People's Justice Party (Malaysia)
The People's Justice Party (Malay: Parti Keadilan Rakyat, often known simply as KEADILAN or PKR) is a reformist, multiracial political party in Malaysia, formed in 2003 by a merger of the National Justice Party and the older Malaysian People's Party. The party was led by Dr Wan Azizah Wan Ismail and increased its parliamentary representation from one seat to 31 seats in the 2008 general election, until the five-year political ban imposed on former Deputy Prime Minister Anwar Ibrahim was lifted on 14 April 2008. The party is the second largest party in the Pakatan Harapan coalition that formed the government after defeating Barisan Nasional, which had ruled the country for 60 years since independence in the 2018 election. It enjoys strong support from urban states such as Selangor, Penang and Johor.
|Malay name||Parti Keadilan Rakyat|
ڤرتي كعاديلن رعيت
Rénmín gōngzhèng dǎng
|Tamil name||மக்கள் நீதி கட்சி|
Makkaḷ nīti kaṭci
|Secretary-General||Saifuddin Nasution Ismail|
|Spokesperson||Shamsul Iskandar Md. Akin|
|Vice-Presidents||Xavier Jayakumar Arulanandam|
Chua Tian Chang
Chang Lih Kang
|AMK's Chief||Akmal Nasrullah Mohd Nasir|
|Women's Chief||Fuziah Salleh|
Wan Azizah Wan Ismail
|Founded||10 December 1998 (Formation of Pergerakan Keadilan Sosial NGO)|
4 April 1999 (Takeover of Ikatan Masyarakat Islam Malaysia and renamed Parti Keadilan Nasional)
3 August 2003 (Merger with Parti Rakyat Malaysia and renamed Parti Keadilan Rakyat)
|Merger of||Parti Keadilan Nasional and Parti Rakyat Malaysia (3 August 2003)|
|Preceded by||Ikatan Masyarakat Islam Malaysia;|
Parti Keadilan Nasional and Parti Rakyat Malaysia
|Headquarters||A-1-09, Merchant Square, Jalan Tropicana Selatan 1, 47410 Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia|
|Think tank||Institut Rakyat|
|Student wing||Mahasiswa Keadilan|
|Youth wing||Angkatan Muda Keadilan (AMK)|
|Women's wing||Wanita Keadilan|
|Women's youth wing||Srikandi Keadilan|
|National affiliation||Barisan Alternatif (1999–2004)|
Pakatan Rakyat (2008–2015)
Pakatan Harapan (Since 2015)
|International affiliation||Liberal International (Observer)|
|Colours||Light blue, red, white|
|Slogan||Keadilan Untuk Semua|
Lawan Tetap Lawan
Membujur Lalu Melintang Patah
|Anthem||Arus Perjuangan Bangsa|
6 / 70
38 / 222
|Dewan Undangan Negeri:|
56 / 607
The party promotes an agenda with a strong emphasis on social justice and anti-corruption. Recently, the party adopted a platform that seeks to abolish the New Economic Policy and replace it with a policy with an emphasis on a non-ethnic approach in poverty eradication and correcting economic imbalances. It is one of the three component parties of the Pakatan Harapan coalition which serves as the official opposition in the Dewan Rakyat.
The early yearsEdit
The year 1997 saw the Malaysian economy being affected by the Asian financial crisis. The Finance Minister at the time, Anwar Ibrahim (also a Deputy Prime Minister), instituted a series of economic reforms and austerity measures in response. These actions were exacerbated when he tabled controversial amendments to the Anti Corruption Act that sought to increase the powers of the Anti Corruption Agency. Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad disagreed with these measures and ultimately sacked Anwar from all his posts. This incident and the circumstances in which it happened led to a public outcry in what became known as the Reformasi movement, but it also resulted in the arrest and subsequent incarceration of Anwar on what many believed to be politically motivated charges of sexual misconduct and corruption.
Building on the momentum of the Reformasi, a political movement called the Social Justice Movement (Malay: Pergerakan Keadilan Sosial) was launched on 10 December 1998. It was led by Dr Wan Azizah Wan Ismail, wife of Anwar. But, facing difficulties in registering Adil as a political party, the reformasi movement took over a small dormant party formed in 1991, Ikatan Masyarakat Islam Malaysia, and relaunched it as the National Justice Party (Malay: Parti Keadilan Nasional) on 4 April 1999, just in time to take part in the 1999 general elections. The party has been noted as having rough similarities with the now-defunct multi-racial social democratic Parti Keadilan Masyarakat Malaysia. The party was joined by the Democratic Action Party, the Malaysian People's Party and the Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party in a broadly based electoral alliance known as Barisan Alternatif to take on the ruling BN coalition in the 1999 general elections.
