This article or section is currently undergoing a major edit by the Guild of Copy Editors. As a courtesy, please do not edit this page while this message is displayed.
The copy editor who added this notice is listed in the page history. This page was last revised at 08:43, 15 November 2019 (UTC) (4 minutes ago) by FiveFaintFootprints (talk · contribs) ( ).
If you have any questions or concerns, please direct them to the Guild of Copy Editors' talk page. Thank you for your patience.
Perak (Malay pronunciation: [peraʔ]) is a state of Malaysia on the west coast of the Malay Peninsula. Perak has land borders with the Malaysian states of Kedah to the north, Penang to the northwest, Kelantan and Pahang to the east, and Selangor to the south. Thailand's Yala and Narathiwat provinces both lie to the northeast. Ipoh is the capital city, known historically for its tin-mining activities until the price of the metal dropped, severely affecting the state's economy. The royal capital remains Kuala Kangsar, where the palace of the Sultan of Perak is located. As of 2018, the state's population was 2,500,000. Perak has diverse tropical rainforests and an equatorial climate. The state's mountain ranges belong to the Titiwangsa Range, which is part of the larger Tenasserim Range connecting Thailand, Myanmar and Malaysia. Perak's Mount Korbu is the highest point of the range.
Abode of Grace
Perak Aman Jaya
Perak Peace Success
|Anthem: Allah Lanjutkan Usia Sultan|
God Lengthen the Sultan's Age
|Royal capital||Kuala Kangsar|
|• Type||Parliamentary constitutional monarchy|
|• Sultan||Nazrin Muizzuddin Shah|
|• Menteri Besar||Ahmad Faizal Azumu (PH-BERSATU)|
|• Executive Council||Perak State Executive Council|
|• Total||20,976 km2 (8,099 sq mi)|
|• Total||2,500,000 (5th)|
|• Ethnic composition|
|• Dialects||Perak Malay • Cantonese • Tamil|
Other ethnic minority languages
|• HDI (2017)||0.807 (high) (6th)|
|• TFR (2017)||1.9|
|• GDP (2016)||RM65,958 million|
|Time zone||UTC+8 (MST)|
|Calling code||033 to 058|
|ISO 3166 code||MY-08, 36–39|
|Federated into FMS||1895|
|Accession into the Federation of Malaya||1948|
|Independence as part of the Federation of Malaya||31 August 1957|
Perak fills in the missing pieces of the Homo sapiens migration from Mainland Asia through Southeast Asia to the Australian continent, with the ancient skeleton known as Perak Man dated to around 10,000 years ago. An early Hindu or Buddhist kingdom, followed by several other minor kingdoms existed before the arrival of Islam. By 1528, a Muslim sultanate began to emerge, established from the remnants of the Malaccan Sultanate. Although able to resist Siamese occupation for more than two hundred years, the Sultanate was partly controlled by the Sumatra-based Aceh Sultanate. This was particularly the case after the of Aceh lineage took over the royal succession. With the arrival of the Dutch East India Company (VOC), and the VOC's increasing conflicts with Aceh, Perak began to distance itself from Acehnese control. The presence of the English East India Company (EIC) in the nearby Straits Settlements of Penang provided additional protection for the state, with further Siamese attempts to conquer Perak being thwarted by British expeditionary forces.
The Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824 was signed to prevent further conflict between the British and the Dutch. It enabled the British to expand their control in the Malay Peninsula without interference from other foreign powers. The 1874 Pangkor Treaty provided for direct British intervention, with the state appointing a British Resident. Following Perak's subsequent absorption into the Federated Malay States (FMS), the British reformed administration of the sultanate through a new style of government, actively promoting a market-driven economy and maintaining law and order while combatting the slavery widely practised across Perak at the time. The three-year Japanese occupation in World War II halted further progress. After the war, Perak became part of the temporary Malayan Union, before being absorbed into the Federation of Malaya. It gained full independence through the federation, which subsequently became Malaysia on 16 September 1963.
Perak is ethnically, culturally and linguistically diverse. The state is known for several traditional dances of bubu, dabus and labu sayong, the latter name also referring to the unique traditional pottery of the state. The head of state is the Sultan of Perak, and the head of government is the Menteri Besar. The government system is closely modelled on the Westminster parliamentary system, with the state administration divided into administrative districts. Islam is the state religion, and other religions may be practised freely. Malay and English are recognised as the official languages of the state. The economy is mainly based on services and manufacturing.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Politics
- 5 Economy
- 6 Infrastructure
- 7 Demography
- 8 Culture
- 9 References
- 10 Further reading
- 11 External links
There are many theories about the origin of the name Perak. Although not used until after 1529, the most popular etymology is "silver" (in Malay: Perak), associated with tin mining from the state's large mineral deposits, and the state's ranking among the world's largest tin producers. The first Islamic kingdom established in the state was of the lineage of the Sultanate of Malacca. Some local historians have suggested that the state was named after Malacca's bendahara, Tun Perak. In maps prior to 1561, the area is marked as Perat. Other historians believe that the name Perak derives from the Malay phrase "kilatan ikan dalam air" (the glimmer of fish in water), which looks like silver. Perak has been translated into Arabic as دار الرضوان (Dār al-Riḍwān), "abode of grace".
Among the prehistoric sites in Malaysia where artefacts from the Middle Palaeolithic era have been found are Bukit Bunuh, Bukit Gua Harimau, Bukit Jawa, Bukit Kepala Gajah, and Kota Tampan in the Lenggong Archaeological Heritage Valley. Bukit Bunuh and Kota Tampan are ancient lakeside sites. The geology of Bukit Bunuh shows evidence of meteoric impact. The 10,000-year-old skeleton known as Perak Man was found inside the Bukit Gunung Runtuh cave at Bukit Kepala Gajah. Ancient tools discovered in the area of Kota Tampan, including anvils, cores, debitage, and hammerstones, provide information on the migrations of Homo sapiens. Other important Neolithic sites in the country include Bukit Gua Harimau, Gua Badak, Gua Pondok, and Padang Rengas, containing evidence of human presence in the Mesolithic Hoabinhian era.
In 1959, a British artillery officer stationed at an inland army base during the Malayan Emergency discovered Gua Tambun, identified by archaeologists as the largest rock art site in the Malay Peninsula. Most of the paintings are located high above the cave floor, at an elevation of 6–10 metres (20–33 ft). Seashells and coral fragments scattered along the cave floor are evidence that the area was once underwater.
The significant numbers of statues of Hindu deities and the Buddha found in Bidor, Kuala Selensing, Jalong, and Pengkalan Pegoh indicate that, before the arrival of Islam, the inhabitants of Perak were mainly Hindu or Buddhist. The influence of Indian culture and beliefs on society and values in the Malay Peninsula from early times is believed to have culminated in the semi-legendary Gangga Negara kingdom. The Malay Annals mention that Gangga Negara at one time fell under Siamese rule before Raja Suran of Thailand sailed further south down the Malay Peninsula.
Sultanate of PerakEdit
By the 15th century, a kingdom named Beruas had come into existence. Inscriptions found on early tombstones of the period show a clear Islamic influence, believed to have originated from the Sultanate of Malacca, the east coast of the Malay Peninsula, and the rural areas of the Perak River. The first organised local government systems to emerge in Perak were the Manjung government and several other governments in Central and Hulu Perak (Upper Perak) under Raja Roman and Tun Saban. With the spread of Islam, a sultanate of Perak subsequently emerged; the second oldest Muslim kingdom in the Malay Peninsula after the neighbouring Sultanate of Kedah. Based on Salasilah Raja-Raja Perak (Perak Royal Genealogy), the sultanate was formed in the early 16th century on the banks of the Perak River by the eldest son of Mahmud Shah, the 8th Sultan of Malacca. He ascended to the throne as Muzaffar Shah I, first sultan of Perak, after surviving the capture of Malacca by the Portuguese in 1511 and living quietly for a period quietly in Siak on the island of Sumatra. He became sultan through the efforts of Tun Saban, a local leader and trader between Perak and Klang. There had been no sultan in Perak when Tun Saban first arrived in the area from Kampar in Sumatra. Most of the area's residents were traders from Malacca and Selangor, and from Siak, Kampar, and Jambi in Sumatra. Among them was an old woman, Tok Masuka from Daik, who raised a Temusai child named Nakhoda Kassim. Before her death, she called on the ancestors of Sang Sapurba take her place, to prevent the royal lineage from disappearing from the Malay Peninsula. Tun Saban and Nakhoda Kassim then travelled to Kampar, where Mahmud Shah agreed to their request that he make his son the first Sultan of Perak.
Perak's administration became more organised after the sultanate was established. In democratic Malacca, government was based on the feudal system. With the opening of Perak in the 16th century, the state became a source of tin ore. It appears that anyone was free to trade in the commodity, although the tin trade did not attract significant attention until the 1610s.
Throughout the 1570s, the Sultanate of Aceh subjected most parts of the Malay Peninsula to continual harassment. The sudden demise of Perak's Sultan Mansur Shah I, who disappeared in mysterious circumstances in 1577, gave rise to rumours of abduction by Acehnese forces. Soon after his disappearance, the late Sultan's widow and his 16 children were taken as captives to Sumatra. Sultan Mansur Shah I's eldest son, Raja Alauddin Mansur Syah, married an Acehnese princess and subsequently became Sultan of Aceh. The Sultanate of Perak was left without a ruling monarch, and Perak nobles journeyed to Aceh in the same year to ask the new Sultan Alauddin for a successor. The ruler sent his younger brother to become Perak's third monarch. Sultan Ahmad Tajuddin Shah ruled Perak for seven years, maintaining the lineage of the Malacca dynasty unbroken. Although Perak did fall under the authority of the Acehnese sultanate, it remained entirely independent of Siamese control for over two hundred years from 1612, in contrast with its neighbour, Kedah, and many of the Malay sultanates in the northern part of the Malay Peninsula, which became tributary states of Siam.
