015.
- "Quality of Life". The Sarawak Government. Archived from the original on 9 September 2015. Retrieved 19 December 2015.
- "Sarawak Hospice Society". Sarawak Hospice Society. Archived from the original on 26 January 2015. Retrieved 19 December 2015.
- Johnson, K Saai (28 October 2010). "'People still dump mental patients at Hospital Sentosa'". The Borneo Post. Archived from the original on 19 December 2015. Retrieved 19 December 2015.
- "'Sarawak wants more participation in private healthcare sector'". The Rakyat Post. 1 August 2015. Retrieved 19 December 2015.
- Chin, Mui Yoon (27 February 2012). "Access to healthcare a challenge for Sarawak's interior folk". The Star (Malaysia). Retrieved 19 December 2015.
- Ariff, K.M; Teng, CL (2002). "Rural health care in Malaysia". Australian Journal of Rural Health. 10 (2): 99–103. doi:10.1046/j.1440-1584.2002.00456.x. PMID 12047504.
The FDS in Sarawak was launched in 1973 to provide healthcare to communities residing outside the 'extended operational area' limits of the health centre (beyond 12 km).
- Koshy, Rachel (1 October 2013). "Flying doctor service in East Malaysia: Rachel Koshy". European Journal of Public Health. 23 (1): 223. doi:10.1093/eurpub/ckt123.184. Retrieved 2 April 2017.
- Leng Chee, Heng; Barraclough, Simon (6 March 2007). Health Care in Malaysia: The Dynamics of Provision, Financing and Access. Routledge. p. 195. ISBN 978-1-134-11295-1. Retrieved 30 March 2016.
- Leng Chee, Heng; Barraclough, Simon (6 March 2007). Health Care in Malaysia: The Dynamics of Provision, Financing and Access. Routledge. p. 196. ISBN 978-1-134-11295-1. Retrieved 30 March 2016.
While there were systems of tradiional medicine and a traditional pharmacopoenia amongst the indigenous communities in Sarawak, they have largely fallen into disuse ...
• Bawin Anggat, Nicholas. "Traditional Medicines of Borneo at Risk" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 March 2016. Retrieved 30 March 2016.
• "Chinese traditional medicine". The Borneo Post. 8 November 2012. Archived from the original on 14 November 2012. Retrieved 30 March 2016.
Abuduli, Maihebureti; Ezat, Sharifa; Aljunid, Syed (2011). "Role of traditional and complementary medicine in universal coverage" (PDF). Malaysian Journal of Public Health Medicine. 11 (2): 1. Retrieved 30 March 2016.
There are nine integrated public hospitals which are practicing T&CM in Malaysia. ... Sarawak General Hospital ... These hospitals practice traditional Malay massage, acupuncture, herbal oncology and postnatal massage.
- "Education". Official Website of the Sarawak Government. Archived from the original on 7 September 2015. Retrieved 21 December 2015.
- "Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia - Institutions". Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia. Retrieved 6 April 2017.
- Ooi, May Sim (21 February 2016). "Pre-school education crucial". The Star Online. Star Media Group Berhad. Retrieved 3 April 2017.
- Silcock, T.H (1963). The Political Economy of Independent Malaya:A case-study in development. University of California Press. p. 46. Retrieved 21 December 2015.
- Yussop, Yunus (14 May 2012). "Greater rural wealth with higher literacy rate". Borneo Post Online. BorneoPost. Retrieved 3 April 2017.
- State Planning Unit, Chief Ministers Department. "Sarawak Facts & Figures 2015". p. 40. Retrieved 3 April 2017.
- Edgar, Ong (10 April 2015). "Can you blame Sarawak and Sabah for feeling left out?". The Ant Daily. Archived from the original on 15 June 2015. Retrieved 21 December 2015.
The eight schools missing from the incomplete list are St. Thomas's School Kuching (1848), St Mary's School Kuching (1848), St Joseph's School Kuching (1882), St Teresa's School Kuching (1885), St Michael's School Sandakan (1886), St Michael's School Penampang (1888), All Saints' School, Likas (1903) and St Patrick's School Tawau (1917).
- "Sarawak's public and private sectors work together to revamp education". Oxford Business Group. Archived from the original on 21 December 2015. Retrieved 21 December 2015.