Between 27 and 30 September 1999, seven activists, including Keadilan leaders; Vice-President Tian Chua, N. Gobalakrishnan, Youth leader Mohd Ezam Mohd Nor, Mohamed Azmin Ali, Fairus Izuddin and Dr Badrul Amin Baharun; were arrested and as a result prevented from contesting in the elections. Further arrests were made on 10 April 2001 and those arrested were subsequently charged and incarcerated under the Internal Security Act. They became known as the Reformasi 10.
1999 general electionEdit
The party entered the campaign with many of its key leaders under arrest and as a result saw it winning only five parliamentary seats in the elections despite gaining 11.67% of the total votes cast. The Barisan Alternatif as a whole gained 40.21% of the total votes cast with PAS gaining 27 seats and DAP gaining ten seats.
Merger with Parti Rakyat MalaysiaEdit
The post election period saw negotiations between KeADILan and Parti Rakyat Malaysia on a possible merger. Despite some opposition in both parties to the move, a 13-point Memorandum of Understanding was eventually signed by the two parties on 5 July 2002. On 3 August 2003, the new merged entity was officially launched and assumed its current name. Somehow, as PRM had yet to be de-registered by the authorities, the remained dissidents convened a National Congress in Johor Bahru and elected a new Executive Committee led by former PRM youth leader, Hassan Abdul Karim to resume political activities on 17 April 2005.
2004 general electionEdit
As the new amendments to the party constitution had yet to be approved by the Registrar of Societies, candidates from PRM contested the 2004 general election using the symbol of the old National Justice Party. The party fared poorly in the elections and only managed to retain one parliamentary seat, Permatang Pauh which is held by Dr Wan Azizah, despite winning 9% of the popular vote. The poor showing was later attributed to malapportionment and gerrymandering in the delineation of constituencies, with one estimate suggesting that on average, a vote for the BN government was worth 28 times the vote of a Keadilan supporter.
Anwar Ibrahim freedEdit
On 2 September 2004, in a decision by the Federal Court, Anwar Ibrahim's sodomy conviction was overturned and he was freed. This unexpected turn of events came timely for KEADILAN which was facing flagging morale due to its dismal performance in the elections.
2008 general electionEdit
In the 2008 elections, PKR won 31 seats in Parliament, with the DAP and PAS making substantial gains as well with 28 seats and 23 seats respectively. In total, the taking of 82 seats by the opposition to BN's 140 seats made it the best performance in Malaysian history by the opposition, and denied BN the two-thirds majority required to make constitutional changes in the Dewan Rakyat.
PKR also successfully contested the state legislative elections which saw the loose coalition of PKR, DAP and PAS forming coalition governments in the states of Kelantan, Kedah, Penang, Perak and Selangor. The offices of the Menteri Besar of Selangor and the Deputy Chief Minister of Penang were held by KEADILAN elected representatives, Khalid Ibrahim and Mohd Fairus Khairuddin, respectively.
Anwar's return to politicsEdit
On 14 April 2008, Anwar celebrated his official return to the political stage, as his ban from public office expired a decade after he was sacked as deputy prime minister. One of the main reasons the opposition seized a third of parliamentary seats and five states in the worst ever showing for the BN coalition that has ruled for half a century, was due to him leading at the helm. A gathering of more than 10,000 supporters greeted Anwar in a rally welcoming back his return to politics. In the midst of the rally, police interrupted Anwar after he had addressed the rally for nearly half an hour and forced him to stop the gathering.
Malaysia's government intensified its efforts on 6 March to portray opposition figure Anwar Ibrahim as political turncoats, days ahead of Malaysian general election, 2008 on 8 March that would determine whether he posed a legitimate threat to the ruling coalition. Campaigning wrapped up 7 March for general elections that would see gains for Malaysia's opposition amid anger over race and religion among minority Chinese and Indians. Malaysians voted on 8 March 2008 in parliamentary elections. Election results showed that the ruling government suffered a setback when it failed to obtain two-thirds majority in parliament, and five out of 12 state legislatures were won by the opposition parties. Reasons for the setback of the ruling party, which had retained power since the nation declared independence in 1957, were the rising inflation, crime and ethnic tensions.
