Malaysian Malay (Malay: Bahasa Melayu Malaysia), also known as Standard Malay (Malay: Bahasa Melayu Standard), Bahasa Malaysia (English translation: Malaysian language), or simply Malay, is a standardized form of Malay language used in Malaysia (as opposed to the variety used in Indonesia, which is referred to as the "Indonesian" language). Malaysian Malay is standardized from the Johore-Riau dialect of Malay. It is spoken by much of the Malaysian population, although most learn a vernacular form of Malay or another native language first. Malay is a compulsory subject in primary and secondary schools.
|Bahasa Melayu Malaysia|
بهاس ملايو مليسيا
Bahasa Melayu Standard
بهاس ملايو ستندرد
|Pronunciation||[baˈhasə məlaju mə'lejsiə]|
|Native to||Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei|
|Spoken by the vast majority of those in Malaysia, although most learn a local Malay dialect or another native language first.|
|Malaysian Sign Language|
Official language in
|Regulated by||Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka (Institute of Language and Literature)|
Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka Brunei (Brunei Language and Literature Bureau)
Majlis Bahasa Melayu Singapura (Singapore Malay Language Council)
Official language, majority spoke (Malaysia)
Official language, minority spoke (Singapore & Brunei)
Article 152 of the Federation designates "Malay" as the official language, but the term "Malaysian" or bahasa Malaysia is used on official contexts from time to time. Between 1986 and 2007, the term bahasa Malaysia was replaced by "bahasa Melayu". Since then, to recognize that Malaysia is composed of many ethnic groups (and not only the ethnic Malays), the term bahasa Malaysia has once again become the government's preferred designation for the bahasa kebangsaan (national language) and the bahasa perpaduan/penyatu (unifying language). However, both terms remain in use, as the terms Malay and bahasa Melayu are still very popular. The language is also referred to as BM.
English continues to be widely used in professional and commercial fields and in the superior courts.
In Brunei & SingaporeEdit
The national standard variety of Malay employed in Brunei largely follows the Malaysian standard, the main differences being minor variation in pronunciation and some lexical influence from Brunei Malay, the local non-standard variety of Malay.: 72 Also in Singapore, the Malaysian standard form of Malay is employed.:
The script of the Malaysian language is prescribed by law as the Latin alphabet, known in Malay as Rumi (Roman alphabets), provided that the Arabic alphabet called Jawi (or Malay script) is not proscribed for that purpose. Rumi is official while efforts are currently being undertaken to preserve Jawi script and to revive its use in Malaysia. The Latin alphabet, however, is still the most commonly used script in Malaysia, both for official and informal purposes.
The Malaysian language has most of its borrowings absorbed from Sanskrit, Tamil, Hindustani, Persian, Portuguese, Dutch, Sinitic languages, Arabic and more recently, English (in particular many scientific and technological terms). Modern Malaysian Malay has also been influenced lexically by the Indonesian variety, largely through the popularity of Indonesian dramas, soap operas, and music.
Colloquial and contemporary usageEdit
Colloquial and contemporary usage of Malay includes modern Malaysian vocabulary, which may not be familiar to the older generation, such as:
- Awek (means girl, in place of perempuan).
- Balak (means guy, in place of jantan).
- Cun (means pretty, in place of cantik / jelita).
New plural pronouns have also been formed out of the original pronouns popularly nowadays and the word orang (person), such as:
- Korang (kau + orang, "you all", in place of kalian / kamu semua (or hangpa / ampa in Kedahan)).
- Kitorang (kita + orang, the exclusive "we", in place of kami).
- Diorang (dia + orang, the exclusive "they", in place of mereka (or depa in Kedahan)).
In addition, Arabic terms that is originally used in Standard Malay nowadays has been popularly changed where some of the words and pronunciations in the involved terms have been added by the local conservative Muslims by disputing the terms suggested by the Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka (DBP), claiming that the involved terms with implementation of the additional words and pronunciations is the real correct terms as same as stated in the Qur'an, where it is predominantly used by the local Muslim netizens in the social medias nowadays. The several involved terms in comparison to Standard Malay that is popularly used, such as:
- Ramadhan (means the holy fasting month, in place of Ramadan).
- Aamiin (means asking Him to verify the prayer (Du'a); real term is Ameen, in place of Amin).
- Fardhu (means obligatory (in Islam), in place of Fardu).
- Redha (means accepting, in place of Reda).
- Mudharat (means harm, in place of Mudarat).
- Dhaif (means poverty, in place of Daif).
- Zohor (means mid-day or noon time, in place of Zuhur).
- Hadith (means Prophet (Mohamed) terms or speeches, in place of Hadis).
Code-switching between English and Malaysian and the use of novel loanwords is widespread, forming Bahasa Rojak. Consequently, this phenomenon has raised the displeasure of linguistic purists in Malaysia, in their effort to uphold use of the prescribed standard language.
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