Federated Malay States

The Federated Malay States (FMS, Malay: Negeri-Negeri Melayu Bersekutu, Jawi: نݢري٢ ملايو برسکوتو) was a federation of four protected states in the Malay PeninsulaSelangor, Perak, Negeri Sembilan and Pahang — established in 1895 by the British government, and which lasted until 1946. In that year they formed the Malayan Union together with two of the former Straits Settlements, (Malacca and Penang), and the Unfederated Malay States. Two years later, the Union became the Federation of Malaya, which achieved independence in 1957, and finally Malaysia in 1963 with the inclusion of North Borneo (present-day Sabah), Sarawak and Singapore.

Federated Malay States
Negeri-Negeri Melayu Bersekutu (Malay)
1942–1945 (Japanese occupation)
Motto: Dipelihara Allah
(English: "Under God's Protection")
Malaya in 1922:
  Unfederated Malay States
  Federated Malay States
  Straits Settlements
StatusFederal protectorate of the British Empire
CapitalKuala Lumpur1
Common languages
Sunni Islam
GovernmentConstitutional monarchy
• 1895–1901 (first)
• 1936–1942; 1945–1946 (last)
George VI
Resident General 
• 1896–1901 (first)
Sir Frank Swettenham
• 1939–1942 (last)
Hugh Fraser
LegislatureFederal Legislative Council
Historical eraBritish Empire
• Federated
• Treaty of Federation
1 July 1896
15 February 1942 – 2 September 1945
2 September 1945
1 April 1946
• 1933[1]
CurrencyStraits dollar (1898–1939)
Malayan dollar (1939–1942; 1945–1946)
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Negeri Sembilan
Japanese occupation of Malaya
British Military Administration (Malaya)
Malayan Union
Today part ofMalaysia
1 Also the state capital of Selangor
² Malay using Jawi (Arabic) script
³ Later Chief Secretaries to the Government and Federal Secretaries

Real power in the FMS and its constituent states rested with the four local British Residents and the Resident-General, the discretionary powers of the local sultans being essentially reduced to matters "touching Malay Religion and Customs".

The federation, along with the Unfederated Malay States of the peninsula and the Straits Settlements, was overrun and occupied by the Japanese during World War II. After the liberation of Malaya following the Japanese surrender, the federation was not restored, but the federal form of government was retained as the principal model for consolidating the separate States as an independent Federation of Malaya and the Federation's later evolution into Malaysia.

Formation and power structure edit

On 20 January 1874, Sir Andrew Clarke, governor of the Straits Settlements, concluded with the Sultan of Perak the treaty of Pangkor whereby the Sultan agreed to "receive and provide a suitable residence for a British Officer to be called Resident, who shall be accredited to his court, and whose advice must be asked and acted upon on all questions other than those touching Malay Religion and Customs". The residency system was extended the same year to the states of Selangor and Negri Sembilan, and in 1888 to Pahang.[2]

To promote greater administrative efficiency, these four states were brought together in 1895-1896 to form the Federated Malay States. This structure was highly centralized, real power resting in the hands of the agents of the British Government, at first called the Resident-General, and later the Chief Secretary.[2]

The British established the Federal Council in 1898 to administer the Federation. It was headed by the High Commissioner (The Governor of the Straits Settlement), assisted by the Resident-General, the Sultans, the four state Residents and four nominated unofficial members. This structure remained until the Japanese invaded Malaya on 8 December 1941.

The sultans and First Durbar edit

Although the Resident-General was the real administrator of the federation, each of the four constituent states of the federation retained their respective hereditary rulers (sultans). At the formation of the Federated Malay States, the reigning sultans were:

  1. Sultan Alaiddin Sulaiman Shah of Selangor
  2. Sultan Idris Murshidul ‘Adzam Shah I of Perak
  3. Yamtuan Tuanku Muhammad Shah of Negeri Sembilan
  4. Sultan Ahmad Mu’adzam Shah of Pahang

In 1897 the first Durbar was convened in the royal town of Kuala Kangsar, Perak as the platform for discussions for the four Rulers. This formed the basis for the Conference of Rulers that was created later on under Article 38 of the Malaysian Constitution on 27 August 1957.

