Pan Borneo Highway (Malay: Lebuhraya Pan Borneo), also known as Trans-Borneo Highway or Trans-Kalimantan Highway (Indonesian: Jalan Lintas Kalimantan), is a road network on Borneo Island connecting two Malaysian states, Sabah and Sarawak, with Brunei and Kalimantan region in Indonesia. The highway is numbered AH150 in the Asian Highway Network and as Federal Route 1 in Sarawak. In Sabah, the route numbers given are 1, 13 and 22. The highway is a joint project between both governments which started as soon as the formation of Malaysian Federation in 1963 which comprised Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak and Singapore. The lack of a road network system in Sarawak was the main factor of the construction.
Lebuhraya Pan Borneo (Malaysian & Bruneian)
Jalan Lintas Kalimantan (Indonesian)
|Trans Borneo Highway|
(Lebuhraya Trans Borneo)
(Jalan Lintas Kalimantan)
|Length||5,324 km (3,308 mi)|
| Pan-Borneo Highway Sarawak|
(Telok Melano-Sungai Tujuh, Tedungan-Pandaruan and Trusan-Merapok)
Federal Route 1 (Sabah)
Federal Route 22
Federal Route 13
(Mile 32 Checkpoint-Tawau)
Brunei Pan-Borneo Highway
(Sungai Tujuh-Kuala Lurah and Kampung Puni-Labu)
Trans-Kalimantan Highway Northern Route
(Along Malaysia-Indonesia border; Tamajuk-Sei Ular)
Trans-Kalimantan Highway Central Route
Trans-Kalimantan Highway Southern Route
|Southwest end||Telok Melano, Sarawak|
-- Muara–Tutong Highway
|Northeast end||Serudong, Sabah|
|Countries||Malaysia, Brunei Darussalam|
|Major cities||Bandar Seri Begawan, Jerudong, Gadong, Berakas, Kuching, Sri Aman, Sarikei, Sibu, Bintulu, Miri, Limbang, Lawas, Sipitang, Beaufort, Keningau, Papar, Kota Kinabalu, Kota Belud, Sandakan, Tawau, Seria, Lumut, Sungai Liang, Tutong|
|Asian Highway Network|
The length of the entire highway is expected to be about 2,083 kilometres (1,294 mi) for the Malaysian section, 168 kilometres (104 mi) for the Bruneian section and 3,073 kilometres (1,909 mi) for the Indonesian section. The Indonesian sections of the Pan Borneo Highway is known as the Trans-Kalimantan Highway. The western route connects the city of Pontianak to Tebedu.
The Pan-Borneo Highway, Asian Highway Route AH150 is supposed to be a circular highway that runs along the coastlines of Sabah, Sarawak, Brunei and Kalimantan. However, a missing link does exist from Serudong, Sabah to Simanggaris, North Kalimantan, which is supposed to connect Sabah with North Kalimantan.
The Malaysian section of the Pan-Borneo Highway is signposted as Federal Route 1 in Sarawak and Federal Routes 1, 22 and 13 in Sabah. The 1,077-km highway in Sarawak is divided to 92 sections altogether, and the sections are sometimes being signposted alongside with the route number with the syntax of xx-yy, where xx is the route number and yy is the section code. In Brunei, the highway is signposted simply as the AH150.
In Kalimantan, the Trans-Kalimantan Highway consists of three main highways. The northern route, also dubbed as Trans Border Highway (Jalan Lintas Perbatasan), runs along the Malaysia-Indonesia border from Tamajuk to Sei Ular. The central route runs from Pontianak to Samarinda through the interior of Kalimantan. The southern route, which runs along the coastline of Kalimantan from Sambas to Simanggaris, is gazetted as the Indonesian section of the Asian Highway Route AH150. None of the three highways bear any route number yet.
The Malaysian and Indonesian sections are linked together by a highway known as the Trans-Malindo Highway (Jalan Lintas Malindo), which is gazetted as Federal Route 21 in Malaysia.