- "砂拉越华文独中通讯录 (Communication directory of Sarawak Chinese independent schools)" (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 31 December 2013. Retrieved 1 March 2015.
- "Of Chinese schools and their student population". Borneo Post Online. 24 June 2016. Retrieved 3 April 2017.
- "55,975 bumiputera pupils in Chinese schools". Bernama. The Sun. 17 December 2010. Archived from the original on 26 June 2016. Retrieved 26 June 2016.
- Yes, Sarawak (23 May 2015). "The growth of Technical Vocational Education and Training in Sarawak". The Borneo Post online. Retrieved 5 April 2017.
Under the 11th Malaysia Plan from 2016 to 2020, the government has allocated RM1 billion for a Skills Development Fund to enable more students to receive skills and vocational education.
- "150 Petronas scholarships for MRSM students". The Borneo Post online. 8 March 2015. Retrieved 5 April 2017.
- "Petronas under scholarship fire". The Star Online. 25 June 2015. Retrieved 5 April 2017.
- Newsdesk (10 March 2016). "Petronas continues to support SCaT fair". New Sarawak Tribune. Retrieved 5 April 2017.
- "State statistics: Malays edge past Chinese in Sarawak". The Borneo Post. Archived from the original on 15 April 2016. Retrieved 15 April 2016.
- "Population by States and Ethnic Group". Department of Information, Ministry of Communications and Multimedia, Malaysia. 2015. Archived from the original on 12 February 2016. Retrieved 12 February 2015.
- "Johari: Urban-rural ratio to hit 65:35 within 10 years". The Star (Malaysia). 17 January 2014. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
- "Vital Statistics Summary for Births and Deaths". Sarawak Government. Archived from the original on 7 September 2015. Retrieved 12 January 2016.
- "The Sarawak People". Sarawak Tourism Federation. Archived from the original on 6 January 2015. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
- "Indigenous peoples – (a) Land rights of Indigenous Peoples". Human Rights Commission of Malaysia (SUHAKAM). Archived from the original on 2 October 2015. Retrieved 30 November 2015.
- Ting, Su Hie; Rose, Louis (June 2014). "Ethnic Language Use and Ethnic Identity for Sarawak Indigenous Groups in Malaysia". Oceanic Linguistics. 53 (1): 92–109. doi:10.1353/ol.2014.0002. Retrieved 30 November 2015. (Subscription required (. ))
In Malaysia, Bumiputera (literally translated as 'prince of the earth' or 'son of the land') refers to the Malay and other indigenous people. ... The Bumiputera in general enjoy special privileges as part of the affirmative action for advancement of the community, and these include priority in university entry, scholarships, and government jobs, special finance schemes, and political positions.
- Sheith Khidir, Abu Bakar (29 March 2016). "Stateless Penans demand citizenship papers". Free Malaysia Today. Retrieved 30 October 2016.
- "Penans 'stateless' because of fines". The Star (Malaysia). 26 September 2005. Retrieved 30 October 2016.
- "Mobile unit makes NRD applications easy for Penan community". The Borneo Post. 7 April 2016. Retrieved 30 October 2016.
- "Over 150,000 foreign workers in Sarawak hold temporary employment passes". The Sun Daily. 26 October 2015. Archived from the original on 27 October 2015. Retrieved 18 December 2015.
- Sulok, Tawie (11 April 2015). "Illegal immigrants in Sarawak a 'huge problem', deputy home minister admits". Malay Mail Online. Archived from the original on 25 October 2015. Retrieved 18 December 2015.
- Leong, Joe (4 August 2014). "Bizarre names like Tigabelas, Helicopter, Kissing in Borneo are real". The Ant Daily. Archived from the original on 24 November 2015. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
There are several other minor ethnic groups placed under the 'others', such as Indian, Eurasian, Kedayan, Javanese, Bugis and Murut.
- "Putrajaya approves 'Dayak' for 'Race' category in all official forms". The Malaysian Insider. 31 October 2015. Archived from the original on 24 November 2015. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
- "State statistics: Malays edge past Chinese in Sarawak". The Borneo Post. Archived from the original on 15 April 2016. Retrieved 15 April 2016.