Flag and emblem of the Federation edit

Flag edit

  1:2. Flag of the Federated Malay States (1895–1946)

The Federated Malay States had a flag of its own until its dissolution in 1946. The flag consisted of four different-coloured stripes, from top to bottom: white, red, yellow and black. Different combinations of these colours represent the four states that formed the FMS — red, black and yellow are for Negeri Sembilan; black and white for Pahang; black, white and yellow for Perak; and red and yellow for Selangor. The same design concept is used in Malaysian national emblem. In the middle is an oblong circle with a Malayan tiger in it.

The National History Museum located near the Dataran Merdeka in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia has a replica of the federation's flag.

Coat of arms edit

The coat of arms of the Federated Malay States featured a shield guarded by two tigers. On the top of the shield is the crown (known as Eastern Crown in English heraldry), symbolising the federation of monarchies under the protection of the United Kingdom. A banner with the phrase "Dipelihara Allah" (Under God's (Allah) Protection) written in Jawi is located underneath the shield.

The combinations of the four colours of the shield represents the colours of the flags of the states of the FMS in the same way the stripes of the FMS flag do.

  1. Red and yellow for Selangor
  2. Black, white and yellow for Perak
  3. Red, black and yellow for Negeri Sembilan
  4. Black and white for Pahang

This design forms the basis of the Federation of Malaya's national emblem along with the guardian tigers and a quartered shield of the same, symbolic four colours mentioned above.

The phrase "Dipelihara Allah" was also adopted as the current state motto for the state of Selangor.

Naval Ensign edit

Naval ensign of the Federated Malay States (1895–1946)

In addition to a state flag, the Federated Malay States also had a naval jack or ensign for use on government ships. The ensign, with the four colours of the FMS, was flown by HMS Malaya, commanded by Captain Boyle under the 5th Battle Squadron of the British Grand Fleet) during the Battle of Jutland in the North Sea. This was the largest and the only full-scale clash of battleships during World War I.

Government edit

Resident-General edit

From 1896 to 1936, real power lay in the hands of the Resident-General, later known as Chief Secretary of the Federation.

Residents-General of the FMS (1896–1911)
Order Residents-Generals From Until
1 Frank Athelstane Swettenham 1 January 1896 12 December 1901
William Hood Treacher 5 October 1897 16 April 1898 Acting
29 April 1900 12 December 1901 Acting
2 13 December 1901 31 December 1904
William Thomas Taylor 13 September 1904 31 December 1904 Acting
3 1 January 1905 30 September 1910
Edward Lewis Brockman 11 May 1907 13 February 1908 Acting
Henry Conway Belfield 4 May 1908 27 July 1908 Acting
Reginald George Watson 26 February 1910 29 September 1910 Acting
4 30 September 1910 31 January 1911

Chief Secretary to the Government edit

Flag of the Chief Secretary of the Federated Malay States
Chief Secretaries to the Government of the FMS (1911–1936)
Order Chief Secretaries From Until
1 Arthur Young 1 February 1911 1 September 1911
2 Edward Lewis Brockman 2 September 1911 12 September 1920
Reginald George Watson 3 April 1914 8 February 1915 Acting
Edward George Broadrick 21 January 1918 5 February 1918 Acting
Reginald George Watson 7 April 1918 25 August 1918 Acting
Frederick Seton James 13 June 1920 3 October 1920 Acting
3 George Maxwell 13 September 1920 6 May 1926
Arthur Blennerhassett Voules 14 October 1920 4 March 1921 Acting
Oswald Francis Gerard Stonor 21 December 1921 9 January 1922 Acting
Edward Shaw Hose 11 May 1923 24 October 1923 Acting
4 William Peel 9 May 1926 9 April 1930
Henry Wagstaffe Thomson 6 May 1927 5 June 1927 Acting
10 September 1927 31 March 1928 Acting
Charles Walter Hamilton Cochrane 30 November 1929 8 April 1930 Acting
5 9 April 1930 24 March 1932
Andrew Caldecott 25 July 1931 23 March 1932 Acting
6 24 March 1932 3 February 1933
7 Malcolm Bond Shelley 4 February 1933 4 April 1935
8 Marcus Rex 4 April 1935 24 February 1936

