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Selangor (/səˈlæŋər/; Malay: [s(ə)laŋo(r)]),[4] also known by its Arabic honorific Darul Ehsan, or "Abode of Sincerity", is one of the 13 states of Malaysia. It is on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia and is bordered by Perak to the north, Pahang to the east, Negeri Sembilan to the south and the Strait of Malacca to the west. Selangor surrounds the federal territories of Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya, both of which were previously part of it.

Selangor
State
Selangor Darul Ehsan
سلاڠور دار الإحسان
Other transcription(s)
 • Malay Selangor
 • Jawi سلاڠور
 • Chinese 雪兰莪
 • Tamil சிலாங்கூர்
Flag of Selangor
Flag
Coat of arms of Selangor
Coat of arms

Motto(s): Dipelihara Allah [1]

(By God's Protection)
Anthem: Duli Yang Maha Mulia
Your Royal Highness
   Selangor in    Malaysia
   Selangor in    Malaysia
Coordinates: 3°20′N 101°30′E / 3.333°N 101.500°E / 3.333; 101.500Coordinates: 3°20′N 101°30′E / 3.333°N 101.500°E / 3.333; 101.500
Capital Shah Alam
Royal capital Klang
Government
 • Type Parliamentary constitutional monarchy
 • Sultan Sultan Sharafuddin Idris Shah
 • Menteri Besar Amirudin Shari (PH-PKR)
 • Executive Council Selangor State Executive Council
Area[2]
 • Total 8,104 km2 (3,129 sq mi)
Population (2018)[3]
 • Total 6,448,400 (1st)
 • Demonym Selangorean / Selangorian
Human Development Index
 • HDI (2017) 0.881 (very high) (1st)
Time zone UTC+8 (MST)
 • Summer (DST) UTC+8 (not observed)
Postal code 40xxx to 48xxx, 63xxx, 640xx, 68xxx
Calling code 03
ISO 3166 code MY-10
Vehicle registration B
Federated into FMS 1895
Japanese occupation 1942
Accession into the Federation of Malaya 1948
Independence as part of the Federation of Malaya 31 August 1957
Website www.selangor.gov.my
www.selangorku.com

The state capital of Selangor is Shah Alam and its royal capital is Klang. Petaling Jaya, was awarded city status in 2006. Selangor is one of three Malaysian states that contain more than one city; the others are Sarawak and Johor.[5][6]

The state of Selangor has the largest economy in Malaysia in terms of gross domestic product (GDP), with RM 239.968 billion (roughly USD 55.5 billion) in 2015, comprising 22.6% of the country's GDP.[7] It is the most developed state in Malaysia; it has good infrastructure such as highways and transport, and has the largest population in Malaysia, a high standard of living and the lowest poverty rate in the country.[8]

Contents

EtymologyEdit

The origin of the name Selangor is unknown. A common suggestion is that the name refers to the Malay word langau, a large fly or blowfly that is found in the marshes along the Selangor River in the state's north-west. According to local lore, a warrior who escaped from Malacca after the Portuguese conquest, took a break from his journey north and rested under a tree here. However, he was disturbed by a persistent fly, whereupon he decided to explore the area. When he found the place to be his liking and chose to settle there, he named the place "satu (se) langau" meaning "a large blowfly".[9][10] Another suggestion is that the name may have originate from a kind of tree found in Kuala Selangor and along Selangor River named mentangau.[11]

In the absence of a firm etymological explanation, alternative theories abound. One theory claims the state's name is derived from the term Salang Ur where ur means "town" or "village" in Tamil, meaning village of the salang people.[9] Another proposed that it means "land of the straits" where selang means "straits"[citation needed], however, "strait" in Malay is selat and not "selang" according to Kamus Dewan, not even in obsolete usage.[12] It has also been proposed that the name is derived from a combination of salang (stabbing) and jemur (dry in the sun), indicating that it was once a place where traitors were stabbed (salang) then left to roast in the sun (jemur).[9]

HistoryEdit

Historical affiliations Period
  Malacca Sultanate 15th century-1510
  Johor Sultanate 1511-1765
  Selangor Sultanate 1766-1894
  Federated Malay States 1895-1941
  Empire of Japan 1941–1945
  Malayan Union 1946–1948
  Federation of Malaya 1948–1963
  Malaysia 1963–Present

Tho most important settlement of the area in the ancient period may have been Klang. Ancient artefacts including Bronze Age axes and bronze bell dating from the 2nd century BC,[13][14][15] and iron tools called "tulang mawas" ("ape bones") have been found in or near Klang.[16] The Mao Kun map dating to the Ming dynasty and used by the Admiral Zheng He during his voyages of expedition between 1405 and 1433 refers to places in Selangor such as the Klang River estuary (吉令港) and perhaps a hilly area.[17] The Malay Annals indicates that the Selangor area was under the control of the Sultanate of Malacca in the 15th century; however, Selangor at that time was not a unified domain—separate river states such as Klang and Jeram existed in the region.[16] According to the Malay Annals, Tun Perak was appointed the chief of Klang during the reign of Muzaffar Shah. Later, the son of Mansur Shah and Hang Li Po named Paduka Sri Cina was made raja of Jeram near Langat, which may be due to presence of Chinese miners there.[16]