Permatang Pauh by-electionEdit
Malaysia's government and ruling coalition declared defeat in a landslide victory in the by-election by Anwar Ibrahim. Muhammad Muhammad Taib, information chief of the United Malays National Organisation which leads the BN coalition stated: Yes of course we have lost . . . we were the underdogs going into this race. Malaysia's Election Commission officials announced Anwar won by an astounding majority against Arif Shah Omar Shah of National Front coalition and over Prime Minister Abdullah Badawi's UMNO. Reuters reported that according to news website Malaysiakini, Anwar Ibrahim had won with a majority of 16,210 votes. He had won 26,646 votes, while BN's Arif Omar won 10,436 votes. Anwar's People's Justice Party's spokeswoman Ginie Lim told BBC: "We won already. We are far ahead".
On 28 August 2008, Anwar, dressed in a dark blue traditional Malay outfit and black "songkok" hat, took the oath at the main chamber of Parliament house in Kuala Lumpur, as MP for Permatang Pauh at 10.03 am before Speaker Tan Sri Pandikar Amin Mulia. He formally declared Anwar the leader of the 3-party opposition alliance. With his wife Wan Azizah Wan Ismail and his daughter Nurul Izzah Anwar, also a parliamentarian, Anwar announced: "I'm glad to be back after a decade. The prime minister has lost the mandate of the country and the nation". Anwar needed at least 30 government lawmakers especially from Sabah and Sarawak MPs' votes to defect to form a government.
In December 2005 PKR organised its second national congress. Among the motions passed was the New Economic Agenda that envisioned a non-racial economic policy to replace the race-based New Economic Policy. PKR managed a breakthrough into Sarawak politics in May 2006. In Sarawak state elections, Dominique Ng, a lawyer and activist, won in the Padungan constituency in Kuching, a majority Chinese locale. KEADILAN lost narrowly in Saribas, a Malay-Melanau constituency by just 94 votes. Sarawak is a traditional BN stronghold. PKR has also pursued an aggressive strategy of getting key personalities from within and outside politics. In July 2006, Khalid Ibrahim, former CEO of Permodalan Nasional Berhad and Guthrie, was appointed as Treasurer of the PKR.
In 2014, the Party's Strategy Director then Vice-President-cum-Secretary-General, Rafizi Ramli initiated the failed Kajang Move in a bid to topple the 14th Menteri Besar of Selangor, Abdul Khalid Ibrahim, and install the party's de facto leader Anwar Ibrahim as his replacement. The political manoeuvre resulted in a nine-month political crisis within the state of Selangor and the Pakatan Rakyat coalition, that also involved the palace of Selangor, a by-election costing RM1.6 million in taxpayers’ money, the party losing one seat in Selangor's assembly and Malaysian Parliament. PKR also ended up not getting the Menteri Besar that it wanted. The crisis concluded with the appointment of PKR's Deputy President, Azmin Ali, as the 15th Menteri Besar of Selangor. Most analysts say that the Kajang Move was a great failure.
On 12 September 2018 the incumbent Danyal Balagopal Abdullah resigned as Member of Parliament for Port Dickson to allow Anwar Ibrahim, who had been granted a royal pardon by the country's monarch the Yang di-Pertuan Agong to re-enter parliament after a 3-year absence. The resignation caused the Port Dickson by-election, 2018 and was dubbed the 'PD Move'. Anwar won the seat with an increased majority against six other candidates.
Collapse of the Pakatan Harapan governmentEdit
The 2020 Malaysian political crisis culminated in the collapse of the Pakatan Harapan government. The political crisis began when several political forces, including then PKR deputy president Azmin Ali, attempted to form a new government without going through a general election. This was achieved through the withdrawal of BERSATU from the coalition and the exit of Azmin Ali along with 10 other PKR MPs. This deprived the coalition of its majority and paved the way for Muhyiddin Yassin, with the support of the newly-formed Perikatan Nasional coalition to form a new government with himself as Prime Minister.