When Sultan Sallehuddin Riayat Shah died without an heir in 1635, a state of uncertainty prevailed in Perak. This was exacerbated by a deadly cholera epidemic that swept through the state, killing many royal family members. Perak chieftains were left with no alternative but to turn to Aceh's Sultan Iskandar Thani, who sent his relative, Raja Sulong, to become the new Perak Sultan Muzaffar Shah II.
Aceh's influence on Perak began to wane when the Dutch East India Company (VOC) arrived, in the mid–17th century. When Perak refused to enter into a contract with the VOC as its northern neighbours had done, a blockade of the Perak River halted the tin trade, causing suffering among Aceh's merchants. In 1650, Aceh's Sultana Taj ul-Alam ordered Perak to sign an agreement with the VOC, on condition that the tin trade would be conducted exclusively with Aceh's merchants. By the following year, 1651, the VOC had secured a monopoly over the tin trade, setting up a store in Perak. Following long competition between Aceh and the VOC over Perak's tin trade, on 15 December 1653, the two parties jointly signed a treaty with Perak granting the Dutch exclusive rights to tin extracted from mines located in the state.
Although Perak nobles had destroyed the earlier store structure, on orders from the Dutch base in Batavia, a fort was built on Pangkor Island in 1670 as a warehouse to store tin ore mined in Perak. The warehouse was also destroyed in further attacks in 1690, but was repaired when the Dutch returned with reinforcements. In 1747, Sultan Muzaffar Riayat Shah III, who held power in the area of Upper Perak, signed a treaty with Dutch Commissioner Ary Verbrugge under which Perak's ruler recognised the Dutch monopoly over the tin trade, agreed to sell all tin ore to Dutch traders, and allowed the Dutch to build a new warehouse fort on the Perak River estuary. With construction of the new warehouse near the Perak River, the old warehouse was abandoned permanently, and left in ruins.
When repeated Burmese invasions resulted in the destruction and defeat of the Siamese Ayutthaya Kingdom in 1767 by the Burmese Konbaung dynasty, neighbouring Malay tributary states began to assert their independence from Siam. To further develop Perak's tin mines, the Dutch administration suggested that its 17th Sultan, Alauddin Mansur Shah Iskandar Muda, should allow in Chinese miners. The sultan himself encouraged the scheme in 1776, requesting that additional Chinese workers be sent from Dutch Malacca. The Fourth Anglo-Dutch War in 1780 adversely affected the tin trade in Perak, and many Chinese miners left. Kedah's Sultan Abdullah Mukarram Shah then entered into an agreement with the English East India Company (EIC), ceding Penang Island to the British in 1786 in exchange for protection, a move which angered the Siamese court.
Siam regained strength under the Thonburi Kingdom, led by Taksin, after freeing itself from Burmese occupation. After repelling another large-scale Burmese invasion, the Rattanakosin Kingdom (Chakri dynasty) led by Rama I, as the successor of the Thonburi Kingdom, turned its attention to its insubordinate southern Malay subjects, fearing renewed attacks from Burma along the western seaboard of the Malay Peninsula. Attention to the south was also needed because of the disunity and rivalries among the various southern tributary sultanates, stemming from personal conflicts and a reluctance to submit to Siamese authority. One example of this resistance was the Sultanate of Pattani under Sultan Muhammad, who refused to aid Siam during the Siamese war of liberation. This led Rama I's younger brother, Prince Surasi, to attack Pattani in 1786. Many Malays were killed, and survivors were taken to the Siamese stronghold in Bangkok as slaves. Siam's subjugation of Pattani served as a direct warning to the other Malay tributary states, particularly neighbouring Kedah, they too having been forced to provide thousands of men, and food supplies, throughout the Siamese resistance campaign against the Burmese.
In 1795, the Dutch temporarily withdrew from Malacca for the duration of the Napoleonic Wars in Europe. Malacca's authority was transferred to the British Resident. When war ended, the Dutch returned to administer Malacca in 1818. In 1818, the treaty granting Dutch monopoly over the tin trade in Perak was renewed, with the signing of a new recognition treaty. The same year, when Perak refused to send a bunga mas tribute to the Siamese court, Rama II of Siam forced Kedah to attack Perak. The Sultanate of Kedah knew the intention behind the order was to weaken ties between fellow Malay states, but complied, unable to resist Siam's further territorial expansion into inland Hulu Perak. Its tributary Malay state, the Kingdom of Reman, then illegally operated tin mines in Klian Intan, angering the Sultan of Perak and provoking a dispute that escalated into civil war. Reman, aided by Siam, succeeded in controlling several inland districts. In 1821, Siam invaded and conquered the Sultanate of Kedah, angered by a breach of trust. The exiled Sultan of Kedah turned to the British to help him regain his throne, despite Britain's policy of non-engagement in expensive minor wars in the Malay Peninsula at the time, which the EIC maintained through the Governor-General of India. Siam's subsequent plan to extend its conquests to the southern territory of Perak failed after Perak defeated the Siamese forces with the aid of mixed Bugis and Malay reinforcements from the Sultanate of Selangor. As an expression of gratitude to Selangor for assisting it to defeat Siam, Perak authorised Raja Hasan of Selangor to collect taxes and revenues in its territory. This power, however, was soon misused, causing conflict between the two sultanates.
Since the EIC's establishment of early British presence in Penang, the British had maintained another trading post in Singapore, avoiding involvement in the affairs of the nearby Malay sultanate states. In 1822, the British authority in India sent British diplomat John Crawfurd to Siam to negotiate trade concessions and gather information with a view to restoring the Sultan of Kedah to the throne. The mission failed. In 1823, the sultanates of Perak and Selangor signed a joint agreement to block the Dutch tin monopoly in their territories. EIC policy shifted with the First Anglo-Burmese War in 1824, Siam then becoming an important ally.
Through its Governor, Robert Fullerton, Penang tried to convince the EIC main authority in India to continue helping the Sultan of Kedah to regain his throne. Throughout 1824, Siam aimed to expand its control towards Perak and Selangor. The dispute between the British and Dutch formally ceased when Dutch Malacca in the Malay Peninsula was exchanged with British Bencoolen in Sumatra, both parties agreeing to limit their sphere of influence through the signing of the 1824 Anglo-Dutch Treaty. In July 1825, an initial negotiation was held between Siam, represented by tributary state the Kingdom of Ligor, and the EIC. The King of Ligor promised that Siam would not send its armada to Perak and Selangor, so resolving the issue of its attacks. The British renounced any aspiration to conquer Perak or interfere in its administration, promising to prevent Raja Hasan of Selangor from making trouble in Perak, and to try to reconcile the differences between Selangor and Ligor. A month later, in August 1825, Ibrahim Shah of the Sultanate of Selangor signed a friendship and peace treaty with the EIC, represented by John Anderson, ending the long feud between the governments of Selangor and Perak. Under the treaty, Selangor gave assurances to the British that they would not interfere in the affairs of Perak; the border between Perak and Selangor was finalised; and Raja Hasan of Selangor was to be immediately exiled from Perak, paving the way for peace between the two Malay states and the resolution of the power struggle between the British and Siam.
In 1826, the Kingdom of Ligor broke its promise and attempted to conquer Perak. A small British expeditionary force thwarted the attack. The Sultan of Perak then ceded to the British the area of Dindings and Pangkor (the two now constitute Manjung District) so that the British could suppress pirate activity along the Perak coast where it became part of the Straits Settlements. The same year, the British and Siam concluded a new treaty. Under the Burney Treaty, signed by British Captain Henry Burney and the Siamese government, the British undertook not to intercede in the affairs of Kedah despite their friendly relations with Kedah's ruler, and the Siamese undertook not to attack either Perak or Selangor.
The discovery of tin in Larut and rapid growth of the tin ore trade in the 19th century saw an increasing influx of Chinese labour. Later, rivalry developed between two Chinese secret societies. This, coupled with internal political strife between two faction of Perak's local Malay rulers, escalated into the Larut Wars in 1841. After 21 years of liberation wars, neighbouring Kedah finally freed itself from full Siamese rule in 1843, although it remained a Siamese tributary state until 1909. By 1867, the link between the Straits Settlements on the Malay coast and the British authority in India was broken, with separate administration and the respective territories transferred to the Colonial Office. The Anglo-Dutch Treaties of 1870–71 enabled the Dutch to consolidate control over Aceh in Sumatra. This later escalated into the Aceh War.
