Batu Caves (Tamil: பத்து மலை) is a limestone hill that has a series of caves and cave temples in Gombak, Selangor, Malaysia. It takes its name from the Sungai Batu (Stone River), which flows past the hill. It is the tenth limestone hill from Ampang. Batu Caves is also the name of a nearby village.
Entrance to Batu Caves with the Murugan statue
Batu Caves in short also referred as 10th Caves or Hill for Lord Muruga as there are six important holy shrines in India and four more in Malaysia. The three others in Malaysia are Kallumalai Temple in Ipoh, Tanneermalai Temple in Penang and Sannasimalai Temple in Malacca.
As early as 1860, Chinese settlers began excavating guano for fertilising their vegetable patches. However, they became famous only after the limestone hills were recorded by colonial authorities including Daly and Syers as well as American Naturalist, William Hornaday in 1878.
Batu Caves was promoted as a place of worship by K. Thamboosamy Pillai, an Indian trader. He was inspired by the vel-shaped entrance of the main cave and was inspired to dedicate a temple to Lord Murugan within the caves. In 1890, Pillai, who also founded the Sri Mahamariamman Temple, Kuala Lumpur, installed the murti (consecrated statue) of Sri Murugan Swami in what is today known as the Temple Cave. Since 1892, the Thaipusam festival in the Tamil month of Thai (which falls in late January/early February) has been celebrated there.
Wooden steps up to the Temple Cave were built in 1920 and have since been replaced by 272 concrete steps. Of the various cave temples that comprise the site, the largest and best known is the Temple Cave, so named because it houses several Hindu shrines beneath its high vaulted ceiling.
In August 2018 the 272 steps were painted in an extraordinary colour scheme, with each set of steps painted in a different range of colours. However, accusations were almost immediately made by the National Heritage Department for a breach of law requiring authorisation for renovations within 200 metres of a heritage site. The temple's management disputed their failure to receive authorisation.
Rising almost 100 m above the ground, the Batu Caves temple complex consists of three main caves and a few smaller ones. The biggest, referred to as Cathedral Cave or Temple Cave, has a very high ceiling and features ornate Hindu shrines. To reach it, visitors must climb a steep flight of 272 steps.
At the base of the hill are two more cave temples, Art Gallery Cave and Museum Cave, both of which are full of Hindu statues and paintings. This complex was renovated and opened as the Cave Villa in 2008. Many of the shrines relate the story of Lord Murugan's victory over the demon Soorapadman. An audio tour is available to visitors.
The Ramayana Cave is situated to the extreme left as one faces the sheer wall of the hill. On the way to the Ramayana Cave, there is a 15 m (50 ft) tall statue of Hanuman and a temple dedicated to Lord Hanuman, devotee and aide of Lord Rama. The consecration ceremony of the temple was held in November 2001.
The Ramayana Cave depicts the story of Rama in a chronicle manner along the irregular walls of the cave.
A 42.7-metre (140 ft) high statue of Lord Murugan was unveiled in January 2006, having taken 3 years to construct. It is the tallest Lord Murugan statue in the world.
Batu Malai Sri Murugan Temple is managed by the Board of Management of Sri Maha Mariamman Temple Devasthanam, which also manages the Sri Mahamariamman Temple, Kuala Lumpur and the Kortumalai Pillaiyar Temple. It also performs the role of Hindu Religious Consultant to the Government of Malaysia in determining the Hindu yearly calendar.
Nature, flora and faunaEdit
There are various undeveloped caves which contain a diverse range of cave fauna, including some unique species, such as Liphistius batuensis spiders and Eonycteris and fruit bats. The site is also well known for its numerous long-tailed macaques, which visitors feed — sometimes involuntarily. These monkeys may also pose a biting hazard to tourists (especially small children) as they can be quite territorial.
Below the Temple Cave is the Dark Cave, with rock formations and a number of animals found nowhere else. It is a two-kilometer network of relatively untouched caverns. Stalactites jutting from the cave's ceiling and stalagmites rising from the floor form intricate formations such as cave curtains, flowstones, cave pearls and scallops which took thousands of years to form.
In order to maintain the cave's ecology, access is restricted. The Malaysian Nature Society organises regular educational and adventure trips to the Dark Wet Caves.