Federal Secretaries edit

After 1936 the Federal Secretaries were no more than co-ordinating officers, under the authority of the High Commissioners, which are always the Governors of the Straits Settlements

Federal Secretaries of the FMS (1936–1942)
Order Federal Secretaries From Until
1 Christopher Dominic Ahearne 24 February 1936 6 May 1939
2 Hugh Fraser 6 May 1939 15 February 1942

State Council edit

In the Federated Malay States, the individual State were still ruled by the Sultan but was now advised by the State Council for the purpose of administrating the State. The State Council was made up of the Resident (or in certain cases by the Secretary to the Resident), native chiefs, and representative(s) of the Chinese community nominated by the Sultan. The council discussed matters of interest for each respective state such as legislative and administrative issues as well as revision of all sentence of capital punishment. The Resident and his staff (mostly consist of European and Malay) carried on with the administrative work.

Residents edit

Selangor edit
Perak edit
Negeri Sembilan edit
Pahang edit
  • 1888 – 1896 John Pickersgill Rodger (born 1851 – died 1910)
  • 1896 – 1900 Hugh Clifford (1st time) (born 1866 – died 1941)
  • 1900 – 1901 Arthur Butler (born 18... – died 1901)
  • 1901 – D. H. Wise (acting)
  • 1901 – 1903 Hugh Clifford (2nd time) (s.a.)
  • 1905 – 1908 Cecil Wray
  • 1908 – 1909 Harvey Chevallier (acting)
  • 1909 – 1910 Edward Lewis Brockman (born 1865 – died 1943)
  • 1910 – 1911 Warren Delabere Barnes (born 1865 – died 1911)
  • 1911 – 1917 Edward John Brewster (born 1861 – died 1931)
  • 1917 – 1921 Cecil William Chase Parr (born 1871 – died 1943)
  • 1921 – 1922 F. A. S. McClelland (acting) (born 1873 – died 1947)
  • 1922 – 1926 Henry Wagstaffe Thomson (born 1874 – died 1941)
  • 1926 – 1929 Arthur Furley Worthington (born 1874 – died 1964)
  • 1929 – 1930 C. F. J. Green
  • 1931 – 1935 Hugh Goodwin Russell Leonard (born 1880 – died 19...)
  • 1935 – 1941 C. C. Brown

Administrative subdivisions edit

Administrative divisions of the Federated Malay States in 1939

For the purpose of efficient administration, all the states of the federation were further divided into districts (Malay: Daerah). Each district was administered by a District Office (Malay: Pejabat Daerah) headed by a District Officer (Malay: Pegawai Daerah).[3]

Perak edit

State capital: Ipoh, Perak


1. Hulu Perak (Upper Perak)
2. Selama
3. Larut
4. Kerian
5. Matang
6. Kuala Kangsar
7. Kinta
8. Hilir Perak (Lower Perak)
9. Batang Padang
1. The territories of Dinding and Pangkor Island was ceded to the British, administered as part of the Straits Settlements. Returned to the government of Perak in February 1935.[4]
2. The capital of Perak was moved to Ipoh in 1935 and has remained there ever since.