Internal conflicts ensued in Perak. In 1873, the ruler of one of Perak's two local Malay factions, Raja Abdullah Muhammad Shah II, wrote to the Governor of the British Straits Settlements, Andrew Clarke, requesting British assistance. This resulted in the Treaty of Pangkor, signed on Pangkor Island on 20 January 1874, under which the British recognized Abdullah as the legitimate Sultan of Perak. In return, the treaty provided for direct British intervention through the appointment of a Resident who would advise the sultan on all matters except religion and customs and oversee revenue collection and general administration, including maintenance of peace and order. The treaty marked the introduction of a British residential system, with Perak going on to become part of the Federated Malay States (FMS) in 1895, and a shift from the previous British policy of non-intervention in Perak's affairs. James W. W. Birch was appointed as Perak's first British Resident. His inability to understand and communicate well with the locals, ignorance of Malay customs, and disparagement of the efforts of the sultan and his dignitaries to implement British tax control and collection systems caused resentment. Local nationalist Maharaja Lela and the new monarch, Sultan Abdullah Muhammad Shah II, opposed him, and the following year, in 1875, Birch was assassinated through a conspiracy of local Malay dignitaries Seputum, Pandak Indut, Che Gondah, and Ngah Ahmad . The assassination angered the British authority, and the perpetrators were arrested and executed. The sultan and his chiefs, also suspected of involvement in the plot, were banished to the British Seychelles in the Indian Ocean in 1876.
During his exile, the sultan had use of a government-owned residence at Union Vale in Victoria, Mahé. The other exiled chiefs were given allowances, but remained under strict surveillance. The sultan and his chiefs were temporary relocated to Félicité Island for five years, before being allowed to return to Victoria in 1882 when turmoil in Perak had subsided. The sultan led a quiet life in the Seychellois community, with communications access to Government House. After many years, the sultan was pardoned following petitioning by the Seychellois and correspondence between W. H. Hawley of Government House, Mauritius, and Secretary of State for the Colonies Henry Holland. He was allowed to return to the Malay Peninsula, and spent most of his later life in the Straits Settlements of Singapore and Penang before returning to Kuala Kangsar in Perak in 1922.
British Resident in Perak Hugh Low proved an effective administrator, preferring to adopt a generous approach that avoided confrontation with local leaders. As a result, he was able to secure the cooperation of many rajas and village penghulu with his policy rather than resorting to force, despite giving transport infrastructure little attention during his term. In 1882, Frank Swettenham succeeded Low for a second term as the Resident of Perak. During his mandate, Perak's rail and road infrastructure was put in place. Increasing numbers of labourers were brought from India, principally to work as railway and municipal coolies.
The British introduced several changes to the local political structure, exerting influence on the appointment of the sultan and restricting the power of his chiefs to Malay local matters. The sultan and his chiefs were no longer entitled to collect taxes, but received a monthly allowance from the state treasury in compensation. British intervention marked the beginning of Perak's transition from a primarily Malay society to a multi-ethnic population. The new style of government worked to promote a market-driven economy, maintain law and order, and combatslavery, seen by the British as an obstacle to economic development and incompatible with a capitalist economy. Under the Anglo-Siamese Treaty, signed in Bangkok in 1909, Siam ceded to Great Britain its northern Malay tributary states of Kedah, Kelantan, Perlis, and Terengganu and nearby islands. Exceptions were the Patani region, which remained under Siamese rule, and Perak, which regained the previously lost inland territory that became the Hulu Perak District. The treaty terms stipulated that the British, through their government of the FMS, would assume responsibility for all debts owed to Siam by the four ceded Malay states, and relinquish British extraterritorial rights in Siam.
Second World WarEdit
There had been a Japanese community in Perak since 1893, managing the bus service between the town of Ipoh and Batu Gajah, and running brothels in Kinta. There were a number of other Japanese-run businesses in Ipoh, including dentists, photo studios, laundries, tailors, barbers, and hotels. Activity increased as a result of the close relationship created by the Anglo-Japanese Alliance.
Early in July 1941, before the beginning of World War II, a Ceylonese Malay policeman serving under the British administration in Perak raised an alert. A Japanese business owner living in the same building had told him that Japanese troops were on their way, approaching not around Singapore from the sea, as expected by the British, but from Kota Bharu in Kelantan, with bicycle infantry and rubber boat. The policeman informed the British Chief Police Officer in Ipoh, but his claim was laughed off. By 26 December 1941, the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) arrived in the capital, Ipoh, moving southwards from Thailand. The following day they went on to Taiping, leaving destruction and heavy casualties in their wake. The British forces, retreating from the north of the Malay Peninsula under Lieutenant-General Lewis Heath, had moved a further 80–100 miles (130–160 km) to the Perak River, damaging the route behind them to slow the Japanese advance. With the approval of Lieutenant-General Arthur Percival, the British mounted a defensive stand near the river mouth and in Kampar, leaving the towns of Ipoh, Kuala Kangsar and Taiping unguarded.
Most civil administrations were closed down, the European administrators and civilians heading south. By mid-December, the Japanese had reached Kroh in the interior of Perak, moving in from Kota Bharu in Kelantan. The Japanese arrived both from the east and by boat along the western coast. Within 16 days of their first landings, they had captured the entire northern part of Malay Peninsula. The British were left trying to blockade the main road heading south of Ipoh. While the defending troops briefly slowed the Japanese at the Battle of Kampar and at the mouth of Perak River, the Japanese advance along the trunk road, followed up with bombing and water-borne incursions, forced the British to retreat further south.
The Japanese occupied all of Malaya and Singapore. Tokugawa Yoshichika, a scion of the Tokugawa clan whose ancestors were shōguns who ruled Japan from the 16th to 19th centuries, proposed a reform plan. Under its terms, the five kingdoms of Johor, Terengganu, Kelantan, Kedah-Penang, and Perlis would be restored and federated. Johor would control Perak, Selangor, Negeri Sembilan, and Malacca. An 800-square-mile (2,100 km2) area in southern Johor would be incorporated into Singapore for defence purposes.
In the context of the military alliance between Japan and Thailand and their joint participation in the Burma campaign against the Allied forces, in 1943 the Empire of Japan restored to Thailand the former Malay tributary states of Kedah, Kelantan, Perlis, and Terengganu, ceded by the then-named Siam to the British under the 1909 treaty. The four states were then administered as Thailand's Four Malay States (Thai: สี่รัฐมาลัย), with Japanese troops maintaining an ongoing presence. Perak suffered under harsh military control, restricted movement, and tight surveillance throughout the Japanese occupation and until 1945. The press in occupied Malaya, including the English-language occupation-era newspaper The Perak Times, was entirely under the control of the Dōmei News Agency (Dōmei Tsushin), publishing Japanese-related war propaganda. The Dōmei News Agency also printed newspapers in Malay, Tamil, Chinese, and Japanese. The indigenous Orang Asli stayed in the interior during the occupation. Much of their community was befriended by Malayan Communist Party guerrillas, who protected them from outsiders in return for information on the Japanese and their food supplies. Strong resistance came mainly from the ethnic Chinese community, some Malays preferring to collaborate with the Japanese through the Kesatuan Melayu Muda (KMM) movement for Malayan independence. But Malay support also waned with increasingly harsh Japanese treatment of civilians during the occupation. Two Chinese guerrilla organisations operated within Perak in northern Malaya. One, the Overseas Chinese Anti-Japanese Army (OCAJA), was aligned with the Kuomintang. The other, the Malayan Peoples' Anti-Japanese Army (MPAJA), was closely associated with the Communist Party of China. Although both opposed the Japanese, there were clashes between the two groups.
Sybil Kathigasu, a Eurasian nurse and member of the Perak resistance, was tortured after the Japanese Kenpeitai military police discovered a clandestine shortwave radio set in her home. John Davis, an officer of the British commando Force 136, part of the Special Operations Executive (SOE), trained local guerrillas prior to the Japanese invasion at the 101 Special Training School in Singapore, where he sought Chinese recruits for their commando teams. Under the codename Operation Gustavus, Davis and five Chinese agents landed on the Perak coast north of Pangkor Island on 24 May 1943. They established a base camp in the Segari Hills, from which moved to the plains to set up an intelligence network in the state. In September 1943, they met and agreed to cooperate with the MPAJA, which then provided Force 136 with support and manpower. This first intelligence network collapsed, however, when many of its leaders, including Lim Bo Seng, were caught, tortured and killed by the Japanese Kenpeitai in June 1944. On 16 December 1944, a second intelligence network, comprising five Malay SOE agents and two British liaison officers, Major Peter G. Dobree and Captain Clifford, was parachuted into Padang Cermin, near Temenggor Lake Dam in Hulu Perak under the codename Operation Hebrides. Its main objective was to set up wireless communications between Malaya and Force 136 headquarters in Kandy, British Ceylon, after the MPAJA's failure to do so.
Post-war and independenceEdit
Desite the Japanese surrender to the Allied forces in 1945, the Malay state had become unstable. This was exacerbated by the emergence of nationalism and a popular demand for independence as the British Military Administration took over from 1945 to 1946 to maintain peace and order, before the British began introducing new administration systems under the Malayan Union. The four neighbouring Malay states held by Thailand throughout the war were returned to the British. This was done under a proposal by the United States, offering Thailand admission to the United Nations (UN) and a substantial American aid package to support its economy after the war. The MPAJA, under the Communist Party of Malaya (CPM), had fought alongside the British against the Japanese, and most of its members received awards at the end of the war. However, party policy become radicalised under the authority of Perak-born Chin Peng, who took over the CPM administration following former leader Lai Teck's disappearance with the party funds.