Checklist of Butterflies Surveyed at Batu Caves, Kuala Lumpur, by Dr Rosli Omar (with identification and verification help from Professor Yong Hoi Sen of Universiti Malaya, and Sofwan Badr), arranged taxonomically:
- Psyche. Leptosia nina malayana
- Albatross, Striped. Appias libythea
- Grass Yellow, Common. Eurema hecabe
- Grass Yellow, One-spot. (Anderson’s Grass Yellow). Eurema andersonii andersonii
- Tiger, Dark Blue Glassy. Idiopsis Vulgaris Macrina
- Tiger, Dark blue. Tirumala septentrionis septentrionis
- Crow, Plain Blue. Euploea modesta modesta
- Palmfly, Common. Elymnias hypermnestra agina
- Ring, Common Five-. Ypthima baldus newboldi
- Ring, Common Three-. Ypthima pandocus corticaria
- Julia Butterfly, Dryas iulia (spreads from Thailand. Originally from Brazil)
- Coster, Tawny. Acraea terpsicore
- Assyrian, Royal. Terinos terpander robertsia
- Leopard, Small. Phalanta alcippe alcesta
- Rustic. Cupha erymanthis lotis
- Sailer/Sailor, Common. Neptis hylas papaja
- Baron, Malayan. Euthalia monina monina
- Egg-Fly, Great. Hypolimnas bolina bolina
- Pansy, Peacock. Junonia almana javana
- Pierrot, Common. Castalius rosimon rosimon
- Grass Blue. Pygmy. Zizula hylax pygmaea
- Hedge Blue, Plain. Celastrina lavendularis isabellae
- Cerulean, Common. Jamides celeno aelianus
- Flash, Scarlet. Rapala dieneces dieneces
- Dart, Yellow Grass. Taractrocera archias quinta
- Dart, Pale Palm. Telicota colon stinga
- Dartlet, Common. Oriens gola pseudolus
Surveys with Malaysian Nature Society Flora group from 8 December 2018 to 21 April 2019.
Update for survey, 3 August 2019:
- Large Snow Flat, Tagiades gana gana.
- Yellow Glassy Tiger, Parantica aspasia aspasia.
- Common Mormon, Papilio polytes Romulus
Update for survey, 17 August 2019:
- Dark Glassy Tiger, Parantica agleoides agleoides.
- Smaller Wood Nymph, Ideopsis gaura perakana
- Blue Glassy Tiger, Ideopsis similis persimilis.
- Little Maplet, Chersonesia peraka peraka.
Batu Caves is also the centre of rock climbing development in Malaysia for the past 10 years. Batu Caves offers more than 160 climbing routes. The routes are scattered all around the side of Batu Caves, which is made up of limestone hills rising to 150 m. These climbing routes are easily accessed, as most crags start from ground level. These climbing routes often start from the North Eastern side of the cave complex whereas the staircase and temple entrance faces South. This Northeastern area is known as the Damai caves. Abseiling and spelunking trips can be organised with some local adventure companies.
A procession begins in the wee hours of the morning on Thaipusam from the Sri Mahamariamman Temple, Kuala Lumpur leading up to Batu Caves as a religious undertaking to Lord Muruga lasting eight hours. Devotees carry containers containing milk as offering to Lord Murugan either by hand or in huge decorated carriers on their shoulders called 'kavadi'.
The kavadi may be simple wooden arched semi-circular supports holding a carrier foisted with brass or clay pots of milk or huge, heavy ones which may rise up to two metres, built of bowed metal frames which hold long skewers, the sharpened end of which pierce the skin of the bearers torso. The kavadi is decorated with flowers and peacock feathers imported from India. Some kavadi may weigh as much as a hundred kilograms.
After bathing in the nearby Sungai Batu (Rocky River), the devotees make their way to the Temple Cave and climb the flights of stairs to the temple in the cave. Devotees use the wider centre staircase while worshippers and onlookers throng up and down those balustrades on either side.
When the kavadi bearer arrives at the foot of the 272-step stairway leading up to the Temple Cave, the devotee has to make the arduous climb.
Priests attend to the kavadi bearers. Consecrated ash is sprinkled over the hooks and skewers piercing the devotees' flesh before they are removed. No blood is shed during the piercing and removal.
Housing development began around 1970 with housing estates such as Taman Batu Caves, Taman Selayang, Taman Amaniah, Taman Sri Selayang, Taman Medan Batu Caves, and Taman Gombak Permai.
In the last decade, the surrounding area has changed from a small village to industrial estates, new housing, and retail. There is also an elevated flyover across the highway. A new 515-million-ringgit KTM Komuter rail extension from Sentul to Batu Caves began operations in July 2010, serving the rebuilt Batu Caves Komuter station.
Batu Caves is easily reached by commuter train at the Batu Caves Komuter station, costing RM 2.6 for a one-way journey from KL Sentral. Batu Caves may also be reached by bus 11/11d from Bangkok Bank Terminus (Near to Puduraya Terminus) or bus U6 from Titiwangsa. Batu Caves is also easily reached by travelling by car.
- Bavani, M. (30 August 2018). "Batu Caves temple committee steps into trouble". Star. Retrieved 31 August 2018.
- "Temple gets stunning paint job (shame it might be illegal)". BBC. 31 August 2018. Retrieved 31 August 2018.
- ("Rock Climbing @ Batu Caves".Xes
- "Cable car service in Batu Caves next year". New Straits Times. Kuala Lumpur. 16 January 2011. Archived from the original on 29 June 2011. Retrieved 14 April 2011.
- "RM10 mil cable car for Batu Caves". Malaysia Kini. 20 January 2011. Retrieved 14 April 2011.
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