 
The Klang Bell, dated 200 BC–200 AD

After the fall of Malacca to the Portuguese in 1511, the area came under the control of Johor Sultanate and was later governed by Sri Agar Diraja, son of the Bendahara family of Johor.[18] In the 17th century, Johor was involved in a war against Jambi, and the Sultan of Johor engaged the help of Bugis mercenaries from Sulawesi to fight against Jambi.[19] After Johor won in 1679, the Bugis decided to stay and started to gain power in the region.[20] Many Bugis began to migrate and settled along the coast of Selangor and some inland regions. In some places, the Bugis displaced the Minangkabaus who had settled earlier.[21] The Bugis and the Minangkabaus from Sumatra struggled for control of Johor; Raja Kecil, backed by the Minangkabaus, invaded Selangor but were driven off by the Bugis in 1742. In order to establish a power base, the Bugis led by Raja Salehuddin founded the present hereditary Selangor Sultanate with its capital at Kuala Selangor in 1766.[22] Selangor is unique as the only state on the Malay Peninsula that was founded by the Bugis.[23]

In the 19th century, the economy boomed due to the exploitation of huge tin reserves; mining occurred in various parts of Selangor, for example in Ampang, that led to the growth of Kuala Lumpur. In 1854, the Sultan of Selangor granted Raja Abdullah control of Klang, passing over Raja Mahdi, the son of the chief who previously ruled Klang, leading to the Selangor Civil War of 1867 to 1874, which was partly a struggle for control of the revenues from tin.[24] Tin mining also attracted a large influx of Chinese migrant labourers. Chinese clans allied with Selangor chiefs joined the civil war. The conflicts between Malay and Chinese factions in Perak and Selangor, as well as concerns over piracy that affected coastal trade, led to increasing British involvement in the affairs of the Malay states.[25]

 
The Kota Darul Ehsan arch over the Federal Highway, which was built to commemorate the cession of Kuala Lumpur by Selangor to the federal government to form a Federal Territory.

In 1874, Sultan Abdul Samad of Selangor accepted a British Resident in a system that allowed the British to govern while the Sultan remained the apparent ruler. Klang was the capital of the British colonial administration for Selangor from 1875 until 1880 when it was moved to Kuala Lumpur. Under the stability imposed by the British, Selangor again prospered. In 1896, largely through the coordination of the Resident Frank Swettenham, Selangor united with Negeri Sembilan, Perak and Pahang to form the Federated Malay States, with Kuala Lumpur its capital.[26]

The Federated Malay States evolved into the Federation of Malaya in 1948, which became independent in 1957 and was renamed Malaysia in 1963. The city of Kuala Lumpur functioned as the national capital of Malaysia and as the state capital of Selangor. In 1974, Selangor relinquished Kuala Lumpur to the federal government.[27] The Sultan of Selangor commemorated the city's transfer by building an archway on the borders of the new Federal Territory and Selangor; this archway is the Kota Darul Ehsan that straddles a section of the Federal Highway between Bangsar and Petaling Jaya. The state capital was moved to Shah Alam after the cession.

Putrajaya, a new city designed to be the new administrative capital of Malaysia, was built by the federal government in Selangor; Sultan Salahuddin was asked again to cede land to the federal government.[28] Putrajaya became a federal territory in 2001.[29]

GeographyEdit

Selangor is located on the west of Peninsular Malaysia, overlooking the Straits of Malacca. The state is level on the west, and hilly to the east. Selangor, with an area of approximately 8,000 km, extends to the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia on the north coast of Melaka. It is located at the heart of the Peninsular Malaysia on the west coast and surrounds the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya. Selangor is bordered north by Bernam River from Perak, south by Sepang River from Negeri Sembilan, east by the Titiwangsa Mountains and Strait of Malacca on the west. Malaysia's capital, Kuala Lumpur is located in the heart of Selangor. It was once apart of Selangor territory before it was separated from the state to form a Federal Territory.

Selangor is divided into 9 districts namely Sabak Bernam, Kuala Selangor, Hulu Selangor, Petaling Jaya, Klang, Kuala Langat, Hulu Langat and Sepang.