During the political crisis, in a Facebook Live broadcast of a night prayer session at Anwar's residence, Anwar said that he had been informed of a "treachery" having been committed that involved "former friends from Bersatu and a small group from PKR". Later, Azmin, in a statement, claimed that his action was to protect Mahathir, who was forced to choose a date for the transition of power during Pakatan Harapan presidential meeting on 21 February, and the statutory declaration presented to the Agong was to cement support for Mahathir, not to elect a new prime minister. He further said that the real traitor was the faction that tried to usurp Mahathir.
On 24 February, PKR held a press conference where its general secretary, Saifuddin Nasution Ismail, announced that Azmin and the Minister of Housing and Local Government, Zuraida Kamaruddin, who was then a vice president of PKR, had been dismissed by the party. Saifuddin explained that they were expelled due to their actions on 23 February which went against the party's official line regarding the position of prime minister. Azmin later announced that he would be forming an independent bloc at the parliament along with Zuraida and other nine MPs who had decided to exit the party following his expulsion.
PKR held a meeting at its headquarters on 1 March 2020. While leaving the headquarters after the meeting ended, members who were associated with the former deputy president Azmin Ali, such as the vice-president Tian Chua and the former party's youth wing deputy chief Afif Bahardin, was harassed and assaulted by PKR supporters. Both were accused of being "traitors". Police later revealed that one arrest had been made in relation to the incident involving Chua, with at least two reports were lodged.
A large number of grassroots members of PKR have left the party since the political crisis started. Three PKR Kelantan branch leaders announced that they were leaving the party on 26 February after Azmin and Zuraida Kamaruddin, the party's vice president, were sacked from their positions and expelled. Around 2,000 members from the Pasir Puteh branch left the party on 28 February, stating that they were disappointed with the party's leadership. 536 members from the Kota Raja branch also left the party on 1 March, citing that they no longer believed in the party's direction. On 2 March, around 400 members of PKR in Perak also left the party, arguing that the party had lost its focus on nation building and was only focused on the transition of power to the party's president, Anwar Ibrahim. This was later followed by the exit of 500 members from the Arau and Padang Besar branches on 15 March. They too cited that they had lost confidence with the party's leadership under Anwar.
On 4 March, Afif Bahardin from PKR resigned from his position in Penang State Executive Council. He stated that he was pressured by the party's state and central leadership to resign from his post. Afif is a known supporter of Azmin Ali while the latter was still the party's deputy president. PKR's Norlela Ariffin was appointed as the new state councillor and was sworn in on 12 March in front of the Yang Dipertua Negeri, Abdul Rahman Abbas.. Also PKR assemblyman from Pemanis, Chong Fat Full formally announced his exit from his party to become a Perikatan-friendly independent, thus resulting in Perikatan Nasional effectively controlling 29 seats in the state assembly against Harapan's 27.
On 12 May, two PKR assemblymen representing Sidam (Robert Ling Kui Ee) and Lunas (Azman Nasrudin) left the party citing lack of confidence in Anwar and an alleged purge of grassroots members aligned towards Azmin as their reasons, to become independents friendly towards Perikatan Nasional. Later in the day, Kedah state opposition leader Muhammad Sanusi Md Nor announced the formation of a new government with the support of 23 state assemblymen including the two ex-PKR members and four of six Bersatu assemblymen previously aligned with Pakatan Harapan.
On 17 May, Srikandi Keadilan Chief, Nurainie Haziqah Shafii exit party.The decision was taken after no longer confident and believing in the idealism of the struggle and the direction of PKR at this time.
On 5 June, Member of Parliament (MP) for Lubok Antu, Jugah Muyang resigned from the PKR and pledged support for Perikatan Nasional (PN) coalition. The next day (6 June), Jugah went to the Seri Perdana, the official residence of the prime minister to hand over his support letter to Muhyiddin. On the other hand, an Independent MP, Syed Abu Husin Hafiz, MP for Bukit Gantang was also there to hand over the application form to join and support the Bersatu. Also present were Bersatu MPs Senior Minister for Economy and Minister of International Trade and Industry, Azmin Ali and Deputy Minister of Energy and Natural Resources Ali Biju. It was also reported that Jugah was convinced by Azmin to support the ruling PN coalition to empower its administration.
On June 13 Dr Daroyah Alwi, Deputy Speaker & EXCO announced that she had quit the PKR party and became an independent assemblyman in support of the Perikatan Nasional coalition. She came out on the grounds that he had "lost confidence in the President (Anwar Ibrahim) and his harpist leadership of the idealism of the struggle". 
