The Alliance of Hope (Malay: Pakatan Harapan; abbrev: PH) is a political coalition in Malaysia. It is a successor to Pakatan Rakyat (the other being Gagasan Sejahtera). It was established in 2015 as an opposition to the former-ruling Barisan Nasional coalition that ruled the country since independence (Barisan Nasional's direct predecessor was known as the Alliance Party coalition). It is the largest bloc in the Dewan Rakyat and is the current ruling party of Malaysia. The coalition is allied with the Sabah Heritage Party (WARISAN) and the United Pasokmomogun Kadazandusun Murut Organisation (UPKO) in the state of Sabah. At the state level, the coalition is the largest party in 8 of 13 state legislative assemblies and forms the government in the states of Kedah, Penang, Perak, Selangor, Negeri Sembilan, Malacca, Johor and Sabah.[note 1] Pakatan Harapan also form a government with two-thirds majority in the states of Penang, Selangor and Johor.
|President||Wan Azizah Wan Ismail|
|Deputy Presidents||Lim Guan Eng|
|Vice-Presidents||Chong Chieng Jen|
Mohamed Azmin Ali
|Founded||22 September 2015|
|Legalised||16 May 2018|
|Preceded by||Pakatan Rakyat|
|Headquarters||Kuala Lumpur (DAP and AMANAH)|
Petaling Jaya (PKR)
Suara Pakatan Daily
|Student wing||Mahasiswa Pakatan Harapan|
|Youth wing||Pemuda Pakatan Harapan|
|Women's wing||Wanita Pakatan Harapan|
|Colours||Red and white|
|Slogan||Pakatan Harapan Rakyat!|
26 / 70
129 / 222
|Dewan Undangan Negeri:|
252 / 592
The coalition was formed on 22 September 2015, consisting of the Democratic Action Party, People's Justice Party, National Trust Party and Malaysian United Indigenous Party. The coalition was formed as an alliance of centre-left to centre-right parties to contest the 2018 Malaysian general election. The coalition contested the election under the logo of a component party, the People's Justice Party (PKR), due to inability to register as an official coalition.
After the 2018 general elections, Pakatan Harapan chairman Mahathir Mohamad was appointed as the Prime Minister of Malaysia while its president, Wan Azizah Wan Ismail, was appointed as the Deputy Prime Minister. Mahathir Mohamad became the first prime minister from Pakatan Harapan, and the first prime minister to have tenures with two different parties.
- 1 History
- 2 Member parties, allied parties and strategic partners
- 3 Contesting component parties in GE14 by federal constituency (including allied party)
- 4 Leadership Structure
- 5 Elected representatives
- 6 General Election Results
- 7 State election results
- 8 Pakatan Harapan state governments
- 9 Notes
- 10 References
- 11 External links
Pakatan Harapan is a direct successor to the three-party Pakatan Rakyat coalition that consisted of the People's Justice Party (PKR), the Democratic Action Party (DAP) and the Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party (PAS). Pakatan Harapan was founded on 22 September 2015, two years after the 2013 general election, due to disagreements and conflicts between PAS and DAP mainly regarding the issue of the implementation of the sharia law, resulting in PAS splitting off from Pakatan Rakyat and the break-up of the coalition on 16 June 2015. The dissolution resulted in the formation of a new coalition named Pakatan Harapan, consisting the former Pakatan Rakyat parties, PKR and DAP, and a PAS split-off party, the National Trust Party (AMANAH).
On 12 November 2016, a United Malays National Organisation (UMNO) split-off party, the Malaysian United Indigenous Party (BERSATU), founded and led by former Malaysian Prime Minister, Mahathir Mohamad, confirmed that the party was committed to joining the opposition bloc Pakatan Harapan. Later, on 13 December, the party formed an electoral pact with Pakatan Harapan, and finally on 14 March 2017, BERSATU officially joined Pakatan Harapan as a member party.