Flora and FaunaEdit

 
Silver Leaf Monkey in Bukit Melawati
 
Commonwealth Forest Park

Malaysian forest can be classified as tropical rainforest. Selangor has 250,129 ha of permanent reserve forest, of which 82,890 ha are peat swamp forest and 18,998 ha formed mangrove forest along the coast. The permanent reserve forest makes up about 32 percent of the state land.[30][31] Ecoforests that are situated in Selangor are Gabai Waterfall, Taman Rimba Templer, Taman Rimba Ampang, Taman Rimba Komanwel, Sungai Chongkak, Sungai Tua, Sungai Sendat, Sungai Tekala, Kanching, Gunung Nuang and Bukit Tabur.[32][33] Reserve forest in Selangor is managed and conserved by the state's forestry department, as the National Forestry Act 1984 of the federal constitution provides that forestry comes under the jurisdiction of the respective state.[34] The Selangor's forestry department office is located at Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah Building in Shah Alam.[35]

Selangor is also home to a statutory agency of the Government of Malaysia, the Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM). Located in Kepong, FRIM promotes sustainable management and optimal use of forest resources in Malaysia by generating knowledge and technology through research, development and application in tropical forestry.[36][37]

Selangor has a few declared protected areas (PAs) in order to safeguard biodiversity and wildlife. They are Sungai Dusun Wildlife Reserve which is first to be reserved to protect the Sumatran Rhinos,[38] Kutu Hill Wildlife Reserve,[39] and Bukit Sungai Puteh Hill Wildlife Reserve which is located at Kuala Lumpur and Selangor's border.[40] The state also has an ecotourism centre, Paya Indah Wetlands, which is located in the district Kuala Langat near Dengkil. It is a sanctuary to migratory and residential birds, Nile hippos and crocodiles.[41][42]

ClimateEdit

Climate data for Selangor (LTSAAS) in 2017
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 34
(93)
35
(95)
36
(97)
36
(97)
36
(97)
37
(99)
36
(97)
36
(97)
32
(90)
32
(90)
30
(86)
31
(88)
34
(94)
Daily mean °C (°F) 31
(88)
32
(90)
32
(90)
33
(91)
33
(91)
34
(93)
33
(91)
33
(91)
30
(86)
30
(86)
28
(82)
29
(84)
32
(89)
Average low °C (°F) 26
(79)
26
(79)
27
(81)
27
(81)
28
(82)
27
(81)
27
(81)
27
(81)
26
(79)
26
(79)
26
(79)
25
(77)
27
(80)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 482.5
(18.996)
296.2
(11.661)
307.7
(12.114)
289.0
(11.378)
232.2
(9.142)
127.1
(5.004)
127.4
(5.016)
213.8
(8.417)
232.7
(9.161)
102.2
(4.024)
366.7
(14.437)
319.9
(12.594)
3,097.4
(121.944)
Average rainy days (≥ 1.0mm) 28 28 31 27 31 24 29 31 24 21 30 31 335
Average relative humidity (%) (daily average) 78 78 77 76 75 72 71 74 75 72 82 79 76
Mean monthly sunshine hours 236.5 255.0 290.0 271.0 280.5 266.5 283.5 277.0 268.5 266.0 163.0 225.0 3,082.5
Source: [43]

As in the rest of Malaysia, Selangor has a tropical rainforest climate bordering on a tropical monsoon climate. The climate is very much dictated by the surrounding sea and the prevailing wind system. It has high average temperature and high average rainfall.

Population and demographicsEdit

 
Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Mosque or Blue Mosque in Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia.

Selangor is Malaysia's most populous state; it has the nation's biggest conurbation, the Klang Valley. Selangor's geographical position in the centre of Peninsular Malaysia contributed to the state's rapid development as Malaysia's transportation and industrial hub, creating jobs and attracting migrants from other states and from other Asian countries, especially Indonesia, the Philippines, Vietnam, Myanmar, Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and China. In recent decades, an influx of illegal immigrants, particularly from Indonesia, has also contributed to Selangor's population.

Selangor's population has increased considerably in recent decades, due mostly to the development of the Klang Valley. The population was 1,426,250 in 1980, and by 2000 it had grown to 3,941,316,[44] and further increased to 5,482,141 in 2010.[45] As of 2015, its population was 5,874,100.[46]

Ethnic groupsEdit

Ethnic Group Population
2010[45] 2015[46]
Malay 2,814,597 51.34% 3,069,100 52.24%
Other Bumiputras 62,657 1.14% 77,500 1.32%
Bumiputra total 2,877,254 52.48% 3,146,600 53.57%
Chinese 1,441,774 28.6% 1,499,400 25.52%
Indian 679,130 13.5% 712,000 12.12%
Others 42,163 0.8% 41,400 0.70%
Malaysian total 5,040,321 92.20% 5,399,400 91.92%
Non-Malaysian 421,820 7.80% 474,700 8.08%
Total 5,482,141 100.00% 5,874,100 100.00%

The traditional culture of Selangor's Malay majority is influenced by those of Bugis, Minangkabau, Mandailing and Javanese, Banjar, Rawanese and Bengkulu ancestry; most of whom are Muslims. Javanese ancestry was dominant in west coast districts such as Sabak Bernam, Kuala Selangor, Klang, Kuala Langat and Sepang. Selangor's population also includes ethnic Chinese and Indian influences; those two groups form the largest minority populations. The 3,000 Mah Meri people, part of the Orang Asli—the indigenous peoples of the Peninsula—can be found on Carey Island and maintain their culture and language while adapting to the modern way of life.[47] With its advanced state of development, Selangor has more international ties through trade, business and education than other rural states.[citation needed].