On 21 June, 50 Johor PKR women leader members exit party after losing faith in the party's top leadership.
On 22 June, 25 PKR grassroots leaders Saratok branch exit party. PKR Saratok branch once led by Ali Biju. They left PKR because they lost confidence in the party. 
On 27 June, 19 Jelebu branch PKR Committee members exit party after claiming to have lost faith in the PKR leadership.
On 29 June PKR Women’s chief & EXCO, Hanizah Talha sack from PKR. In 11 July she was no longer State Exco member. Haniza Talha has described PKR’s decision to sack her from the party as an “act of revenge”.
On 30 June, Salleh Said Keruak, former Sabah Minister Chief & former UMNO member canceled his application to join PKR after thinking deeply and taking into account today's political landscape including PKR's internal turmoil. He said, the decision was made last April and with the cancellation he remained non-partisan since leaving UMNO in 2018. Previously, Salleh applied to join PKR in October last year.
On 4 July, Zulkifli Ibrahim sacked from PKR and joining Perikatan Nasional (PN). He insisted that the PKR disciplinary committee should have summoned him for investigations before making any decisions.. Also, 250 PKR member from Ampang leave the party & 2 PKR councillors quit party (Jess Choy and Shoba Selvarajoo, who is a PKR women’s exco). Claimed to have lost confidence in PKR president Anwar Ibrahim and his leadership, citing the “embarrassing” party polls.
On 11 July, almost 100 Anak Muda Keadilan (AMK) Port Dickson members exit PKR. Making The AMK Port Dickson branch is paralyzed. The action was taken as the party was weakening and unable to win seats in the next general election & PKR is too discussing narrow politics just to make PKR President, Anwar Ibrahim as the Prime Minister alone. Fuziah Salleh appointed new PKR women's chief replaces Haniza Talha, who was expelled from the party.
On 15 July Jempol PKR branch chief, Karip Mohd Salleh along with 25 other members exit party. Making The PKR Jempol branch is dissolved. The decision was made after each of them had lost faith in the party leadership in navigating the leadership ranks either at the federal or state levels.
On 30 July, Inanam assemblyman & Sabah PKR Vice chairman, Kenny Chua Teck Ho sack from PKR for backing Musa
On 9 August, former BERSATU Kuala Krau Division division chief Mohamad Rafidee Hashim left the party and joined Parti Keadilan Rakyat. He said his action to join PKR was because he was confident that the party was more consistent and principled in its efforts to fight for reform.
PKR’s constitution has as one of their core principles, the establishment of "a society that is just and a nation that is democratic, progressive and united". In practice, the party has primarily focused on promoting social justice, economic justice, eliminating political corruption and human rights issues within a non-ethnic framework.
Structure and membershipEdit
Current office bearersEdit
Dewan Negara (Senate)Edit
- His Majesty's appointee:
- Monalan Mohamad
- Mohamad Imran Abdul Hamid
Dewan Rakyat (House of Representatives)Edit
Members of Parliament of the 14th Malaysian ParliamentEdit
PKR has 38 members in the House of Representatives.
Dewan Undangan Negeri (State Legislative Assembly)Edit
Malaysian State Assembly RepresentativesEdit
|Perlis||N7||Sena||Asrul Nizan Abd Jalil||PKR|
|N8||Indera Kayangan||Gan Ay Ling||PKR|
|N9||Kuala Perlis||Nor Azam Karap||PKR|
|Kedah||N12||Suka Menanti||Zamri Yusuf||PKR|
|N25||Bukit Selambau||Summugam Rengasamy||PKR|
|N28||Bakar Arang||Ooi Tze Min||PKR|
|N35||Kulim||Yeo Keng Chuan||PKR|
|Penang||N2||Pinang Tunggal||Ahmad Zakiyuddin Abdul Rahman||PKR|