- Keat, Gin Ooi (2004). Southeast Asia: A Historical Encyclopedia, from Angkor Wat to East Timor, Volume 1. ABC-CLIO. pp. 623–625. ISBN 978-1-57607-770-2. Retrieved 25 November 2015.
Ibans are found in all political divisions of Borneo but in largest numbers in Sarawak. ... Christian missionaries have been active among the Ibans for more than a century, and today many Ibans are Christians.
- "Our People – Iban – The official travel website for Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo". Sarawak Tourism Board. Archived from the original on 25 November 2015. Retrieved 25 November 2015.
- Frans, Welman (2011). Borneo Trilogy Sarawak: Volume 1. Bangkok, Thailand: Booksmango. p. 177. ISBN 978-616-245-082-2. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
- "Ethnic groups". Sarawak Tourism Federation. Archived from the original on 21 October 2015. Retrieved 23 March 2017.
- "Our people – Chinese". Sarawak Tourism Board. Archived from the original on 30 January 2016. Retrieved 28 November 2015.
- John, Barwick. "Huang Naishang (1844–1924)". Biographical Dictionary of Chinese Christianity. Archived from the original on 18 May 2013. Retrieved 21 July 2015.
Shortly thereafter, Huang decided to start a new settlement of Chinese in Malaysia in order to escape China's despotism and Fujian's poverty. ... In 1901, Huang traveled with settlers from Fujian to Sibu, where he founded New Fuzhou.
- "Our people – Malay – The official website for Sarawak Malaysian Borneo". Sarawak Tourism Board. Archived from the original on 30 November 2015. Retrieved 30 November 2015.
- "Miri Visitors' Guide – Miri's inhabitants". gomiri.com. Archived from the original on 20 May 2015. Retrieved 8 August 2015.
- "Our people – Bidayuh". Sarawak Tourism Board. Archived from the original on 7 December 2015. Retrieved 7 December 2015.
- "Bidayuh longhouse". Sarawak Cultural Village. Archived from the original on 31 July 2012. Retrieved 7 December 2015.
- Erivina. "Our people – Orang Ulu". Sarawak Tourism Board. Archived from the original on 7 February 2015. Retrieved 10 December 2015.
- "Taburan Penduduk dan Ciri-ciri asas demografi (Population Distribution and Basic demographic characteristics 2010)" (PDF). Department of Statistics, Malaysia. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 May 2014. Retrieved 11 December 2015. p. 13
- "Explanation sought on real status of S'wak's official religion". The Borneo Post. 12 December 2015. Retrieved 11 December 2015.
The Sarawak State Constitution is clear—Sarawak has no official religion, but the official website stated otherwise. This matter was pointed out by YB Baru Bian (Ba Kelalan assemblyman and state PKR chairman) in his letter to the state secretary in July this year, and no action was taken.
- Carlo, Caldarola (1982). Religions and Societies, Asia and the Middle East. Walter de Gruyter. p. 481. ISBN 978-90-279-3259-4. Retrieved 15 December 2015.
- "SIB & BEM – A Brief Introduction to Origin of SIB". SIB Grace. Archived from the original on 26 November 2013. Retrieved 15 December 2015.
- "List of Baptist churches in Sarawak". Malaysia Baptist Convention. Archived from the original on 20 October 2014. Retrieved 15 December 2015.
- Carl, Skutsch (7 November 2013). Encyclopedia of the World's Minorities. Routledge. p. 781. ISBN 978-1-135-19388-1. Retrieved 15 December 2015.
- "Malaysia Bahai's – Sarawak". bahai.org.my. Archived from the original on 31 March 2016. Retrieved 1 April 2016.
- Chieng, Connie (17 August 2015). "Sarawak is a blessed land of harmony". New Sarawak Tribune. Archived from the original on 1 April 2016. Retrieved 1 April 2016.
- "Sikh Temple". Sarawak Tourism Board. Archived from the original on 10 March 2016. Retrieved 1 April 2016.
- "Animism is alive and well in South-East Asia: What can we learn?". Pravda.ru. 24 March 2014. Archived from the original on 1 April 2016. Retrieved 1 April 2016.