ReligionEdit

Religion in Selangor - 2010 Census[48]
religion percent
Islam
57.9%
Buddhism
24.4%
Hinduism
11.6%
Christianity
3.8%
Unknown / None
1.0%
Chinese Ethnic Religion
0.5%
Others
0.4%
No Religion
0.4%

According to the 2010 census, the population of Selangor is 57.9% Muslim, 24.4% Buddhist, 11.6% Hindu, 3.8% Christian, 1% of unknown affiliations, 0.5% adherent of Taoism or Chinese religion, 0.4% follower of other religions and 0.4% non-religious.[48] All Malays are necessarily Muslims because the definition of a Malay in the Malaysian constitution requires Malays to profess the religion of Islam.[49]

PoliticsEdit

The state is a hereditary constitutional monarchy, of which the reigning Sultan since 2001 is Sultan Sharafuddin Idris Shah. Since 19 June 2018, the Menteri Besar (chief executive of the state government) is YAB Amirudin Shari, of the People's Justice Party (PKR) a component party of Pakatan Harapan (before, Pakatan Rakyat).[50]

ConstitutionEdit

Consisting of 19 chapters and 100 articles, the Constitution of the State of Selangor is the highest form of law in the state. It came into force on 26 February 1959 and was separated into two parts. Under the 1959 constitution, Selangor is a constitutional monarchy.

Selangor SultanateEdit

 
The palace of the Sultan of Selangor in Klang.

The Sultan of Selangor is the constitutional Ruler of Selangor. The role, powers and duties of the Sultan are set forth in the 1959 constitution, which proclaims that the office of Sultan is vested with the executive power of the state, is the head of the religion of Islam in the state and the "fountain of honours and dignities" in the state.[51][52] This position is hereditary and can only be held by a member of Selangor's royal family. The current ruler is His Royal Highness Sultan Sharafuddin Idris Shah, who has held this position since 2001.[53]

State Executive CouncilEdit

The State Executive Council, which along with the Sultan is Selangor's executive branch of government, was established by the constitution of 1959. It is composed of the Menteri Besar—who is its chairman and Selangor's head of government—and ten other members; all of whom are appointed by the Sultan of Selangor from members of the State Assembly. The current Menteri Besar is Yang Amat Berhormat Dato' Menteri Besar Amirudin Shari.[50]

State AssemblyEdit

The state also has a legislative branch, called the Selangor State Assembly. It is similar to the Parliament but is limited to making laws relating to the state. Its members are elected, usually simultaneously with federal elections. The term of each state assembly member is limited to five years. The state assembly must be dissolved before or once it expires its term for a fresh election of its members.