Under Chin's authority, the MPAJA killed those they considered to have been Japanese collaborators during the war, who were mainly Malays. This sparked racial conflict and Malay retaliation. Disciplined killer squads were also dispatched by the CPM to murder European plantation owners in Perak, and Kuomintang leaders in Johor. The Malayan government's subsequent declaration of a state of emergency on 18 June 1948 marked the start of the Malayan Emergency. Perak and Johor became the main strongholds of the communist movement. In the early stages their actions were not co-ordinated, and the security forces were able to counter them. Earlier in 1947, the head of the Perak's Criminal Investigation Department, H. J. Barnard, negotiated an arrangement with the Kuomintang-influenced OCAJA leader Leong Yew Koh. This resulted in most OCAJA members being absorbed into the national Special Constabulary, and fighting against the MPAJA's successor, the Malayan National Liberation Army (MNLA).
The Kinta Valley, one of the richest tin mining areas in Malaya, accounted for most of the country's tin exports to the United States. To protect it from the communists, on 1 May 1952, the Perak Chinese Tin Mining Association established the Kinta Valley Home Guard (KVHG), often described as a private Chinese Army with most of its Chinese members having links to the Kuomintang. Many of the Kuomintang guerrillas were absorbed from the Lenggong area, where there were also members of Chinese secret societies whose main purpose was to defend Chinese property against the communists. Throughout the first emergency the British authorities and their Malayan collaborators fought against the Communists. This continued even after the proclamation of the independence of the Federation of Malaya, on 31 August 1957. As a result, most of the communist guerrillas were successfully pushed across the northern border into Thailand.
In 1961, the Prime Minister of the Federation of Malaya, Tunku Abdul Rahman, sought to unite Malaya with the British colonies of North Borneo, Sarawak, and Singapore. Despite growing opposition from the governments of both Indonesia and the Philippines, and from Communist sympathisers and nationalists in Borneo, the federation came into being on 16 September 1963. The Indonesian government later initiated a "policy of confrontation" against the new federation. This prompted the British, and their allies Australia and New Zealand, to deploy armed forces, although no skirmishes arising from the Indonesians attacks occurred around Perak. In 1968, a second communist insurgency occurred in the Malay Peninsula. This affected Perak mainly through attacks from Hulu Perak by the communist insurgents who had previously retreated to the Thai border. The Perak State Information Office launched two types of psychological warfare to counter the increasing communist propaganda disseminated from the insurgents' hide-out. The campaign against the second insurgency had to be carried out separately, as communist activities in Perak were split into two factions: one involved infiltrators from across the Thai border; the other was a communist group living among local inhabitants.
With the end of British rule in Malaya and the subsequent formation of the federation of Malaysia, new factories were built and many new suburbs developed in Perak. But there was also rising radicalism among local Malay Muslims, with increasing Islamisation initiated by several religious organisations and Islamic preachers and intellectuals who caught the interest both of Malay royalty and commoners. Good relations with the country's rulers resulted in Islamic scholars being appointed as palace officers and dignitaries, teachers, and religious judges, contributing to the further spread of Islam. Islam is thus now seen as a major factor that shaped current attitudes to standing up for Malay rights.
Perak has a total land area of 20,976 square kilometres (8,099 sq mi), and is situated in the west of the Malay Peninsula on the Strait of Malacca. Its exclusive economic zone (EEZ) extends into the straits. It is the second largest Malaysian state on the Malay Peninsula, and the fourth largest in Malaysia. The state has a total of 230 kilometres (140 mi) of coastline, of which 140.2 kilometres (87.1 mi) are affected by coastal erosion. Mangrove forests grow along most of the coast, with the exception of Pangkor Island, with its rich flora and fauna, where several of the country's forest reserves are located. There is extensive swampland along the coastal alluvial zones of the west coast between central Perak and southern Selangor. Perak has an overall total forest cover of 1,027,404.31 hectares (2,538,771 acres), including 939,403.01 hectares (2,321,315 acres) of forest lands, 41,616.75 hectares (102,837 acres) of mangroves, and another 2,116.55 hectares (5,230 acres) of forest plantations. A total of 995,284.96 hectares (2,459,403 acres) of forest has been gazetted by the state government as forest reserve, scattered across 68 areas throughout the state. The state's geology is characterised by eruptive masses, which form its hills and mountain ranges. Perak is divided by three mountain chains into the three plains of Kinta, Larut and Perak, running parallel to the coast. The Titiwangsa Range passes through Perak. Its highest point, the 2,183-metre (7,162 ft) Mount Korbu, is located in the district of Kinta near the border with the state of Kelantan. Alluvium covers much of the plains, with detached masses of sedimentary rocks appearing at rare intervals.
An extensive network of rivers originates from the inland mountain ranges and hills. Perak's borders with the states of Kedah, Penang and Selangor are marked by rivers, including the Bernam and Kerian Rivers. Perak has 11 major river basins of more than 80 km (50 mi). Of these, the Perak River basin is the largest, with an area of 14,908 km2 (5,756 sq mi), about 70% of the total area of the state. It is the second largest river basin on the Malay Peninsula, after the Pahang River basin. The Perak River is the longest river in the state, at some 400 km (250 mi), and is the Malay Peninsula's second longest after the Pahang River. It originates in the mountains of the Perak-Kelantan-Yala border, snaking down to the Straits of Malacca. Other major rivers include the Beruas, Jarum Mas, Kurau, Larut, Manjung, Sangga Besar, Temerloh, and Tiram Rivers.
Perak is located in a tropical region with a typically hot, humid and wet equatorial climate, and experiences significant rainfall throughout the year. The temperature remains fairly constant, between 21 and 27 °C (70 and 81 °F). Humidity often above 80%. Annual rainfall is about 3,000 millimetres (120 in), the central area of the state receiving an average of 5,000 mm (200 in) of rain. The state experiences two monsoon seasons, the northeast and southwest seasons. The northeast occurs from November until March, the southeast from May until September, and the transitional months for the monsoon seasons are April and June. The northeast monsoon brings heavy rains, especially in the upper areas of Hulu Perak, causing floods. Little effect of the southwest monsoon is felt in the Kinta Valley, although coastal areas of southern Perak occasionally experience thunderstorms, heavy rain and strong, gusting winds in the predawn and early morning.
Twilight in Lumut Beach
The jungles of Perak host a diverse array of various plant and species, with a total of 173 freshwater fish species has been identified as native to the state. The state's main natural park, Royal Belum State Park, covers an area of 117,500 hectares (290,349 acres) in northern Perak. It contains 18 species of frog and toad, 67 species of snake, more than 132 species of beetle, 28 species of cicada, 97 species of moth, and 41 species of dragonfly and damselfly. The park was further gazetted as National Heritage Site by the federal government in 2012, and was inscribed on the World Heritage Site tentative list of UNESCO in 2017. Royal Belum State Park also hosts an estimated 304 bird species, including migratory species, in addition to birds endemic to the three forest reserve areas of Pangkor Island. Ten hornbill species are found within the area, including large flocks of the plain-pouched hornbill. Mammal species include the Seladang, [[Asian elephant],] and Malayan tiger. The area is also notable for harbouring high concentrations of at least three Rafflesia species. The Pulau Sembilan (Nine Islands) State Park in western Perak covers an area of 214,800 hectares (530,782 acres). Its coral reefs are home to coral reef fish species. Another natural attraction, the tin-mining ponds in Kinta District, was gazetted as a state park in 2016. The Kinta Nature Park, Perak's third state park, covers an area of 395.56 hectares (977 acres).
The government of Perak is committed to protecting its forests to ensure the survival of endangered wildlife species, and to protect biodiversity. The Perak Forestry Department is the body responsible for forest management and preservation in the state. In 2013, the state planted some 10.9 million trees under the "26 Million Tree Planting Campaign: One Citizen One Tree", associated with global Earth Day. Widespread conversion and reclamation of mangroves and mudflats for economic and residential purposes has caused the rapid decline of shore birds, 86% of the reduction on the Malay Peninsula having occurred on Perak's coasts. Poaching in forest reserve areas has caused a stark decline in mammal populations. The Perak State Park Corporation estimates that there were only 23 Malayan tigers left within the state's two forest reserves of Royal Belum and Temenggor in 2019. Due to the lucrative wood and palm oil businesses, the state government of Perak also was partly blamed for destroying forest reserves with a record since 2009 revealed a total of more than 9,000 hectares (22,239 acres) of permanent forest reserves have been degazetted in northwestern state with the latest occurred within the Bikam Permanent Forest Reserve in July 2013.
A number of business activities permitted by the state government have caused environmental damage, including to many of Perak's rivers, which require extensive water treatment because of severe pollution. Between 1982 and 1994, the state government was embroiled in a radioactive environmental pollution controversy that caused the deaths of seven residents suffering from birth defects and leukaemia after exposure. The factory involved was only following lengthy court action by affected residents and increasing international pressure. Nno responsibility has been accepted by the associated companies, the state government, or the federal government. Although Perak has the highest number of mangrove reserves of the Malay Peninsula states, with 19 reserves in the mangroves of Matang, growing uncontrolled clearance of mangroves for aquaculture projects and residential areas is causing significant coastal erosion in addition to the damage resulting from climate change.
|Pakatan Harapan||Ahmad Faizal Azumu||Government||29||30|
|Barisan Nasional||Zambry Abdul Kadir||Opposition||27||25|
|Gagasan Sejahtera||Razman Zakaria||3||3|
Perak is a constitutional monarchy, with a ruler elected by an electoral college composed of the major chiefs. The Sultan is the constitutional head of Perak. The current Sultan of Perak is Nazrin Shah, who took over the throne on 29 May 2014. The main royal palace is the Iskandariah Palace in Kuala Kangsar. Kinta Palace in Ipoh is used by the sultan as an occasional residence during official visits. Other palaces in Ipoh include the Al-Ridhuan Palace, Cempaka Sari Palace, and Firuz Palace.