2018 general electionEdit
On 14 July 2017, the Presidential council line-up was confirmed. A common logo was also introduced with the word “Harapan” with the “A” shaped as a chevron in white on a red background. The logo was initially planned to be used by all participating candidates for the 2018 general election, but the use of the logo and registration of the coalition was denied by the Election Commission. To pursue the coalition's plan to contest under a common logo, Pakatan announced that the PKR logo will be used by all component parties of the coalition as its election symbol in the elections, excluding for DAP who chose to contest under their own party flag in Sabah and Sarawak.
The coalition secured an electoral pact with the Sabah-based Sabah Heritage Party (WARISAN) for the 2018 general election. WARISAN's president, Shafie Apdal, promised that the party would be represented on the federal cabinet if the coalition came to power, adding that through the electoral pact they will only co-operate with Pakatan as an ally, and not joining the pact as a component party since they will only contest in Sabah, not in Peninsular Malaysia. Following the victory of Pakatan Harapan and WARISAN in the general election, the United Pasokmomogun Kadazandusun Murut Organisation (UPKO) announced that they have left Barisan Nasional and will form a new Sabah state government with WARISAN and Pakatan Harapan. UPKO and WARISAN are currently both the allies for Pakatan Harapan since both parties are also allied towards each others in Sabah.
On 16 May 2018, the coalition was officially registered.
Member parties, allied parties and strategic partnersEdit
|PKR||People's Justice Party
Parti Keadilan Rakyat
47 / 222
50 / 139
|DAP||Democratic Action Party
Parti Tindakan Demokratik
|Social democracy||Lim Guan Eng||47||17.365%||
42 / 222
42 / 139
|BERSATU||Malaysian United Indigenous Party
Parti Pribumi Bersatu Malaysia
|Ketuanan Melayu||Mahathir Mohamad||52||5.948%||
13 / 222
26 / 139
|AMANAH||National Trust Party
Parti Amanah Negara
|Islamic modernism||Mohamad Sabu||34||5.426%||
11 / 222
11 / 139
|WARISAN||Sabah Heritage Party
Parti Warisan Sabah
|Sabahan Regionalism||Shafie Apdal||17||2.322%||
8 / 222
9 / 139
|UPKO||United Pasokmomogun Kadazandusun Murut Organisation
Pertubuhan Pasokmomogun Kadazandusun Murut Bersatu
|Sabahan Regionalism||Madius Tangau||4
1 / 222
1 / 139
|N/A||HINDRAF||Hindu Rights Action Force
Barisan Bertindak Hak-Hak Hindu
|Human rights||Waytha Moorthy Ponnusamy||-||-||
0 / 222
0 / 139
|MIRA||Minority Rights Action Party
Parti Tindakan Hak Minoriti
|Liberal democracy||S. Gobi Krishnan||-||-||
0 / 222
0 / 139
Contesting component parties in GE14 by federal constituency (including allied party)Edit
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|P001 Padang Besar||P002 Kangar||P003 Arau||P004 Langkawi||P005 Jerlun||P006 Kubang Pasu|
|P007 Padang Terap||P008 Pokok Sena||P009 Alor Setar||P010 Kuala Kedah||P011 Pendang||P012 Jerai|
|P013 Sik||P014 Merbok||P015 Sungai Petani||P016 Baling||P017 Padang Serai||P018 Kulim-Bandar Baharu|
|P019 Tumpat||P020 Pengkalan Chepa||P021 Kota Bharu||P022 Pasir Mas||P023 Rantau Panjang||P024 Kubang Kerian|