AdministrationEdit

List of districtsEdit

Number Name Population[54] Area (km²) Sub-districts Note
 
Administrative districts of Selangor.
1 Gombak 682,226 650.08[55] Ulu Klang, Ampang, Setapak, Batu Caves, Selayang, Rawang, Taman Templer, Sungai Buloh, Kundang, Batu 20, Kampung Sungai Pusu The meaning of Gombak is unknown but it is believed that the name comes from a village in Setapak called gombak (Gombak Setia). The district was created on February 1, 1974, the same day when Kuala Lumpur was declared a Federal Territory. Gombak is one of the few districts that has many cities and all of its sub-districts are cities except Batu 20, Kampung Sungai Pusu, and Setapak. Popular tourism places include Zoo Negara, Batu Caves, and Forest Research Institute Malaysia.
2 Hulu Langat 1,156,585 829.44[56] Kajang, Beranang, Cheras, Hulu Langat, Hulu Semenyih, Kelanang, Tanjong 12, Tarun, Sungai Makau, Sungai Lui, Sungai Kembong Beranang, Sri nanding, Simpang Balak, Rumah Murah Sungai Lui, Kampung Sungai Tangkas, Kacau, Kampung Pasir Batu 14 Semenyih, Desa Raya, Sungai Raya, Batu 26, Batu 23. The name Hulu Langat means the beginning of Langat River. Hulu Langat has many major cities which are mostly located in the north of the district such as Cheras and Kajang. Popular tourism places includes Sungai Congkak Recreational Forest[57] and Gabai River.[58]
3 Hulu Selangor 198,132 1,740.46[59] Kuala Kubu Bharu, Sungai Chick, Ulu Yam, Ulu Yam Baru, Kerling, Kuala Kalumpang, Sungai Gumut, Serendah, Peretak, Sungai Choh The name Hulu Selangor means the beginning of river of selangor. Hulu Selangor have a city but majority of the settlements in the district are villages. The district is still largely covered with forests. Popular tourism places include Bukit Kutu,[60] and Kerling Hot Spring.[61]
4 Klang 861,189 626.78[62] Klang, Kapar, Bukit Raja, Port Klang, Pandamaran, Telok Menegun, Taman Sri Muda, Kota Kemuning, Bukit Kemuning, Batu 4. The origin of the Klang name is unknown. The Royal Town of Klang, which is also the former capital of the state. Port Klang played major rolled in Malaysia economy. There are many popular tourism places in the district such as Istana Alam Shah, Klang Royal Town Mosque, Sultan Abdul Aziz Royal Gallery, Tanjung Harapan, Pulau Ketam and Little India.[63]
5 Kuala Langat 224,648 858[64] Bandar Saujana Putra, Jenjarom, Kanchong Darat, Sijangkang, Tongkah, Teluk Datok, Telok, Sungai Raba, Morib, Permatang Pasir, Kelanang Batu 6, Kanchong, Chodoi, Bukit Changgang, Batu, Jugra Kuala Langat name derives from the combination of the word "Kuala" which means the meeting between two or more river and Langat from Langat River. Popular tourism places includes Jugra and Morib.
6 Kuala Selangor 209,590 1,194.52[65] Api-api, Kuala Selangor, Bukit Melawati, Ijok, Kampung Kuantan, Kuala Sungai Buloh, Pasangan, Ulu Tinggi, Ujong Permatang, Tambak Jawa, Taman PKNS, Sungai Sembilang, Simpang 3 Ijok, Pasir Penambang, Simpang 3, Parit Mahang, Kg. Baru Hulu Tiram Buruk, Bukit Talang, Bukit Belimbing. The word "Kuala" means the meeting between two or more river while the word Selangor comes from the name of the river located in the district, Selangor River.[66] The combination of two words generates the name Kuala Selangor.[67] Popular place to visit includes Bukit Melawati,[68] Kuala Selangor Nature Park and Kampung Kuantan Fireflies.[69]
7 Petaling 1,812,633 484.32[70] Petaling Jaya, Subang Jaya, Shah Alam, Damansara, Bandar Sri Damansara, Country Heights, Puchong, Puchong Jaya, Puchong Perdana, Batu Tiga, Sungai Besi, Serdang, Glenmaire, Penaga, Merbau Sempak, Kayu Ara, Desa Puchong. The name Petaling comes from an extincted species of tree called Petaling.[71] Petaling has many major cities such as Petaling Jaya, Shah Alam, and Subang Jaya. Popular tourism places include Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Mosque, Bandar Sunway, and 1 Utama
8 Sabak Bernam 105,777 997.1[72] Sabak, Sungai Besar, Sekinchan. The name Sabak Bernam comes from the story that this place is opened by six friend (Malay : Sahabat berenam).[73] Sabak Bernam main economic activity is agriculture and it is popular for its paddy fields especially in Sekinchan.[74]
9 Sepang 211,361 599.66[75] Puchong, Bukit Puchong 2, 16 Sierra, Taman Putra Prima, Taman Mas, Taman Putra Perdana, Taman Meranti Jaya, Pulau Meranti, Cyberjaya, Dengkil, Beranang, Salak Tinggi. The name Sepang is taken from a tree called Sepang.[76] Popular tourism places include Sepang International Circuit, Kuala Lumpur International Airport and Cyberjaya.

List of local authoritiesEdit

There are 12 local authorities in Selangor,[77] namely:

EconomyEdit

 
Northport Malaysia Wharf in Port Klang.

The economy of Selangor is a progressive market economy whose core sectors are commerce and agriculture. Selangor is the richest state in Malaysia in terms of gross domestic product (GDP) per capita (PPP).[90] On 27 August 2005, Selangor was officially declared the first developed state in Malaysia by the state government.[91][92][93] Selangor has the highest Human Development Index among the states in Malaysia.[citation needed]

Commerce and industryEdit

Commerce, industry and services are a major contributor to the economy of Selangor, accounting for over 58% of the state's GDP. Several industrial sites produce electronic goods, chemicals and vehicles including Proton and Perodua cars.[94][95][96] Imported vehicles from manufacturers including Toyota, Nissan, Volkswagen and BMW Motors are also assembled in the state.[97][98][99][100][101][102][103]

Many international manufacturing companies have set up bases here. Among the industrial cities in Selangor are Subang Jaya, Shah Alam, Klang, Kajang, Rawang, Selayang, Ampang Jaya and Petaling Jaya. Port Klang plays a key role in the industrial development of Selangor because it is the busiest port in Malaysia.[104][105]

The services sector is the second largest contributor to GDP of 60.1% of the state.[106]