The state government is headed by a Menteri Besar, assisted by an 11-member executive council (exco) selected from the State Assembly members. The legislative branch of Perak's government is the Perak State Legislative Assembly, based on the Westminster system. The chief minister is appointed on the basis of his or her ability to command a majority in the State Assembly The State Assembly makes laws in matters regarding the state. Members of the Assembly are elected by citizens every five years by universal suffrage. There are 59 seats in the Assembly. The majority (30 seats) is currently held by Pakatan Harapan (PH), following the 2018 general election.
Prior to the major British overhaul of Perak's administration, slavery was widely practised along with a type of corvée labour system, called kerah. The chief of a given area could call on his citizens to work as forced labour without pay, although under normal circumstances food was still provided. The system was created to ensure the maintenance of the ruling class. It was often described as onerous and demanding, as there were times when the call to duty, and its duration, interfered with citizens' individual work. The slaves were divided into two classes: debtor-bondsmen and ordinary slaves. The debtor-bondsmen had the higher status, being ranked as free men and acknowledged as members of their masters' society. In contrast, the ordinary slaves had no prospect of status redemption. As Islam does not allow enslavement of fellow Muslim, the ordinary slaves came mainly from non-Muslim groups, especially the Orang Asli, Batak, and Africans purchased by Malays on pilgrimage in Mecca.
State administration issues and subsequent 2009 constitutional crisisEdit
The opposition Pakatan Rakyat (PR) coalition won Perak in the 2008 general election. Although the Democratic Action Party (DAP) had won the most seats of the opposition parties, Mohammad Nizar Jamaluddin of the Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party (PAS) was appointed Menteri Besar (Chief Minister) of the state. This happened because the state constitution states that the Menteri Besar must be a Muslim, unless the Sultan specially appoints a non-Muslim to the office. As the DAP did not have any Muslim assemblymen in Perak at that time, the assemblymen had to come from either of its two allied parties, the People's Justice Party (PKR) and the PAS. However, the national ruling party, Barisan Nasional (BN), gained control over the state government administration when three PR assemblymen, Hee Yit Foong (Jelapang), Jamaluddin Mohd Radzi (Behrang), and Mohd Osman Mohd Jailu (Changkat Jering) defected to the BN as independent assemblymen during the crisis, on 3 February 2009. A statement from the office of the Sultan of Perak urged the PR Menteri Besar to resign, but also refused to dissolve the State Assembly, which would have triggered new elections. Amid multiple protests, lawsuits and arrests, a new BN-led State Assembly was sworn in on 7 May. The takeover was ruled illegal by the High Court in Kuala Lumpur on 11 May 2009, restoring power to the PR. The following day, the Court of Appeal of Malaysia suspended the High Court ruling pending a new Court of Appeal judgment. On 22 May 2009, the Court of Appeal overturned the High Court's decision and returned power to the BN. Many opposition party supporters believed that the crisis was effectively a 'power grab', in which the democratically elected government was ousted through the political machinations of the more dominant national ruling party.
Perak is divided into 12 districts (daerah), 81 mukims, and 15 local governments. There are district officers for each district and a village headperson (ketua kampung or penghulu) for each village in the district. Before the British arrived, Perak was run by a group of relatives and friends of the Sultan, who had rights to collect taxes and duties. The British developed a more organised administration following Perak's integration into the Federated Malay States (FMS). The FMS government created two institutions, the State Council and the Malay Administrative Service (MAS). The two institutions encouraged direct Malay participation and gave the former ruling class a place in the new administrative structure. Most of the Sultan's district chiefs removed from authority were given new positions in the State Council, although their influence was restricted to Malay social matters raised in council business. The Sultan and the district chiefs were compensated for their loss of tax revenue with a monthly allowance from the state treasury.
The role of the local penghulus changed considerably when they were appointed no longer by the Sultan but by the British Resident. Colonial land policy introduced individual landholding, and land became a commodity, and the penghulu were involved in matters relating to this. grew. The Perak State Council was established in 1875 to assist the British Resident in most administrative matters, with the exception of certain administrative issues relating to Perak's growing Malay and Chinese populations, which the Malay chiefs and Chinese leaders (Kapitan Cina) would meet to address. The State Council also provided education and training to help Malays qualify for government positions. When the post of the FMS Resident was abolished, other European-held administrative posts were gradually occupied by local appointees. As in the rest of Malaysia, local government comes under the purview of state government.
|Administrative divisions of Perak|
|0805||Kuala Kangsar||155,592||2,563.61||Kuala Kangsar||9|
|0806||Larut, Matang and Selama||326,476||2,112.61||Taiping||14|
|0807||Hilir Perak||128,179||792.07||Teluk Intan||5|
|0810||Perak Tengah||99,854||1,279.46||Seri Iskandar||12|
|0813||Bagan Datuk||70,300||951.52||Bagan Datuk||4|
|Note: Population data for Hilir Perak, Bagan Datuk, Batang Padang, and Muallim are based on district land office data. Selama is a autonomous sub-district (daerah kecil) under Larut, Matang and Selama. Most districts and sub-districts have a single local government, excepting Hulu Perak and Kinta, respectively divided into three and two local councils. Bagan Datuk remains under the jurisdiction of Teluk Intan council.|
On 26 November 2015, it was announced that the Batang Padang District sub-district of Tanjung Malim would become Perak's 11th district, to be called Muallim. Sultan Nazrin officiated at its formal creation on 11 January 2016. On 9 January 2017, the Sultan proclaimed Bagan Datuk the 12th district of the state. The proclamation marked the start of transformation for the district, one of the biggest coconut producers in Malaysia.
From the 1980s on, Perak began an economic transition away from the primary sector, where for decades income was generated by the tin mining industry. Early in 2006, the state government established the Perak Investment Management Centre (InvestPerak) to serve as the contact point for investors in the manufacturing and services sectors. The state's economy today relies mainly on the tertiary sector. In 2017, the tourism industry contributed RM201.4 billion (14.9%) to the state gross domestic product (GDP).
Through the Eleventh Malaysia Plan (11MP), the state has set targets under its five year 2016–2020 development plan, including economic development corridor targets for Southern Perak. Perak has several development corridors, with a different focus for each district. A 20-year masterplan was also formulated in 2017 to drive economic development in the state, with a development value of up to RM30 billion.
In the first quarter of 2018, the state received a total of RM249.8 million in investments. A year later, investments in the first quarter of 2019 had increased to RM1.43 billion. Perak ranks fifth after Penang, Kedah, Johor and Selangor in total value of investments. In 2018, investments of RM1.9 billion were planned for the implementation of a range of manufacturing projects and associated factory construction from 2019.
Since 2005, Perak has made efforts to remain the biggest agricultural producer in Malaysia. In 2008, the state sought to legalise the prawn-farming industry, mostly located in western Perak with some activity in Tanjung Tualang. In 2016, some 17,589 young people in Perak were involved in implementing a range of state initiatives in Perak's agriculture sector. In 2019, the Perak State Agriculture Development Corporation (SADC) launched the Perak AgroValley Project to increase agricultural production of the state. This initiative covers an area of 1,983.68 hectares (4,902 acres) in the Bukit Sapi Mukim Lenggong region. Most of Perak's abandoned tin mine lakes provide suitable environments for the breeding of freshwater fish. 65% of abandoned mines have been used for fisheries production, with 30% of the fish exported to neighbouring Singapore and Indonesia. To further improve agricultural productivity and meet increasing demand, the state plans to expand the permanent cultivation of vegetables, flowers, coconut, palm oil, durian, and mango, in different areas throughout the state. The construction sector accounted for 5.6% of Perak's economic growth in 2015, dropping to 4.0% the following year. Development and housing projects represented the sector's major contribution to the state's economic growth.
The tertiary sector is Perak’s main economic sector. In 2018, the state was the second most popular destination for domestic tourists in Malaysia, after the state of Pahang. Perak’s attractions include the royal town of Kuala Kangsar and its iconic buildings, such as the Iskandariah Palace, Pavilion Square Tower, Perak Royal Museum, Sultan Azlan Shah Gallery, and Ubudiah Mosque. The British colonial legacy in Perak includes the Birch Memorial Clock Tower, Ipoh High Court, Ipoh railway station, Ipoh Town Hall and Old Post Office, Kellie's Castle, Majestic Station Hotel, Malay College Kuala Kangsar, Maxwell Hill (Bukit Larut), Perak State Museum, Royal Ipoh Club, St. John Church, and Taiping Lake Gardens. The historical events of the local Malay struggle are remembered in the Pasir Salak Historical Complex. There are also several historical Ethnic Chinese landmarks, mainly in Ipoh, the capital. They include the Darul Ridzuan Museum building, a former wealthy Chinese tin miner mansion; Han Chin Pet Soo, a former club for Hakka miners and a haven of shadowy activities; and the Leaning Tower of Teluk Intan.