|P025 Bachok||P026 Ketereh||P027 Tanah Merah||P028 Pasir Puteh||P029 Machang||P030 Jeli|
|P031 Kuala Krai||P032 Gua Musang||P033 Besut||P034 Setiu||P035 Kuala Nerus||P036 Kuala Terengganu|
|P037 Marang||P038 Hulu Terengganu||P039 Dungun||P040 Kemaman||P041 Kepala Batas||P042 Tasek Gelugor|
|P043 Bagan||P044 Permatang Pauh||P045 Bukit Mertajam||P046 Batu Kawan||P047 Nibong Tebal||P048 Bukit Bendera|
|P049 Tanjong||P050 Jelutong||P051 Bukit Gelugor||P052 Bayan Baru||P053 Balik Pulau||P054 Gerik|
|P055 Lenggong||P056 Larut||P057 Parit Buntar||P058 Bagan Serai||P059 Bukit Gantang||P060 Taiping|
|P061 Padang Rengas||P062 Sungai Siput||P063 Tambun||P064 Ipoh Timur||P065 Ipoh Barat||P066 Batu Gajah|
|P067 Kuala Kangsar||P068 Beruas||P069 Parit||P070 Kampar||P071 Gopeng||P072 Tapah|
|P073 Pasir Salak||P074 Lumut||P075 Bagan Datuk||P076 Teluk Intan||P077 Tanjung Malim||P078 Cameron Highlands|
|P079 Lipis||P080 Raub||P081 Jerantut||P082 Indera Mahkota||P083 Kuantan||P084 Paya Besar|
|P085 Pekan||P086 Maran||P087 Kuala Krau||P088 Temerloh||P089 Bentong||P090 Bera|
|P091 Rompin||P092 Sabak Bernam||P093 Sungai Besar||P094 Hulu Selangor||P095 Tanjung Karang||P096 Kuala Selangor|
|P097 Selayang||P098 Gombak||P099 Ampang||P100 Pandan||P101 Hulu Langat||P102 Bangi|
|P103 Puchong||P104 Subang||P105 Petaling Jaya||P106 Damansara||P107 Sungai Buloh||P108 Shah Alam|
|P109 Kapar||P110 Klang||P111 Kota Raja||P112 Kuala Langat||P113 Sepang||P114 Kepong|
|P115 Batu[note 2]||P116 Wangsa Maju||P117 Segambut||P118 Setiawangsa||P119 Titiwangsa||P120 Bukit Bintang|
|P121 Lembah Pantai||P122 Seputeh||P123 Cheras||P124 Bandar Tun Razak||P125 Putrajaya||P126 Jelebu|
|P127 Jempol||P128 Seremban||P129 Kuala Pilah||P130 Rasah||P131 Rembau||P132 Port Dickson|
|P133 Tampin||P134 Masjid Tanah||P135 Alor Gajah||P136 Tangga Batu||P137 Hang Tuah Jaya||P138 Kota Melaka|
|P139 Jasin||P140 Segamat||P141 Sekijang||P142 Labis||P143 Pagoh||P144 Ledang|
|P145 Bakri||P146 Muar||P147 Parit Sulong||P148 Ayer Hitam||P149 Sri Gading||P150 Batu Pahat|
|P151 Simpang Renggam||P152 Kluang||P153 Sembrong||P154 Mersing||P155 Tenggara||P156 Kota Tinggi|
|P157 Pengerang||P158 Tebrau||P159 Pasir Gudang||P160 Johor Bahru||P161 Pulai||P162 Iskandar Puteri|
|P163 Kulai||P164 Pontian||P165 Tanjung Piai||P166 Labuan||P167 Kudat||P168 Kota Marudu|
|P169 Kota Belud||P170 Tuaran||P171 Sepanggar||P172 Kota Kinabalu||P173 Putatan||P174 Penampang|
|P175 Papar||P176 Kimanis||P177 Beaufort||P178 Sipitang||P179 Ranau||P180 Keningau|
|P181 Tenom||P182 Pensiangan||P183 Beluran||P184 Libaran||P185 Batu Sapi[note 3]||P186 Sandakan|
|P187 Kinabatangan||P188 Silam||P189 Semporna||P190 Tawau||P191 Kalabakan||P192 Mas Gading|
|P193 Santubong||P194 Petra Jaya||P195 Bandar Kuching||P196 Stampin||P197 Kota Samarahan||P198 Puncak Borneo|
|P199 Serian||P200 Batang Sadong||P201 Batang Lupar||P202 Sri Aman||P203 Lubok Antu||P204 Betong|
|P205 Saratok||P206 Tanjung Manis||P207 Igan||P208 Sarikei||P209 Julau
|P211 Lanang||P212 Sibu||P213 Mukah||P214 Selangau||P215 Kapit||P216 Hulu Rajang|
|P217 Bintulu||P218 Sibuti||P219 Miri||P220 Baram||P221 Limbang||P222 Lawas|