AgricultureEdit

Agriculture, a thriving sector of Selangor's economy, contributes 1.4% of the state's GDP.[106] Significant crops grown in the state are star fruits, papayas and bananas.[107] Selangor is not a major producer of rice; however, paddy fields exist in Kuala Selangor and Sabak Bernam.[108][109] Other agricultural activities in the state include the establishment of palm oil and rubber plantation sites.[110][111]

TourismEdit

 
Kanching Forest Waterfall in Rawang

Tourist attractions in Selangor include the I-City in Shah Alam, a retail and commercial hub with millions of LED lights and an indoor park;[112] the National Zoo of Malaysia (Zoo Negara) in Ampang Jaya, the largest zoo in Malaysia with more than 4,000 animals;[113] Sepang International Circuit in Sepang, the venue for the Formula One Malaysian Grand Prix, the A1 Grand Prix and the Malaysian Motorcycle Grand Prix;[114] the Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah Mosque;[115] and Sunway Lagoon in Bandar Sunway, Malaysia's top theme park.[116]

Other attractions in Selangor include Batu Caves in Selayang, Shah Alam Gallery and Selangor State Library in Shah Alam, the Sultan Abdul Aziz Royal Gallery, Alam Shah Palace, GM Klang Wholesale City, and Crab Island (Pulau Ketam) off Port Klang. The most popular beaches in Selangor are located at Bagan Lalang, Sepang Gold Coast, Batu Laut Beach and Morib Beach. There are also a number of pristine nature sites such as the Firefly Sanctuary,[69] Kuala Selangor Nature Park in Kuala Selangor, Malaysia Agriculture Park Bukit Cerakah in Shah Alam, Commonwealth Forest Park and Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM) in Selayang, and Ampang Recreational Forest and Kanching Recreational Forest in Ampang Jaya.

Selangor is also well known as a haven for massage and spa lovers.[117] Since 2009 there has been an increase in businesses operating as traditional massage and reflexology parlors. While most of the businesses are genuine, some brothels masquerade as massage parlours and spas; the Royal Malaysian Police frequently raid such establishments when they receive tip-offs from the public.[118]

TransportEdit

Selangor is linked to the rest of Malaysia by comprehensive air, road and rail connections. Public transport in the state is present but underused. Most of the major highways that run through the west coast of the peninsula, including the North–South Expressway, serve Selangor as well.[119] The high-speed roads and expressways are tolled; motorists using these roads pay the tolls using stored value cards such as Touch 'n Go and SmartTAG. Cash transactions at all tolls in Malaysia were phased out between 2015 and 2017.[120]

Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA), the country's main airport, is located in Sepang District in the south of the state; it consists of the Main Terminal Building, Satellite terminal A and klia2.[121][122] Selangor also has the domestic Subang Airport, which is a major hub for corporate and private aviation in south-east Asia.[123][124]

Port Klang, the busiest seaport in Malaysia by sea, is located at the western tip of Selangor.[104]

Paid public buses in Selangor connect Klang Sentral in Klang,[125] Kompleks Perhentian Kajang in Kajang,[126] One Utama Bus Transportation Hub in Petaling Jaya,[127] and Terminal Seksyen 13 in Shah Alam to other states in Malaysia.[128] Public bus services that connects towns in Selangor are also available such as Rapid Bus. Rapid Bus, operated by Rapid KL, offered services in Klang Valley area, namely Subang Jaya, USJ, Puchong, Petaling Jaya, Shah Alam, and Klang south of the Federal Highway and Area Six, which covers Damansara, Bandar Utama, Kota Damansara and areas of Petaling Jaya, Shah Alam, and Klang north of the Federal Highway.[129] The services was introduced on 23 September 2006 when Rapid KL decided to revamp the Klang Valley bus network. Other bus operators in Selangor includes Kenderaan Klang Banting Berhad, Wawasan Sutera Travel & Tours Sdn Bhd, Wawasan Sutera Travel & Tours Sdn Bhd, De' Alfa City Bus Sdn Bhd and The Selangor Omnibus Company Berhad.[130]

Starting from 15 July 2015, free public bus services named Bas Smart Selangor are also available all over Selangor. It was initiate to encourage the citizens to use public transport.[131][132] On 7 November 2017, a phone application called Selangor Intelligent Transport System to check Smart Selangor buses routes and schedules was launched.[133]

The KTM Komuter railway network serves many outlying districts and nearby towns and cities, including Kajang, Port Klang, Shah Alam, Subang Jaya, Petaling Jaya, and Rawang.[134] It is linked to other rail transit services at KL Sentral Station, a modern transportation hub in the city centre. Selangor is accessible by the Rapid KL Light Rail Transit network, which is composed of the Ampang Line, the Kelana Jaya Line and the newly-completed Sungai Buloh-Kajang Mass Rapid Transit Network.[135][136]