Selangor edit

State capital: Kuala Lumpur (also served as the federal capital cum administrative centre)


10. Hulu Selangor
11. Kuala Selangor
12. Kuala Lumpur
13. Klang
14. Hulu Langat
15. Kuala Langat
Kuala Lumpur and its immediate environs became a Federal Territory in February 1974, separating it from Selangor. The remainder of Greater Kuala Lumpur district was simultaneously reorganised as the new districts of Gombak and Petaling
Sepang was carved from portions of Hulu Langat and Kuala Langat in 1975. The Federal Territory of Putrajaya was in turn separated in 2001 from Dengkil parish of Sepang District which once fell under Hulu Langat district.

Negeri Sembilan edit

State capital: Seremban


16. Seremban
17. Port Dickson (coastal district)
18. Jelebu
19. Kuala Pilah
20. Tampin
Tanjung Tuan (also known as Cape Rachado) was a Dutch possession (originally Portuguese before 1641), passed to the British in 1824. Administered as an exclave of Malacca until today.

Pahang edit

State capital: Kuala Lipis


21. Lipis
22. Raub
23. Bentong
24. Temerloh
25. Kuantan
26. Pekan
The capital of Pahang was Kuala Lipis until 1953 when it moved to Kuantan.

The Federated Malay States as a forerunner to Malaysia edit

Evolution of Malaysia

Justice edit

The first Supreme Court was established in 1906 and headed by the Judicial Commissioner, in whom supreme judicial authority was vested. The title of Judicial Commissioner was changed to Chief Judge in 1925.

Judicial Commissioners edit

Chief Judges edit

Economy edit

From the earlier period of the federation the currency in used was the Straits dollar issued by the Board of Commissioners of Currency for the Straits Settlements. As the currency depreciated over time, it was pegged at two shillings four sterling pence in 1906. In 1939, the British government introduced a new currency, Malayan dollar (ringgit in Malay) for used in Malaya and Brunei replacing the Straits dollar at par value. It had the smallest denominations of 1 cent to a highest of 1000 Malayan dollar and retained the exchange rate as was from the Straits dollar.

The Federated Malay States main economic activity was mostly focused on agriculture and mining with emphasis on rubber and tin. FMS and Malaya as a whole was the main supplier of these two commodities for the British industrial need. Rubber estates or plantations were established in all four states and tin was mined primarily in the Klang valley in Selangor and the Kinta Valley in Perak. This labour-intensive economic activities prompted the British to bring in immigrant workers from southern India to work at the plantations and workers from southern China to mine the tin.

The economic condition in the period can be viewed as self-sustainable, as the income of the federation was more than what was expended in terms of maintaining the administration and economic activities. In the later period, many resources were poured into the development of the city of Kuala Lumpur, as the capital of the federation. This period also saw rapid growth in terms of communications infrastructure such as interstate roads, the expansion of the Federated Malay States Railways' narrow gauge railway line between the Padang Besar and Singapore, and Port Swettenham (present-day Port Klang). Public schools and academic institutions were also opened along with an improvement in public health. An area in the city was also gazetted as a settlement for the Malay called Kampung Baru. Public buildings were also constructed such as the Kuala Lumpur railway station, the Government Offices of the FMS and Masjid Jamek.

The table and section below illustrated the economic growth of the federation and its member states.

Growth of trade and government revenue and expenditure (1875–1922)
Year Revenue Expenditure Import Export
1875 $409,394 $436,872 $831,375 $739,972
1880 $881,910 $794,944 $2,231,048 $1,906,952
1885 $2,208,709 $2,261,954 $8,667,425 $9,961,786
1890 $4,840,065 $5,237,275 $15,443,809 $17,602,093
1895 $8,481,007 $7,582,553 $22,653,271 $31,622,805
1900 $15,609,807 $12,728,930 $38,402,581 $60,361,045
1905 $23,964,593 $20,750,395 $50,575,455 $80,057,654
1910 $26,553,018 $23,598,610 $53,255,151 $102,851,990
1915 $40,774,984 $42,838,631 $61,343,935 $162,429,254
1920 $72,277,146 $100,433,471 $175,916,712 $289,112,016
1921 $54,449,568 $114,386,546 $102,914,877 $134,955,549
1922 $52,494,110 $49,811,007 $78,822,349 $140,429,775

Note: All values are in Straits dollars (One dollar fixed at two shillings and four pence sterling). Data for Pahang included only from 1890 onwards.