|Party name||Total seats contested in the 2018 general election (%)|
|People's Justice Party (PKR)||71 (32.13%)|
|Malaysian United Indigenous Party (BERSATU)||52 (23.53%)|
|Democratic Action Party (DAP)||47 (21.27%)|
|National Trust Party (AMANAH)||34 (15.38%)|
|Sabah Heritage Party (WARISAN)||17 (7.69%)|
Dewan Negara (Senate)Edit
- His Majesty's appointee:
- Liew Chin Tong (DAP)
- Marzuki Yahya (BERSATU)
- Mohd Radzi Md Jidin (BERSATU)
- Raja Kamarul Bahrin (AMANAH)
- Waytha Moorthy Ponnusamy (HINDRAF)
- Monalan Mohamad (PKR)
- Mohamad Imran Abdul Hamid (PKR)
- Alan Ling Sie Kiong (DAP)
- Adrian Banie Lasimbang (DAP)
- Razali Idris (BERSATU)
- Md. Nasir Hashim (BERSATU)
- Husam Musa (AMANAH)
- Raj Munni Sabu (AMANAH)
- Theodore Douglas Lind (WARISAN)
- Khairudin E.S. Abd. Samad (BERSATU)
- Isa Ab. Hamid (BERSATU)
- Aknan Ehtook (BERSATU)
- John Ambrose (BERSATU)
- Kedah State Legislative Assembly:
- Mohd. Suhaimi Abdullah (BERSATU)
- Penang State Legislative Assembly:
- Perak State Legislative Assembly:
- Ismail Yusop (PKR)
- Nga Hock Cheh (DAP)
- Selangor State Legislative Assembly:
- Suresh Singh (DAP)
- Yaakob Sapari (PKR)
- Negeri Sembilan State Legislative Assembly:
- Kesavadas A. Achyuthan Nair (DAP)
- Ahmad Azam Hamzah (PKR)
- Sabah State Legislative Assembly:
- Donald Peter Mojuntin (UPKO)
- Abdul Ghani Mohamad Yassin (BERSATU)
Dewan Rakyat (House of Representatives)Edit
Members of Parliament of the 14th Malaysian ParliamentEdit
Pakatan Harapan has 139 members in the House of Representatives (with allied parties).
Dewan Undangan Negeri (State Legislative Assembly)Edit
General Election ResultsEdit
|Election||Total seats won||Seats contesed||Total votes||Voting Percentage||Outcome of election||Election leader|
121 / 222
|222||5,615,822||45.56%||125 seats; Governing coalition||Mahathir Mohamad|
State election resultsEdit
Pakatan Harapan state governmentsEdit
|State||Leader type||Member||Party||State Constituency|
|Johor||Menteri Besar||Sahruddin Jamal||BERSATU||Bukit Kepong|
|Kedah||Menteri Besar||Mukhriz Mahathir||BERSATU||Jitra|
|Malacca||Chief Minister||Adly Zahari||AMANAH||Bukit Katil|
|Negeri Sembilan||Menteri Besar||Aminuddin Harun||PKR||Sikamat|
|Penang||Chief Minister||Chow Kon Yeow||DAP||Padang Kota|
|Perak||Menteri Besar||Ahmad Faizal Azumu||BERSATU||Chenderiang|
|Sabah||Chief Minister||Shafie Apdal||WARISAN||Senallang|
|Selangor||Menteri Besar||Amirudin Shari||PKR||Sungai Tua|
- The state government of Sabah was formed with a confidence and supply agreement with WARISAN and UPKO.
- The incumbent two-term MP on that time was disqualified to contest and unable to defend his Batu parliamentary seat in the 2018 general election when his nomination was rejected due to a RM2,000 fine of a court case that he paid in 2010. He turned to endorse instead one of the independent candidate, who had won in a four-corner fight to be the country's youngest parliamentarian and eventually joined PKR rank.
- Both parties of WARISAN and AMANAH were facing each other due to disagreements in contesting Batu Sapi seat.
- Ram Anand (11 September 2017). "Pakatan Harapan adds two VPs to represent Indians, Sabahans". The Malay Mail. Retrieved 11 September 2017.