The state also contains a number of natural attractions, including bird sanctuaries, caves, forest reserves, islands, limestone cliffs, mountains, and white sandy beaches. Among the natural sites are Banding Island, Belum-Temengor Forest Reserve, Kek Lok Tong Cave Temple and Zen Gardens, Kinta Nature Park, Matang Mangrove Forest Reserve, Mount Yong Belar, Pangkor Island, Tempurung Cave, and Ulu Kinta Forest Reserve. Recreational attractions include the Banjaran Hotsprings Retreat, D. R Seenivasagam Recreational Park, Gaharu Tea Valley Gopeng, Go Chin Pomelo Nature Park, Gunung Lang Recreational Park, Kinta Riverfront Walk, Kuala Woh Jungle Park, Lang Mountain, Lost World of Tambun, My Gopeng Resort, Perak Herbal Garden, Sultan Abdul Aziz Recreational Park, and Sungai Klah Hot Spring Park.
Perak has a 2016–2020 state government development plan. A Development Fund amounting to RM397,438,000 was approved by the state assembly in 2016. The 2018 Budget allocated Perak a further RM1.176 billion, of which RM421.28 million was earmarked for development expenditure, and RM755.59 million for management costs. In addition to attracting investors, the state government is working to improve and build new infrastructure. The new government elected in 2018 announced its intention to continue development projects initiated by the previous government for all districts in Perak.
Energy and water resourcesEdit
Electricity distribution in Perak is operated and managed by the Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB). The Temenggor Power Station in Gerik has a capacity of 348 MW, the largest of the many hydroelectric plants in the state. Chenderoh Power Station, the oldest hydroelectric dam power station, constructed by the British, has a capacity of 40.5 MW. Other hydroelectric power stations include the Sultan Azlan Shah Kenering Power Station (120 MW), Sultan Azlan Shah Bersia Hydroelectric Power Station (72 MW), Sungai Piah Lower Power Station (54 MW), and Sungai Piah Upper Power Station (14.6 MW). The 4,100 MW Manjung Power Plant, also known as the Sultan Azlan Shah Power Station, is a coal-fired power station located on an artificial island off the Perak coast. It is owned and operated by TNB Janamanjung, a wholly-owned subsidiary of the TNB. The plant is considered one of the biggest Independent Power Producer (IPP) projects in Asia. The GB3 combined cycle power plant in Lumut, operated by Malakoff, has a capacity of 640 MW.
The state’s piped water supply is managed by the Perak Water Board (PWB), a corporate body established under the Perak Water Board Enactment in 1988. It serves over 2.5 million people, and is among the biggest water operators on the Malay Peninsula, after Selangor and Johor. Before the PWB was established, water services were initially provided by the Perak Public Works Department, and subsequently by the Perak Water Supply Department. The state’s water supplies mainly come from its two major dams, the Air Kuning Dam in Taiping and the Sultan Azlan Shah Dam in Ipoh.
Telecommunications and broadcastingEdit
Telecommunications in Perak was originally administered by the Posts and Telecommunication Department, and maintained by the British Cable & Wireless Communications, responsible for all telecommunication services in Malaya. The first telegraph line connecting the British Resident's Perak House in Kuala Kangsar to the house of the Deputy British Resident at Taiping was laid by the Department of Posts and Telegraph in 1874. Further lines were then built to link all of the key British economic areas of the time, and in particular the British Straits Settlements territory. Following the foundation of the Federation of Malaysia in 1963, in 1968 the telecommunications departments in Malaya and Borneo merged to form the Telecommunications Department Malaysia, which later became Telekom Malaysia (TM). The state remains committed to full co-operation with the federal government to implement the latest telecommunications development projects in the state.
Perak is set to become the first Malaysian state to introduce the National Fiberisation and Connectivity Plan (NFCP) for high-speed Internet in rural areas. Television broadcasting in the state is divided into terrestrial and satellite television. There are two types of free-to-air television providers, MYTV Broadcasting (digital terrestrial) and Astro NJOI (satellite), while IPTV is accessed via Unifi TV through the UniFi fibre optic internet subscription service. The Malaysian federal government operates one state radio channel, Perak FM.
Malaysia's North–South Expressway connects Perak with the other west coast Malaysian states and federal territories. Perak has two categories of road, with 1,516 kilometres (942 mi) of federal roads, and 28,767 kilometres (17,875 mi) of state roads as at 2016. A new highway, the West Coast Expressway, is being built to link the coastal areas of the state and reduce the growing traffic congestion. Perak's has a dual carriageway road network and follows the left-hand traffic rule. Towns provide public transport including buses, taxis, and Grab services. Under the Eleventh Malaysia Plan (11MP), around 23 infrastructure projects, worth RM4.7 billion, have been implemented. These include 11 road projects for the state, involving allocations of RM1.84 billion for upgrade and expansion works carried out by the Public Works Department (PWD).
Perak also has rail services. Ipoh railway station, on Jalan Panglima Bukit Gantang Wahab in the state capital, is the state's oldest station structure. It was built by the British in 1917, and upgraded in 1936. In 2019, an integrated development project was launched to upgrade the railway station and its surrounding areas. Boat services provide the main transport access to Pangkor Island, in addition to air travel. Sultan Azlan Shah Airport is Perak's main international airport, acting as the main gateway to the state. Other public airports include Pangkor Airport and Sitiawan Airport, and private or restricted airfields such as Jendarata Airport and the military Taiping Airport.
Health in Perak is administered by the Perak State Health Department (Malay: Jabatan Kesihatan Negeri Perak). The state’s main government hospital is the 990-bed Raja Permaisuri Bainun Hospital, previously known as the Ipoh Hospital, which also incorporates the women's and children's hospital. Other hospitals include four specialist hospitals: Taiping Hospital, Teluk Intan Hospital, Seri Manjung Hospital, and the minor specialty Slim River Hospital; nine district hospitals: Batu Gajah Hospital, Changkat Hospital, Gerik Hospital, Kampar Hospital, Kuala Kangsar Hospital, Parit Buntar Hospital, Selama Hospital, Sungai Siput Hospital, Tapah Hospital; and one psychiatric hospital: Bahagia Ulu Kinta Hospital. Other public health clinics, 1Malaysia clinics, and rural clinics are scattered throughout the state. There are a number of private hospitals, including the Anson Bay Medical Centre, Apollo Medical Centre, Ar-Ridzuan Medical Centre, Colombia Asia Hospital, Fatimah Hospital, Ipoh Pantai Hospital, Ipoh Specialist Centre, Kinta Medical Centre, Manjung Pantai Hospital, Perak Community Specialist Hospital, Sri Manjung Specialist Hospital, Taiping Medical Centre, and Ulu Bernam Jenderata Group Hospital. In 2009, the state's doctor–patient ratio was 3 per 1,000.
All primary and secondary schools are within the jurisdiction of the Perak State Education Department, under the guidance of the national Ministry of Education. Among the oldest schools in Perak are the King Edward VII School (1883), the Anglo-Chinese School (1895), and St. Michael's Institution (1912). As of 2019, Perak had a total of 250 government secondary schools, six international schools (City Harbour International School, Fairview International School Ipoh Campus, Imperial International School Ipoh, Seri Botani International School, Tenby Schools Ipoh, and the Westlake International School), and nine Chinese independent schools. There is one Japanese learning centre, located in the state capital, Ipoh. Sultan Idris Education University is the sole public university, and there are two private universities: the Quest International University, and Universiti Teknologi Petronas, as well as the campus branch of the University of Kuala Lumpur Malaysian Institute of Marine Engineering Technology (UniKL MIMET), the University of Kuala Lumpur Royal College of Medicine Perak (UniKL RCMP), and the Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (UTAR). Other colleges include the Cosmopoint Technology College, Maxwell College Ipoh, Olympia College Ipoh, Sunway College Ipoh, Syuen College, Taj College, Tunku Abdul Rahman College Perak Branch Campus, and WIT College Ipoh Branch. There are several polytechnics, including the Sultan Azlan Shah Polytechnic in Behrang, and Ungku Omar Polytechnic in Ipoh.
Ethnicity and immigrationEdit
The 2015 Malaysian Census reported the population of Perak at 2,477,700, the fifth most populous state in Malaysia, with a non-citizen population of 74,200. Of the Malaysian residents, 1,314,400 (53.0%) are Malay, 713,000 (28.0%) are Chinese, 293,300 (11.0%) are Indian, and another 72,300 (2.9%) identified as other bumiputera. In 2010, the population was estimated to be around 2,299,582, with 1,212,700 (52.0%) Malay, 675,517 (29.0%) Chinese, 274,631 (11.0%) Indian, and another 62,877 (2.7%) from other bumiputera. Once the most populous state during the British administration under the FMS, Perak has yet to recover from the decline of the tin-mining industry. The economic downturn resulted in a massive manpower drain to higher-growth states such as Penang, Selangor, and Kuala Lumpur.
Perak's highest population density is concentrated mainly in the coastal and lowland areas. The Chinese and Indian population represents a higher percentage of the state's total population than in the neighbouring northern Malay states. The presence of these groups was particularly significant after the British opened many tin mines and extensive rubber plantations in the mid-19th century. More than half of Perak's inhabitants in the 1930s were Chinese immigrants. The majority of Perak's Indian community is of Tamil ethnicity, including other South Indian communities such as the Malayalees, mostly in Sitiawan, Manjung, Sungai Siput, and Kuala Kangsar; the Telugus, in Teluk Intan and Bagan Datuk; and the Sikhs, scattered in and around Perak.