|N6||Telok Ayer Tawar||Mustapha Kamal Ahmad||PKR|
|N14||Machang Bubok||Lee Khai Loon||PKR|
|N17||Bukit Tengah||Gooi Hsiao-Leung||PKR|
|N18||Bukit Tambun||Goh Choon Aik||PKR|
|N21||Sungai Bakap||Amar Pritpal Abdullah||PKR|
|N24||Kebun Bunga||Ong Khan Lee||PKR|
|N35||Batu Uban||Kumaresan Aramugam||PKR|
|N36||Pantai Jerejak||Saifuddin Nasution Ismail||PKR|
|N37||Batu Maung||Abdul Halim Hussain||PKR|
|N39||Pulau Betong||Mohd.Tuah Ismail||PKR|
|Perak||N24||Hulu Kinta||Muhamad Arafat Varisai Mahamad||PKR|
|N45||Simpang Pulai||Tan Kar Hing||PKR|
|N46||Teja||Ng Shy Ching||PKR|
|Pahang||N13||Semambu||Lee Chean Chung||PKR|
|N14||Teruntum||Sim Chon Siang||PKR|
|Selangor||N9||Permatang||Rozana Zainal Abidin||PKR|
|N10||Bukit Melawati||Juwairiya Zulkifli||PKR|
|N14||Rawang||Chua Wei Kiat||PKR|
|N16||Sungai Tua||Amirudin Shari||PKR|
|N25||Kajang||Hee Loy Sian||PKR|
|N32||Seri Setia||Halimey Abu Bakar||PKR|
|N33||Taman Medan||Syamsul Firdaus Mohamed Supri||PKR|
|N37||Bukit Lanjan||Elizabeth Wong||PKR|
|N38||Paya Jaras||Mohd.Khairuddin Othman||PKR|
|N39||Kota Damansara||Shatiri Mansor||PKR|
|N40||Kota Anggerik||Najwan Halimi||PKR|
|N41||Batu Tiga||Rodziah Ismail||PKR|
|N46||Pelabuhan Klang||Azmizam Zaman Huri||PKR|
|N49||Sungai Kandis||Mohd.Zawawi Ahmad Mughni||PKR|
|N51||Tanjong Sepat||Borhan Ahmad Shah||PKR|
|Negeri Sembilan||N13||Sikamat||Aminuddin Harun||PKR|
|N14||Ampangan||Mohamad Rafie Ab. Malik||PKR|
|N18||Pilah||Mohamad Nazaruddin Sabtu||PKR|
|N29||Chuah||Yek Diew Ching||PKR|
|N33||Sri Tanjong||Ravi Munasamy||PKR|
|Melaka||N8||Machap Jaya||Ginie Lim||PKR|
|Johor||N14||Bukit Naning||Md.Ysahrudin Kusni||PKR|
|N17||Semerah||Mohd. Khuzzan Abu Bakar||PKR|
|N51||Bukit Batu||Jimmy Pua Wee Tse||PKR|
|Total||Perlis (3), Kedah (5), Penang (12), Perak (3), Pahang (2), Selangor (17), Negeri Sembilan (6), Malacca (2), Johor (4), Sabah (2)|
The table below lists the spokesperson of the People's Justice Party of Malaysia in the 14th Parliament session issued on the 4th of July 2020. The purpose of the spokesperson is to shadow the portfolios and ministries or to act as a shadow cabinet for the National Alliance Government.
|Anwar Ibrahim||Leader of the Opposition||Port Dickson|
|Wan Azizah Wan Ismail||Advisory Council Chairperson||Pandan|
|Johari Abdul||Defence and Home Affairs||Sungai Petani|
|Saifuddin Nasution Ismail||Finance, Cost of Living and Consumer Affairs||Kulim-Bandar Baharu|
|Xavier Jayakumar||Natural Resources, Water and Energy||Kuala Langat|
|Chang Lih Kang||Housing, Local Government and Infrastructure||Tanjong Malim|
|Nurul Izzah Anwar||Women, Family and Community Development||Permatang Pauh|
|Lee Boon Chye||Health||Gopeng|
|Wong Chen||International Trade and Industry||Subang|
|Nik Nazmi Nik Ahmad||Education||Setiawangsa|
|Larry Sng Wei Shien||Sabah and Sarawak||Julau|
|Shamsul Iskandar Mohd. Akin||Rural Development||Hang Tuah Jaya|
|Akmal Nasir||Youth and Sports||Johor Bahru|
|Syed Ibrahim Syed Noh||Digital Technology, Telecommunications and Transport||Ledang|
|Abdullah Sani Abdul Hamid||Work and Worker's Rights||Kapar|
|Ahmad Fahmi Mohamed Fadzil||Communications, Arts and Culture||Lembah Pantai|
|William Leong Jee Keen||Parliament and Administration||Selayang|
|Muhammad Bakhtiar Wan Chik||Tourism||Balik Pulau|
|Sim Tze Tzin||Agriculture and Commodities||Bayan Baru|
|Sivarasa Rasiah||Law||Sungai Buloh|
|Karuppaiya Muthusamy||Defence and Home Affairs||Padang Serai|
|Steven Choong Shiau Yoon||Finance, Cost of Living and Consumer Affairs||Tebrau|
|Michael Teo Yu Keng||Natural Resources, Water and Energy||Miri|
|Noor Amin Ahmad||Housing, Local Government and Infrastructure||Kangar|
|Nor Azrina Surip||Women, Family and Community Development||Merbok|