- Yimie Yong (17 May 2018). "It's official! Pakatan gets its certificate of registration from RoS". The Star. Retrieved 23 June 2018.
- Masriwanie Muhamading (12 May 2017). "Pakatan Harapan youth wings' economic model targeting 1mil jobs for youth". Astro Awani. Retrieved 12 May 2017.
- "Senarai penuh Majlis Pimpinan Pemuda Pakatan Harapan" (in Malay). Astro Awani. 31 October 2017. Retrieved 31 October 2017.
- "Wanita Pakatan pledges to raise women in politics, economy, social welfare". The Malaysian Insight. 11 October 2017. Retrieved 11 October 2017.
- Melissa Goh (22 September 2015). "Malaysia's opposition band together under new Pakatan Harapan alliance". Channel NewsAsia. Retrieved 3 October 2015.
- "Pakatan Rakyat Split Will Change Country's Political Landscape". Bernama. Malaysian Digest. 17 June 2015. Retrieved 19 June 2015.
- Asrul Hadi Abdullah Sani (18 June 2015). "Break up of Malaysia's opposition bloc Pakatan Rakyat: What happened and what's next?". The Straits Times. Retrieved 19 June 2015.
- Harits Asyraf Hasnan (22 September 2015). "New Pakatan Harapan coalition formed". Astro Awani. Retrieved 23 September 2015.
- Shannon Teoh (23 September 2015). "Malaysia's opposition forms Pakatan Harapan alliance". The Straits Times. Retrieved 23 September 2015.
- Melissa Goh (12 November 2016). "'The only way to win is to unite and contest under one party': Mahathir". Channel NewsAsia. Retrieved 12 November 2016.
- Sheridan Mahavera (16 November 2016). "By courting rural Muslims, has Malaysia's opposition found key to winning power for first time in 60 years?". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 16 November 2016.
- Hana Naz Harun (13 December 2016). "PPBM officially signs agreement to join Pakatan Harapan". New Straits Times. Retrieved 13 December 2016.
- "PPBM wants name change before joining Pakatan Harapan". Antara Pos. 14 March 2017. Retrieved 14 March 2017.
- "Dr Mahathir Mohamad is Pakatan chairman, Dr Wan Azizah made president". The Malay Mail. Today Online. 14 July 2017. Retrieved 14 July 2017.
- Rizalman Hamim; Mohd Fahmi Mohd Yusof (6 April 2018). "Pakatan to use PKR logo in GE14". New Straits Times. Retrieved 9 July 2018.
- "Opposition Pact to unveil common logo for GE14 on Friday". New Straits Times. 5 April 2018. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
In a press conference at Parliament lobby on Thursday, Lim Guan Eng however said the change will only be for peninsula in the polls and the four parties will not use the common Pakatan Harapan logo in Sabah and Sarawak for GE14 election campaign. They’re different because they have autonomy. So we respect this and they can use the DAP rocket logo.
- Julia Chan (6 April 2018). "Sabah, Sarawak Pakatan parties won't use common logo". The Malay Mail. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
This was a big decision for us, to be able to exercise our autonomy and decide for ourselves. We chose to use our own respective party flags. So, PKR, DAP and Amanah flags will be used here.
- Sharon Ling (9 April 2018). "Sarawak DAP to use rocket logo for GE14". The Star. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
We have decided that DAP will use the rocket symbol while PKR and Amanah will both use the PKR logo.
- "Warisan seals electoral pact with DAP and PKR". Malaysiakini. 2 April 2018. Retrieved 2 April 2018. (subscription required)
- Suzianah Jiffar (2 April 2018). "Warisan will work only with Pakatan Harapan for GE14". New Straits Times. Retrieved 2 April 2018.
- Tan Su Lin (10 May 2018). "UPKO umum keluar BN, wujud kerajaan campuran dengan Warisan" (in Malay). Astro Awani. Retrieved 8 April 2018.
- "UPKO bentuk pakatan dengan Warisan" (in Malay). Berita Harian. 10 May 2018. Retrieved 8 April 2018.
- "Pakatan Harapan is officially registered". Free Malaysia Today. 16 May 2018. Retrieved 16 May 2018.