Ref: Harrison, Cuthbert Woodville. An Illustrated Guide to the Federated Malay States. 1923.

Selangor edit

The revenue of Selangor in 1875 amounted to only $115,656; in 1905 it had increased to $8,857,793. Of this latter sum $3,195,318 was derived from duty on tin exported, $1,972,628 from finance, federal receipts, and $340,360 from land revenue. The trade balance was chiefly derived from the revenue farms, which included the right to collect import duty on opium and spirits. The expenditure for 1905 amounted to $7,186,146, of which sum $3,717,238 was on account of federal charges and $1,850,711 for public works. The value of the imports in 1905 was $24,643,619 and that of the exports was $26,683,316, making a total of $51,326,935 equivalent to £5,988,000. Tin is the principal export. The amount exported in 1905 was 17,254 tons. The total area of alienated mining land at the end of 1905 amounted to 65,573 acres (265 km2).

Perak edit

The revenue of Perak in 1874 amounted to $226,333. That for 1905 amounted to $12,242,897. Of this latter sum $4,876,400 was derived from duty on exported tin, $2,489,300 from railway receipts, $505,300 from land revenue and $142,800 from postal and telegraphic revenue. The remainder is mainly derived from the revenue farms, which are leased for a short term of years, conveying to the lessee the right to collect import duties upon opium, wine and spirits, to keep pawnbroking shops, and to keep public licensed gambling-houses for the use of non-Malay only. The expenditure for 1905 amounted to $10,141,980. Of this sum $4,236,000 was expended upon railway upkeep and construction and $2,176,100 upon public works. The value of the imports into Perak during 1905 was over $20,000,000, and that of the exports exceeded $40,000,000, making a total of over $60,000,000, equivalent to about seven million sterling. The output of tin from Perak ranged between 18,960 tons, valued at $23,099,506 in 1899, and 26,600 tons, valued at $35,500,000, in 1905. The fluctuating character of the output was due to the uncertainty of the labour supply. The mining population was recruited exclusively from the districts of southern China, and during certain years an increased demand for labourers in China itself, in French Indo-China, in the Dutch colonies, and in South Africa temporarily and adversely affected immigration to the Straits of Malacca. The output had, moreover, been affected from time to time by the price of tin, which was $32.20 per pikul in 1896, rose to $42.96 in 1898, to $74.15 in 1900, and averaged $80.60 in 1905. Exclusive of tin, the principal exports were $108,000 worth of Para rubber, $181,000 of copra, $54,000 of hides, $48,000 of patchouli, and considerable quantities of timber, rattans and other jungle produce.

Negeri Sembilan edit

The revenue of the Negri Sembilan amounted to only $223,435 in 1888. In 1898 it had increased to $701,334, in 1900 to $1,251,366, and in 1905 to $2,335,534. The revenue for 1905 was derived mainly as follows: – customs $1,268,602, land revenue $145,475, land sales $21,407, while the revenue farms contributed $584,459. The expenditure in 1905 amounted to $2,214,093, of which $1,125,355 was expended upon public works. The trade returns for 1905, which are not, however, complete, showed an aggregate value of about $13,000,000. The value of the tin exported during 1905 exceeded $6,900,000, and the value of the agricultural produce, of which gambier represented $211,000 and damar $80,000, amounted to $407,990.