Population density is relatively low in much of Perak’s interior, where the indigenous Orang Asli are scattered, including in the northernmost border district of Hulu Perak. The indigenous people originally inhabited most of Perak’s coastal areas, were pushed deeper into the interior with the arrival of increasing numbers of Malay immigrants from Sumatra in the early 19th century. The Orang Asli oral traditions preserve stories of Malay atrocities and enslavement of the aboriginal population. The Malays as according to the interpretation by the current constitution consisted of Malay ethnic groups such as Javanese, Mandailing, Patani, Minangkabau, Kerinci, Acehnese, Rawa, Buginese, Banjarese, Malay Indians and Malay Arabs. The Javanese mostly lived at Hilir Perak comprising Bagan Datuk, Batak Rabit, Sungai Manik, Teluk Intan and a few other places along the shores of Perak while the Mandailing and Rawa people were mostly in the areas of Gopeng, Kampar, Tanjung Malim and Kampung Mandailing at Gua Balak. These people were mostly from neighbouring Selangor who escaping the Klang War. The Buginese can be found in Kuala Kangsar, especially in parts of Kota Lama Kiri and Sayong. There were not many Minangkabau people in the state as they lived together with the other ethnic groups without having any specific village or settlement of their own. As a legacy of Siamese presence in much of the northern Malay states, there were around 3,200 Malaysian Siamese in Perak as of 2015. The Acehnese people also scattered around Perak since the state had been ruled by them in a certain period of the history.
As in other Malay states, Islam is recognised as the state religion, although other religions may be freely practised. According to the 2010 Malaysian Census, Perak's population was 55.3% Muslim, 25.4% Buddhist, 10.9% Hindu, 4.3% Christian, 1.7% Taoist or followers of Chinese folk religion, 0.8% other religions or unknown, and 0.9% non-religious. The census indicated that 83.7% of Perak's Chinese population identified as Buddhist, with significant minorities identifying as Christian (9.2%), Chinese folk religion adherents (5.8%), and Muslim (0.2%). The majority of the Indian population identified as Hindu (87.6%), with significant minorities identifying as Christian (6.01%), Muslim (2.67%), and Buddhist (1.0%). The non-Malay bumiputera community was predominantly irreligion (28.2%), with significant minorities identifying as Muslim (24.1%), and Christian (22.9%). Among the majority population, all Malay bumiputera identified as Muslim. Article 160 of the Constitution of Malaysia defines professing the Islamic faith as one of the criteria of being a Malay.
Since Perak is a multi-ethnic state with diverse racial backgrounds, there have been also linguistic variety. The state main Malay language dialect is the Perak Malay which is known for its "e" sound (e as in r"e"d, [e]) and the "r" sound which sounds like French "r" ([ʁ]), the dialect is commonly found in central Perak, more specifically in Kuala Kangsar and Perak Tengah districts. The northern Malay dialect of the Kedah Malay speakers also found in the northern part of Perak comprising Kerian, Pangkor Island and Larut, Matang and Selama districts. In the northeastern part of Perak (Hulu Perak) and some parts of Selama and Kerian, the Malay people speak another distinct variant of Malay language which is known as Basa Ulu/Grik (named after Grik) and is most closely related to Kelantan-Pattani Malay in Kelantan and southern Thailand (Yawi) due to geographical borders and historical assimilation. While in the southern parts of Perak (Hilir Perak and Batang Padang) and also in the districts of Kampar and Kinta and several parts of Manjung, the dialect is heavily influenced by southern Malay dialects of the peninsula such as Selangor, Malacca and Johore-Riau Malay and various languages of Indonesian archipelago namely Javanese, Banjar, Rawa (a variety of Minangkabau), Batak (Mandailing) and Buginese as a result of historical immigration, civil war such as Klang War and other inevitable factors.
The Chinese community in Perak speak a number of dialects including Cantonese, Hakka, Mandarin, Teochew, Hokkien and Hokchiu despite Malaysian Cantonese has become the lingua franca among the different Chinese ethnicities. The Tamil community mainly speak a Malaysian dialect of the Tamil language while the Malayalee speak the Malayalam language, the Telugus with their Telugu language and the Sikhs with their Punjabi language. Although the Indian community have a different mother tongue, the Tamil language had increasingly become a lingua franca among the different Indian communities since the Tamil speaking people become the majority in several of western coast Malaysian states with higher Indian populations. Most of the Sikhs in Perak are known to speak the language fluently unlike Sikhs from other states around Malaysia. A small number of Sinhalese speakers also found in parts of the state capital city. There are several Orang Asli languages spoken within the state, all of them belong to Aslian branch of Austroasiatic languages. These languages are Lanoh, Temiar, Jahai, Kensiu, Kintaq and Semai. The Siamese community mainly speak Southern Thai variant and also fluent in Malay and to some extent with knowledge on some of the Chinese dialects. With the state multi-ethnic society appearance, some people from the different ethnicities can speak more than one languages.
Perak features a multiculturalism society since its culture has been influenced by different ethnicities throughout history. Several Malay art such as embroidery and performance like dabus has an apparent Arab cultural influence. The state embroidery is named tekat emas (gold embroidery) where it is once presented to the royalty with the design is based on either floral motifs, fauna motifs and geometric motifs. The dabus has been in existence for about 300 years and has an inseparable ritual involving incantation, it was brought into Perak by traders from Sumatra and practised by the Malay community in Lumut, Pasir Panjang Laut Village in Sitiawan and Teluk Intan. Kuala Kangsar featuring the traditional Malay pottery handicraft called the labu sayong, which feature unique design not influenced by foreign techniques. This is followed with a dance called the sayong. Another Malay dance for the local Malays of Perak is the bubu, which is originated from Tanjung Bidara Village, Tiga Parit Island and has been known for 120 years.
The Cantonese opera once are very flourished in the town of Ipoh since the majority of Chinese there are Cantonese. At the Qing Xin Ling Leisure and Cultural Village (nicknamed Little Guilin) located in Ipoh, the area featuring a time reminiscent to the past of China (particularly Hong Kong). Its painting and wooden structure placed around an emerald lake partly, surrounded by limestone hills and caves. Another ethnic Chinese cultural place in Perak is Bercham (originally called as Wo Tau Kok in Cantonese in the 1950s) where the area is a former tin mining centre where it also become one of the point of relocation for Malayan ethnic Chinese during the British era under the government Briggs' Plan to protect and distancing them from being influenced by the communists. Almost every from the three main ethnic groups constituting the Malay, Chinese and Indian in Perak have their own ethnic cultural dance and cultural arts association or organisation to maintain and preserve each of their respective cultural performances.
As a melting point of different cultures, Perak features various cuisines. Lemang, a Malay delicacy made from glutinous rice cooked in a bamboo tube over slow fire is very popular in the state and are mainly served during the festivities of Eid al-Fitr (Hari Raya Aidilfitri) and Eid al-Adha (Hari Raya Haji) along with rendang. It is believed the making method is partly derived by the indigenous Orang Asli of Perak which explaining the origins of the dish. Another popular Malay delicacy is the tempoyak, a durian extract that is preserved and well kept in a traditional urn, commonly eaten with other dishes and mixed with the bird's eye chillies. Chinese cuisines are very common to the state with the history of Chinese migration and trade relations for centuries and this was mostly popular in the state capital city of Ipoh while the Indians have a history for more than 2,000 years visiting Perak where they also spreading the influence of their cuisine. The state of Perak are particularly known for its fruits production, the Bali pomelo (limau bali) which was introduced by the 4th British Resident of Perak Hugh Low who brought the seedlings from the neighbouring Dutch East Indies and distributed it in both Penang and Perak (mainly in Tambun). Other particular districts are also known for their certain agriculture production such Bidor for its guava, Hulu Perak (durian), Menglembu (groundnut) and Tapah (petai). The Ipoh white coffee, one of the Malaysian popular drinks traced its origin from the city of Ipoh in Perak.
As Perak has been part of Malaya since 1957, its athletes have represented Malaya, and later Malaysia, at the Summer Olympic Games, Commonwealth Games, Asian Games, and Southeast Asian Games. The Perak State Youth and Sports Department was established in 1964 to raise the standard of sports in the state. Perak hosted the Sukma Games in 1994 and 2018. The state has a number of sports complexes, located around Ipoh and in other districts. The state government allocates funds for sports development to each district-level sports association.
Ipoh's Perak Stadium is the main stadium for Perak FA. The team was formed in 1951, although the state had had a football team since 1921. Perak FA won the Malaysia FA Cup in 1990 and 2004; the Malaysia Cup in 1926, 1931, 1957, 1967, 1970, 1998, 2000, and 2018; was runner-up in the Malaysia Super League in 2006–07 and 2018; and won the President Cup Malaysia in 2006–07, 2012 and 2014. The state women's football team was runner-up in the Tun Sharifah Rodziah Cup in 1977, 1979 and 1992. Another notable stadium in the state is Naval Base Stadium in Lumut.
The annual field hockey tournament in Perak, the Sultan Azlan Shah Cup, traced its roots to former state sultan named Azlan Shah, an avid fan of the sport. Perak was the first Malaysian state to introduce e-sports, in the Sukma Games. The state government is further targeting e-sports development with the increase in youth interest.
- "Perak @ a Glance". Department of Statistics, Malaysia. Retrieved 8 October 2019.
- "Total population by ethnic group, administrative district and state, Malaysia" (PDF). Department of Statistics, Malaysia. 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 February 2012. Retrieved 16 October 2019.