|Azman Ismail||Health||Kuala Kedah|
|Maria Chin Abdullah||Environment||Petaling Jaya|
|Tan Yee Kew||International Trade and Industry||Wangsa Maju|
|Rusnah Aluai||Education||Tangga Batu|
|Awang Husaini Sahari||Sabah and Sarawak||Putatan|
|Kesavan Subramaniam||Rural Development||Sungai Siput|
|P. Prabakaran||Youth and Sports||Batu|
|June Leow Hsiad Hui||Digital Technology, Telecommunications and Transport||Hulu Selangor|
|Hassan Abdul Karim||Work and Worker's Rights||Pasir Gudang|
|Chan Ming Kai||Communications, Arts and Cultures||Alor Setar|
|Christina Liew Chin Jin||Tourism||Tawau|
|Hajah Natrah Ismail||Agriculture and Commodities||Sekijang|
General election resultsEdit
|Election||Total seats won||Seat Contested||Total votes||Share of votes||Outcome of election||Election leader|
5 / 193
|78||773,679||11.67%||5 seats; Opposition coalition (Barisan Alternatif)||Wan Azizah Wan Ismail|
1 / 219
|80||617,518||8.9%||4 seats; Opposition coalition (Barisan Alternatif)||Wan Azizah Wan Ismail|
31 / 222
|84||1,509,080||18.58%||30 seats; Opposition coalition (Pakatan Rakyat)||Wan Azizah Wan Ismail|
30 / 222
|99||2,254,211||20.39%||1 seats; Opposition coalition (Pakatan Rakyat)||Anwar Ibrahim|
50 / 222
|71||2,046,484||17.10%||20 seats; Governing coalition (Pakatan Harapan)||Wan Azizah Wan Ismail|
State election resultsEdit
Sodomy allegations against Anwar IbrahimEdit
At 11.03 pm on 29 June 2008, online news portal Malaysiakini reported that an aide of Anwar Ibrahim had lodged a police report claiming that he had been sodomised by Anwar. The news has since been updated with reports that SMS messages are being distributed claiming that the person who made the report is Anwar's aide, Saiful Bukhari, who was arrested earlier today and allegedly forced to make a false confession. The same SMS message also claimed the possibility of Anwar being arrested later today.
Anwar has since denied the allegations claiming that it was a complete fabrication and made in retaliation against him due to his recent acquisition of evidence that implicates the current Inspector General of the Police, Musa Hassan, and the Attorney General, Abdul Gani Patail, in misconduct including fabrication of evidence used against him during the 1998–1999 trials for corruption and sodomy.
Suara Keadilan publication license suspendedEdit
In June 2010, Suara Keadilan's publication was suspended for publishing a report which claimed a government agency is bankrupt. Suara Keadilan is run by opposition leader Anwar Ibrahim's PKR party. The Home Ministry, which oversees Malaysia's newspapers, said it was not satisfied with the paper's explanation for the allegedly inaccurate report.
- Jan Senkyr (2013). "Political Awakening in Malaysia". KAS International Reports (7): 75.
- "Parti Keadilan Rakyat". Liberal International. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 17 November 2011.
- Kay Suhaimi (4 May 2018). "Sejarah Penubuhan Parti KeADILan Rakyat dan Pakatan Harapan" (in Malay). Iluminasi. Retrieved 11 May 2019.
- Lim Kit Siang (1999). "Media statement by Lim Kit Siang". Democratic Action Party. Archived from the original on 8 November 2006. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
- Peter Symonds (3 October 1998). "Behind the sacking and arrest of Anwar Ibrahim". World Socialist Web Site. Archived from the original on 26 May 2018. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
- "[MALAYSIA] The arrest of Anwar Ibrahim and his political associates". Amnesty International. 3 October 1998. Archived from the original on 7 June 2006. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
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