 
Panoramic view of Main Terminal Building and Contact Pier in KLIA Sepang
 
The cable-stayed bridge of Damansara–Puchong Expressway
 
KTM Komuter network map

Extensions to the LRT networkEdit

On 29 August 2006, Malaysian Deputy Prime Minister Mohd Najib Abdul Razak announced that the western end of the Kelana Jaya Line would be extended to the suburbs of Bandar Sunway, Subang Jaya, UEP Subang Jaya (USJ) and Putra Heights.[137] The extension will be part of a RM7 billion plan to expand Kuala Lumpur's public transport network.[138]

The expansion plan will also extend the Ampang Line to the suburb of Puchong and the south-west of Kuala Lumpur.[139] The plan also involves the construction of a new line, tentatively called the Kota Damansara-Cheras Line, which will run from Sungai Buloh in the north-western flank of the city, to Kajang.[135]

In September 2009, Syarikat Prasarana Negara began a public viewing of the details of the alignment of the Ampang Line and Kelana Jaya Line at various locations.[140] The public could provide feedback on the route during the three-month display period.[141] The extension will add 13 new stations and 17.7 kilometres (11.0 mi) of new track to the network. The new terminus will be at Putra Heights where the line will meet the Kelana Jaya Line and Ampang Line to provide a suburban interchange.[139] Construction began in mid 2013 and the project was fully operational by July 2016.[142]

EducationEdit

Selangor has several tertiary education institutions, most which are concentrated in major towns and cities. There are also many institutions of higher learning in the state, making Selangor's the largest higher education sector in Malaysia.[citation needed] Selangor also has the most universities—more than 20 public and private universities—in the country.[citation needed]

 
An aerial view of Multimedia University's Cyberjaya campus. Multimedia University is Malaysia's first private university.

Public universitiesEdit

Name Acronym Foundation Location
International Islamic University of Malaysia IIUM 1983 Gombak
Universiti Teknologi MARA UiTM 1999 Shah Alam & Puncak Alam
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia UKM 1970 Bangi
Universiti Putra Malaysia UPM 1971 Serdang

Private universities and university collegesEdit

Name Acronym Foundation Location
Al-Madinah International University MEDIU 2006 Shah Alam
Binary University of Management and Entrepreneurship BUCME 1984 Puchong
City University College of Science and Technology CITY UC 1984 Petaling Jaya
Cyberjaya University College of Medical Sciences CUCMS 2005 Cyberjaya
University of Selangor UNISEL 1999 Bestari Jaya & Shah Alam[143]
INTI International College Subang INTI 1998 Subang Jaya
International University College Of Technology Twintech TWINTECH 1994 Bangi
KDU University College KDU 1983 Damansara Utama
Infrastructure University Kuala Lumpur IUKL 1997 Kajang
Limkokwing University of Creative Technology LUCT 1992 Cyberjaya
German-Malaysian Institute GMi 1991 Bangi
Malaysian Allied Health Sciences Academy University MAHSA 2005 Bandar Saujana Putra & Petaling Jaya
Malaysia University of Science & Technology MUST 2000 Petaling Jaya
Management and Science University MSU 2002 Shah Alam
UCSI University UCSI 1986 Cheras
Asia Metropolitan University MASTERSKILL 1997 Cheras
Multimedia University MMU 1994 Cyberjaya
SEGi University SEGi 1977 Kota Damansara & Subang Jaya
International Islamic University College Selangor KUIS 1995 Bangi
Sunway University SYUC 1987 Subang Jaya
Taylor's University TAYLOR 1969 Subang Jaya
University of Tenaga Nasional UNITEN 1976 Kajang
Tun Abdul Razak University UNIRAZAK 1998 Petaling Jaya
Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman UTAR 2002 Sungai Long

International universities campus in SelangorEdit

Name Acronym Foundation Location From
Monash University Malaysia Monash 1998 Subang Jaya Australia
University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus UNMC 2000 Semenyih United Kingdom
Xiamen University Malaysia Campus XMUMC 2015 Salak Tinggi China

Infrastructures and utilitiesEdit

ElectricityEdit

 
Sultan Abdul Aziz Shah Power Station in Kapar, Klang

There are five main power stations in Selangor, namely; Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah Power Station, Connaught Bridge Power Station, Putrajaya Power Station, Kuala Langat Power Plant and Jimah Energy Ventures.[144]

Water supplyEdit

Selangor water works provides water supply in Selangor, Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya. It was run by Syarikat Bekalan Air Selangor (SYABAS) which is owned by the state government. There are seven dams in Selangor; Sungai Selangor Dam, Sungai Tinggi Dam, Sungai Semenyih Dam, Sungai Langat Dam, Klang Gates Dam, Sungai Batu Dam, ORS Sungai Labu Dam and Tasik Subang Dam.[145]

Shopping MallsEdit

 
1 Utama Shopping Centre in Petaling Jaya is the largest shopping mall in Malaysia

There are various shopping malls scattered across Selangor:

HospitalsEdit

 
Main view of the Tengku Ampuan Rahimah (TAR) General Hospital in Klang. Named after Tengku Ampuan of Selangor, Tengku Ampuan Rahimah.