- John, Postill (15 May 2006). Media and Nation Building: How the Iban became Malaysian. Berghahn Books. p. 58. ISBN 978-0-85745-687-8. Retrieved 13 November 2015.
because of his strong defence of English as the language of instruction in Sarawak ... (page 58)
- "Former Education Minister Calls For Return To Teaching Maths, Science In BM". Bernama. 12 November 2011. Archived from the original on 11 July 2011. Retrieved 13 November 2015.
- Fernandez, Joe (26 November 2015). "DAP: English remains Sarawak's official language". Free Malaysia Today. Archived from the original on 12 January 2016. Retrieved 20 December 2016.
- Sulok, Tawie (20 February 2012). "Usage of English, native languages officially still legal in Sarawak". The Sun Daily. Archived from the original on 13 November 2015. Retrieved 13 November 2015.
- "My Constitution – Sabah and Sarawak". Malaysian Bar. Archived from the original on 14 February 2012. Retrieved 13 November 2015.
English was the official language of the State Legislative Assemblies and Courts in Sabah and Sarawak on Malaysia Day, 16 September 1963. Any change of the official language to Bahasa Melayu can only become effective when the State Legislative Assembly of Sabah or Sarawak agrees to adopt federal laws that make Bahasa Melayu the official language.
- Ogilvy, Geryl (18 November 2015). "Sarawak to recognise English as official language besides Bahasa Malaysia". The Borneo Post. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 2 April 2016.
- "Sarawak, a land of many tongues". The Borneo Post. 23 December 2010. Archived from the original on 13 November 2015. Retrieved 7 January 2016.
- Metom, Lily (31 January 2013). Emotion Concepts of the Ibans in Sarawak. Patridge Singapore. p. 22. ISBN 978-1-4828-9731-9. Retrieved 12 January 2016.
Nevertheless, all these ancient customs pertaining to headhunting are no longer observed in these modern days.
- Platzdasch, Bernhard; Saravanamuttu, Johan (6 August 2014). Religious Diversity in Muslim-majority States in Southeast Asia: Areas of Toleration and Conflict. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies (ISEAS). p. 383. ISBN 978-981-4519-64-9. Retrieved 26 December 2015.
- Kaur, Jeswan (16 December 2007). "Penan slowly abandoning their nomadic way of life". The Brunei Times. Archived from the original on 26 December 2015. Retrieved 26 December 2015.
- "'Equal treatment for Penan community'". The Borneo Post. 1 March 2014. Archived from the original on 26 December 2015. Retrieved 26 December 2015.
- Switow, Michael (9 February 2005). "Interracial marriage blossoms in Malaysia". The Christian Science Monitor. Archived from the original on 30 September 2015. Retrieved 12 January 2016.
- Pandian, A; Ching Ling, L; Ai Lin, T (16 October 2014). "Chapter VII – Developing Literacy and Knowledge, Preservation skills among Remote Rural Children". New Literacies: Reconstructing Language and Education. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. pp. 95–97. ISBN 978-1-4438-6956-0. Retrieved 1 January 2016.
- "Tarian Ngajat Identiti Istimewa Masyarakat Iban (Ngajat dances a special identity for the Ibans)". Jabatan Penerangan Malaysia (Malaysian Ministry of Information). Archived from the original on 25 April 2015. Retrieved 31 December 2015.
- Nie, C.L.K; Durin, A. "Renong, An Iban Vocal Repertory (Conference paper)". Universiti Malaysia Sarawak. Archived from the original on 31 December 2015. Retrieved 31 December 2015.
- MacDonald, M.R. (16 December 2013). "The tradition of storytelling in Malaysia". Traditional Storytelling Today: An International Sourcebook. Routledge. p. 208. ISBN 978-1-135-91721-0. Retrieved 1 January 2016.
The Kayan and the Kenyah, who dwell in the upper region of Sarawak, have a vibrant epic-telling tradition that is elaborate and specialised.
- Law, Daryll (14 October 2013). "Preserve traditional culture for prosperity, Iban's urged". New Sarawak Tribune. Archived from the original on 31 December 2015. Retrieved 31 December 2015.
- "Sarawak Gazette now available online". The Borneo Post. 31 July 2013. Archived from the original on 9 May 2015. Retrieved 5 January 2016.