Pahang edit

The revenue of Pahang in 1899 amounted to only $62,077; in 1900 to $419,150. In 1905 it was $528,368. The expenditure in 1905 amounted to $1,208,176. Of this sum $736,886 was expended on public works. Pahang is still a source of expense to the federation, its progress having been retarded by the disturbances which lasted from December 1891 until 1895, with short intervals of peace, but the revenue was steadily increasing, and the ultimate financial success of the state is considered to be secure. Pahang owed something over $3,966,500 to Selangor and $1,175,000 to Perak, which had financed it for some years out of surplus revenue. The value of the imports in 1905 was $1,344,346, that of the exports was $3,838,928, thus making a total trade value of $5,183,274. The most valuable export is tin, the value of which in 1905 amounted to $2,820,745. The value of the gutta exported exceeded $140,000, that of dried and salted fish amounted to nearly $70,000, and that of timber to $325,000.

Education edit

Press and publications edit

Military history edit

WWI and the FMS edit

With the threat of Germany, the British Navy was in a drive for expansion. As a contribution, the Government and people of the Federated Malay States agreed to finance the commissioning of HMS Malaya; this was a motion proposed in the Federal Council by the Sultan of Perak in 1913 and supported by the Sultan of Selangor. The battleship which cost $25,000,000 (approximately £2,945,709) was one of five of the Queen Elizabeth class, displacing 31,000 tons, mounting fifteen-inch guns and capable of 25 knots (46 km/h). The most modern ships of their day, they formed the 5th Battle Squadron and fought as such at Jutland in 1916. HMS Malaya was also refurbished and was in service throughout World War II.

WWII – Japanese invasion and dissolution edit

After the Japanese landed in Malaya on 8 December 1941, the Japanese forces began their invasion of the Malay Peninsula. Japanese forces began their invasion of the FMS by crossing the Thailand–FMS border at Kroh. Ipoh, the state capital of Perak, fell on 26 December 1941. Kuala Lumpur, the capital of the Federated Malay States and the State of Selangor, was captured on 11 January 1942. Seremban, the state capital of Negeri Sembilan, was captured two days later. Kuantan, in the eastern component state of Pahang, fell on 30 December 1941, meanwhile the capital, Kuala Lipis was taken by the Japanese on 7 January 1942. With the conclusion of the Battle of Gemas on 15 January 1942, the entire FMS was now in Japanese hands.

All of Malaya including Singapore remained under Japanese occupation until the surrender of the Japanese home islands.

Dissolution of the FMS edit

After the war the federation was dissolved formally on 1 April 1946, and was incorporated into the Malayan Union thereafter. This in turn was succeeded by the Federation of Malaya in 1948, which gained independence in 1957, and finally the establishment of Malaysia in 1963.

Postage stamps edit

Stamp issued by the Federated Malay States in 1906

While the four states issued their own postage stamps as before, there were additional issues for the Federated States as a whole.

Notable event edit

The Federated Malay States were within the flight path of American aviator Amelia Earhart on the Thailand–Singapore leg of her final and fatal attempt to cross the globe in 1937. She was given permission to enter FMS airspace with provision to land at Taiping Airport on 7 June 1937.

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ "Annual report of the Medical Department / Federated Malay States". Retrieved 2 September 2021.
  2. ^ a b Simon C. Smith, "Rulers and Residents: British Relations with the Aden Protectorate, 1937–59", Middle Eastern Studies, Vol. 31, No. 3 (Jul., 1995), p. 511.
  3. ^ "Map of British Malaya Including The Straits Settlements Federated Malay States and Malay States Not Included In The Federation 1924". Raremaps.com. Archived from the original on 20 March 2016. Retrieved 20 March 2016.
  4. ^ "Sejarah Manjung". Laman Web Rasmi Majlis Perbandaran Manjung. Manjung Municipal Council. Archived from the original on 27 November 2015. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
  5. ^ "Samuel Joyce THOMAS". homepages.ihug.co.nz. Archived from the original on 13 October 2015.
  6. ^ "SIR ROGER HALL NEW F.M.S. CHIEF JUSTICE". The Straits Times. 6 September 1937. p. 12.

Notes edit

3°09′35″N 101°42′00″E / 3.1597°N 101.7000°E / 3.1597; 101.7000