There are public hospitals and private hospitals in Selangor:

Public HospitalsEdit

Private HospitalsEdit

CuisineEdit

The traditional Malay cuisine in Selangor has influences from Johor, Bugis, Jawa and Minangkabau.[citation needed]

Rojak Klang and Lontong Klang are famous cuisines in Klang and Shah Alam.[146][147] Other famous dishes include Mee Rebus,[148] Satay Kajang,[149] Nasi Ambeng,[150] Laksa Selangor, Soto (Soto Nasi Himpit and Mee Soto),[151] Sambal Tahun,[152][153] Bakso, Ketam Darul Ehsan, Ikan Masak Asam Pedas, Ayam Masak Kicap and Sayur Masak Rebung.[154]

MediaEdit

TelevisionEdit

Television in Selangor consists of seven free-to-air stations, one satellite television network and two internet television services. Three of the seven free-to-air stations are managed by Radio Televisyen Malaysia, a federal government-owned media company headquartered in Kuala Lumpur, while the four commercial stations are owned by Media Prima, an integrated media company headquartered in Bandar Utama, Selangor.[155][156] The satellite television service is owned by Astro All Asia Networks and it is available nationwide.[157] One of the Internet television services is owned by the state government of Selangor.[158]

Type Channels
Free-to-air
Cable television
Satellite television
Internet television

RadioEdit

Radio stations in Selangor are available in the FM and Shortwave frequencies and are transmitted from Gunung Ulu Kali, Selangor and Kajang, Selangor.[159][160]

There are a few types of radio stations operating in Selangor, namely, commercial radio stations, local community radio stations, federal government owned radio station and specialised radio stations. Commercial radio stations available in Selangor are operated by media companies such as Astro Radio, Star Media Radio Group, Media Prima, Suara Johor and BFM Media. Local community radio stations are only available in certain regions. For example, UFM (93.6) operated by Universiti Teknologi MARA is only available in Shah Alam, Klang and Petaling Jaya, while Putra FM (90.7) operated by Universiti Putra Malaysia is only available in Serdang and Seri Kembangan. Both radio stations target the university students.

The nine Radio Televisyen Malaysia (RTM) radio networks available are Klasik FM, Muzik FM, Ai FM, Traxx FM, Minnal FM, Asyik FM, Selangor FM, KLFM and Pahang FM. There are three specialised radio stations as well, namely IKIM.fm (91.5) operated by IKIM, Salam FM (102.5) operated by JAKIM, and Bernama Radio (93.9) operated by BERNAMA. The regions of Selangor that border other states can also receive two other Radio Televisyen Malaysia (RTM) radio stations; Perak FM (89.6 MHz/95.6 MHz; Selangor-Perak border) and Negeri FM (92.6 MHz; Selangor-Negeri Sembilan border).

Full list of radio stations available in Selangor:

Frequency[161] Station Operator

87.7 FM
98.3 FM
5.965 kHz SW

Radio Klasik FM RTM
88.1 FM One FM Media Prima

88.5 FM
95.3 FM

Nasional FM RTM
88.9 FM goXuan Astro Radio

89.6 FM
95.6 FM

Perak FM RTM

89.7 FM
106.7 FM

Ai FM RTM
89.9 FM BFM 89.9 BFM Media

90.3 FM
100.1 FM
7.295 kHz SW

TraXX FM RTM
90.7 FM Putra FM Universiti Putra Malaysia

91.1 FM
102.5 FM
6.050 kHz SW

Asyik FM RTM
91.5 FM IKIM.fm Institut Kemajuan Islam Malaysia (IKIM)

92.3 FM
96.3 FM

Minnal FM RTM
92.6 FM Negeri FM RTM
92.9 FM Hitz Astro Radio
93.6 FM UFM Universiti Teknologi MARA
93.9 FM Bernama Radio BERNAMA
94.5 FM Mix Astro Radio
95.8 FM Fly FM Media Prima
96.7 FM Sinar Astro Radio
97.2 FM KL FM RTM
97.6 FM Hot FM Media Prima
98.8 FM 988 FM Star Media Radio Group
99.3 FM Raaga Astro Radio
100.9 FM Selangor FM RTM
101.3 FM Kool FM Media Prima
101.8 FM My Astro Radio
103.0 FM Melody Astro Radio
103.3 FM Era Astro Radio
104.1 FM Best FM Suara Johor Sdn Bhd
104.9 FM Zayan Astro Radio
105.3 FM Suria FM Star Media Radio Group
105.7 FM Lite Astro Radio
106.0 FM City Plus FM Cense Media Sdn Bhd
107.5 FM Pahang FM RTM
107.9 FM iM4U FM

NewspapersEdit

Mainstream newspapers in Selangor are:

Image galleryEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

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