The Pan-Borneo Highway was built due to the lack of the intercity highway network in the island of Borneo. In East Malaysia, the intercity highway plan only existed after the Second World War ended in 1945, after the states of North Borneo (Sabah) and Sarawak were ceded to Britain to become British Crown Colonies. By 1949, the Governor of North Borneo reported that there were 130 miles (210 km) of roads paved with asphalt, 23 miles (37 km) of other metalled roads, 225 miles (362 km) of dirt roads and 578 miles (930 km) of bridle paths.
The construction of the intercity highway network in Sabah and Sarawak intensified at a faster pace after both states joined to form the Federation of Malaysia in 1963. In Sabah, the first federally-funded intercity highway project ever constructed was the Federal Route 22 from Kota Kinabalu to Sandakan, as a joint project between the Malaysian federal government with the government of Australia. Also dubbed as the "Malaysia-Australia Road Project" (MARP), the construction of the FT22 highway began in 1968 and was completed in 1982 with Telupid town became the main centre of the project headquarters.
In the meantime, the Kota Kinabalu–Papar section of the Federal Route 1 was completed in 1964, followed by the Kota Kinabalu–Kudat section which was completed in the 1970s. The entire Sabah Federal Route 1 was completed in 1981 after the construction of the final section from Papar to Sindumin was completed that year. Two years later in 1983, the construction of the Tawau–Semporna Highway (part of the FT13 highway and the entire section of the SA51 highway) was completed. The construction of the remaining section of the FT13 highway was completed in early 1990s after the construction of Sungai Kinabatangan and Sungai Segama bridges were completed.
Meanwhile, in Sarawak, the construction of the first intercity trunk highway in Sarawak was commenced in 1965, dubbed as the "First Trunk Road". Most of the highway network in Sarawak was constructed within the decades of 1960s to 1980s. The Lawas–Merapok–Sindumin section was completed in 1981 while the final missing link from Sibu to Bintulu was completed in 1985. However, the highway had not been fully paved with asphalt yet at that time; it was only by the end of Sixth Malaysia Plan (RMK6) in 1995 that the FT1 highway in Sarawak was fully paved.
Before 1996, all routes in the Pan-Borneo Highway network in Malaysia were state highways. After the Federal Roads Act 1959 was made effective in Sabah and Sarawak in 1984, those highways were re-gazetted as federal highways in 1996 with the route number of FT1 (from Sematan to Kudat through Brunei), FT13 (Mile 32 Sandakan to Tawau) and FT22 (Tamparuli to Sandakan). Those highways were later gazetted as a part of Asian Highway Network Route AH150.
Meanwhile, the road transportation network in Kalimantan region did not exist until 1970s when logging roads were built by logging companies. Later, about 75% of the logging roads were converted to national roads. The Trans-Kalimantan Highway (southern route) was completed in 2016 with the opening of the Tayan Bridge.
Although some sections had been upgraded to divided highways, the Pan-Borneo Highway was notorious for its poor condition in many sections. As of 2010[update], 1,184 kilometres (736 mi) of the Indonesian Trans-Kalimantan Highway was built below the Asian Highway Network Class III standards (lane width: 3.0 m; design speed limit: 80 km/h). Meanwhile, the overall condition in many sections of the Malaysian section of the Highway was poor with many potholes, because most sections of the highway were built with standards as low as JKR R3 (design speed limit: 70 km/h; minimum lane width: 3.0 m). A study to upgrade the entire highway to a super two highway under JKR R5 standard (design speed limit: 100 km/h; minimum lane width: 3.5 m) was done, which was expected to cost RM16 billion. Ultimately, the Malaysian federal government had opted to upgrade the Pan-Borneo Highway to a divided highway. The upgrade works of the Pan-Borneo Highway to a divided highway is expected to be completed by 2023 for the Sarawakian section and by 2025 for the Sabahan section, with the overall cost of RM27 billion.
Intersections along the Pan Borneo HighwayEdit
- Malaysia Federal Route 1 (Sarawak)#List of interchanges, intersections and towns
- Brunei Pan-Borneo Highway#List of interchanges, intersections and towns
- Malaysia Federal Route 1 (Sabah)#List of interchanges
- Kimanis-Keningau Highway#List of interchanges
- Malaysia Federal Route 22#List of interchanges
- Malaysia Federal Route 13 (Sabah)#List of interchanges
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