- Walker, J.H (13 April 2005). "Hikayat Panglima Nikosa and the Sarawak Gazette: Transforming Texts in Nineteenth Century Sarawak". Modern Asian Studies. 39 (2): 427. doi:10.1017/S0026749X04001507. Retrieved 13 January 2016.
- "Explore Sarawak in Half a Day". Sarawak Cultural Village. Archived from the original on 7 December 2015. Retrieved 26 December 2015.
- "Sarawak Cultural Village". Sarawak Tourism Board. Archived from the original on 26 December 2015. Retrieved 26 December 2015.
- "Malaysian Borneo's Muzium Sarawak: A Colonial Legacy in Postcolonial Context". Cultural Survival. Archived from the original on 5 October 2015. Retrieved 26 December 2015.
- Ringgit, Danielle Sendou (26 August 2015). "From dreams into the mainstream". The Borneo Post. Archived from the original on 31 December 2015. Retrieved 31 December 2015.
Aside from that, the late Tusau Padan performed for Queen Elizabeth during her official visit to Sarawak in 1972, ...
- "Public Holidays 2015". The Sarawak Government. Archived from the original on 7 September 2015. Retrieved 7 January 2016.
- "TYT, CM attend state's 52nd anniversary of independence". The Borneo Post. 23 July 2015. Archived from the original on 11 August 2015. Retrieved 7 January 2016.
- Hunter, M. "Sarawak's "Independence Day"". New Mandala (Australian National University). Archived from the original on 25 July 2015. Retrieved 7 January 2016.
- "Pomp celebrations for Sarawak Governor's birthday". The Star (Malaysia). 12 September 2015. Archived from the original on 8 January 2016. Retrieved 8 January 2016.
- "CM and wife to have Hari Raya open house at BCCK". 15 July 2015. 15 July 2015. Archived from the original on 7 January 2016. Retrieved 7 January 2016.
• Aubrey, S (9 June 2015). "1,000 throng Manyin's Gawai Dayak open house". The Borneo Post. Archived from the original on 8 January 2016. Retrieved 8 January 2016.
• "KTS holds Chinese New Year Open House in Bintulu". The Borneo Post. 9 March 2015. Archived from the original on 16 December 2015. Retrieved 8 January 2016.
- "Public Holiday in Sarawak in conjunctions with the Gawai Dayak Celebration". Co-operative College in Malaysia. Archived from the original on 8 January 2016. Retrieved 8 January 2016.
- "Best Sarawak Laksa in Kuching". The Malaysian Insider. 29 April 2015. Archived from the original on 8 August 2015. Retrieved 3 January 2016.
- "Kolo mee, a Sarawak favourite, any time of day". The Malaysian Insider. 14 September 2013. Archived from the original on 9 March 2014. Retrieved 3 January 2016.
- "'Ayam pansuh' — A Sarawak exotic delicacy loved by many (VIDEO)". The Malay Mail. 28 June 2015. Archived from the original on 1 July 2015. Retrieved 3 January 2016.
- "Sarawak Top 10 Iconic Food". Sarawak Tourism Board. Archived from the original on 15 July 2015. Retrieved 3 January 2016.
- "Singer Deja Moss' real passion is Sarawak layered cakes". The Star (Malaysia). 24 March 2015. Retrieved 3 January 2016.
- "Commonwealth Games Federation – Countries – Sarawak". Commonwealth Games Federation. Retrieved 11 January 2016.
- "Japan top the list with 73 'golds'". The Straits Times. 5 September 1962. Retrieved 11 January 2016.
- "Jakarta 1962". Olympic Council of Asia. Archived from the original on 1 January 2016. Retrieved 11 January 2016.
- "S'wak to host Sukma in 2016 — Khairy". The Borneo Post. 4 September 2013. Archived from the original on 11 January 2016. Retrieved 11 January 2016.
- Pail, Salena (22 October 2015). "CM revs up momentum for 2016 S'wak Sukma". The Borneo Post. Archived from the original on 11 January 2016. Retrieved 11 January 2016.
- Bong, Karen (14 December 2014). "Major boost for paralympic athletes". The Borneo Post. Archived from the original on 31 July 2015. Retrieved 11 January 2016.