- "Subnational Human Development Index (2.1) [Perak – Malaysia]". Global Data Lab of Institute for Management Research, Radboud University. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
- Helmer Aslaksen (28 June 2012). "Time Zones in Malaysia". Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, National University of Singapore. Archived from the original on 21 May 2016. Retrieved 8 October 2019.
- "Postal codes in Perak". cybo.com. Retrieved 8 October 2019.
- "Postal codes in Teluk Intan". cybo.com. Retrieved 8 October 2019.
- "Area codes in Perak". cybo.com. Retrieved 8 October 2019.
- "State Code". Malaysian National Registration Department. Archived from the original on 19 May 2017. Retrieved 8 October 2019.
- Teh Wei Soon (23 March 2015). "Some Little Known Facts On Malaysian Vehicle Registration Plates". Malaysian Digest. Archived from the original on 8 July 2015. Retrieved 8 October 2019.
- Tang Ruxyn (26 April 2017). "The Stories And Facts Behind How The 13 States Of Malaysia Got Their Names". Says.com. Archived from the original on 13 January 2018. Retrieved 8 September 2019.
- "Dokumen Gazetir (Perak Darul Ridzuan – Sejarah)" [Gazette Document (Perak Darul Ridzuan - History)] (in Malay). Geographical Names Database of Malaysia. Archived from the original on 9 September 2019. Retrieved 9 September 2019.
- Richard Beck (1909). The Nature of Ore Deposits. Hill Publishing Company. pp. 634–.
- "Origin of Place Names – Perak". National Library of Malaysia. 2000. Archived from the original on 9 May 2012. Retrieved 8 September 2019.
- "The History of Perak". Perak Tourism. 14 November 2014. Archived from the original on 8 September 2019. Retrieved 8 September 2019.
- George Bryan Souza; Jeffrey Scott Turley (20 November 2015). The Boxer Codex: Transcription and Translation of an Illustrated Late Sixteenth-Century Spanish Manuscript Concerning the Geography, History and Ethnography of the Pacific, South-east and East Asia. BRILL. pp. 475–. ISBN 978-90-04-30154-2.
- Bagyo Prasetyo; Retno Handini. Sangiran: Man, Culture, and Environment in Pleistocene Times. Yayasan Obor Indonesia. pp. 189–. GGKEY:FYGSB5XXWPX.
- Sanz, Nuria (27 October 2014). Human origin sites and the World Heritage Convention in Asia. UNESCO. pp. 212–. ISBN 978-92-3-100043-0.
- Rosli Saad (2016). Geophysical Studies Of Bukit Bunuh Meteorite Crater Evidence (Penerbit USM). Penerbit USM. pp. 25–. ISBN 978-967-461-004-3.
- Zuraina Majid (2005). The Perak man and other prehistoric skeletons of Malaysia. Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia. ISBN 978-983-3391-12-7.
• Stephen Oppenheimer (1 March 2012). Out of Eden: The Peopling of the World. Little, Brown Book Group. pp. 115–. ISBN 978-1-78033-753-1.
• Vicki Cummings; Peter Jordan; Marek Zvelebil (2014). The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology and Anthropology of Hunter-gatherers. Oxford University Press. pp. 348–. ISBN 978-0-19-955122-4.
- "Prehistoric find in Perak cave". The Star. 21 July 2005. Retrieved 15 September 2019.
- Abu Talib Ahmad (10 October 2014). Museums, History and Culture in Malaysia. NUS Press. pp. 59–. ISBN 978-9971-69-819-5.
- "Brief History of Perak State". Government of Perak. Archived from the original on 7 September 2019. Retrieved 7 September 2019.
- Noel Hidalgo Tan; Stephen Chia (2011). "Current Research on Rock Art at Gua Tambun, Perak, Malaysia". Centre for Global Archaeological Research, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association. 17 (2): 93–108 (1–16). Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 October 2019 – via University of Washington Libraries.
- Dominik Bonatz; Andreas Reinecke; Mai Lin Tjoa-Bonatz (1 January 2012). Crossing Borders: Selected Papers from the 13th International Conference of the European Association of Southeast Asian Archaeologists. NUS Press. pp. 181–. ISBN 978-9971-69-642-9.
- Christina Koh (4 December 2006). "Gua Tambun rediscovered". The Star. Retrieved 16 September 2019.
- Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. The Branch. 1936.
- Monographs on Malay Subjects. 1941.
- Mazwin Nik Anis (8 February 2005). "Lost city is 'not Kota Gelanggi'". The Star. Archived from the original on 14 January 2018. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
- Richard James Wilkinson; Cuthbert Woodville Harrison (1908). "Events Prior to British Ascendancy ...: Notes on Perak History ..." Harvard University. J. Russell at the F.M.S. gov't press, Internet Archive. p. 59. Retrieved 16 September 2019.
- Khoo Kay Kim (1986). "The Perak Sultanate: Ancient and Modern". Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. 59 (1): 1–26. JSTOR 41493032.
- Commercial Relations of the United States with Foreign Countries During the Years ... U.S. Government Printing Office. 1904. pp. 486–488.
- Alan Teh Leam Seng (8 July 2018). "The story behind Malaysia's second oldest sultanate uncovered". New Straits Times. Retrieved 7 September 2019.
- "Senarai Sultan Perak" [List of Sultans of Perak] (in Malay). The Administration Office of His Majesty the Sultan of Perak. Archived from the original on 7 September 2019. Retrieved 7 September 2019.
- "Tok Temong (Keramat Tok Temong)" (in Malay). The Administration Office of His Majesty the Sultan of Perak. Archived from the original on 15 October 2019. Retrieved 15 October 2019.
- Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. 1986.
- Paulo Jorge de Sousa Pinto (2012). The Portuguese and the Straits of Melaka, 1575-1619: Power, Trade, and Diplomacy. NUS Press. ISBN 978-967-9948-51-6.
- Mohamad Rashidi Pakri; Nik Haslinda Nik Hussain (2017). Klian Intan: Perlombongan Bijih Timah dan Perkembangan Sosioekonomi (Penerbit USM) [Klian Intan: Tin Mining and Socio-Economic Development (USM Publisher)] (in Malay). Penerbit USM. pp. 35–. ISBN 978-967-461-134-7.
- Barbara Watson Andaya (11 November 1982). History Of Malaysia. Macmillan International Higher Education. pp. 61–117. ISBN 978-1-349-16927-6.
- The Asiatic Journal and Monthly Register for British and Foreign India, China, and Australia. Parbury, Allen, and Company. 1841. pp. 152–.
- Charles Otto Blagden (1925). British Malaya, 1824-67. Methodist Publishing House.
- Duncan Stearn (25 March 2019). Slices of Thai History: From the curious & controversial to the heroic & hardy. Proglen Trading Co., Ltd. pp. 56–. ISBN 978-616-456-012-3.
- Om Prakash (28 June 1998). European Commercial Enterprise in Pre-Colonial India. Cambridge University Press. pp. 235–. ISBN 978-0-521-25758-9.
- Ali Hasymy (1977). 59 [i.e. Limapuluh sembilan] tahun Aceh merdeka di bawah pemerintahan ratu [59 [i.e. Fifty nine] years of Aceh independence under the rule of queen] (in Indonesian). Bulan Bintang.
- Sher Banu. A Latiff Khan (27 April 2018). Sovereign Women in a Muslim Kingdom. Flipside Digital Content Company Inc. pp. 106–. ISBN 978-981-325-005-5.
- "Kota Belanda, Pulau Pangkor". National Archives of Malaysia. Archived from the original on 11 February 2015. Retrieved 12 September 2019.
- Sher Banu. A Latiff Khan (2009). "Rule Behind the Silk Curtain: The Sultanahs of Aceh 1641-1699" (PDF). Centre for Editing Lives and Letters (Cell) Queen Mary University of London. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 September 2019. Retrieved 12 September 2019 – via CORE.
- Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. The Branch. 1936.
- "Sultan Muzaffar Shah III Of Perak Signed The Treaty Of Dutch Monopoly Over Trading Of Tin In Perak". National Archives of Malaysia. 25 June 1747. Archived from the original on 15 September 2019. Retrieved 15 September 2019.
- Joachim Schliesinger (5 September 2017). Traditional Slavery in Southeast Asia and Beyond. Booksmango. pp. 186–. ISBN 978-1-64153-020-0.
- Khoo Salma Nasution; Abdur-Razzaq Lubis (2005). Kinta Valley: Pioneering Malaysia's Modern Development. Areca Books. pp. 5, 225, 228 and 310. ISBN 978-983-42113-0-1.
- Khoo Kay Kim (1972). The Western Malay States, 1850-1873: the effects of commercial development on Malay politics. Oxford University Press. pp. 39–.
- Vincent Todd Harlow (1964). The founding of the Second British Empire, 1763-1793. Longmans.
• Cheah Boon Kheng (2007). New Perspectives and Research on Malaysian History: Essays on Malaysian Historiography. MBRAS. ISBN 978-967-9948-40-0.
• Frédéric Durand; Richard Curtis (28 February 2014). Maps of Malaysia and Borneo: Discovery, Statehood and Progress. Editions Didier Millet. pp. 52–. ISBN 978-967-10617-3-2.
- ʻUdomsombat (Lūang.) (1993). Rama III and the Siamese expedition to Kedah in 1839: the Dispatches of Luang Udomsombat. Center for Southeast Asian Studies, Monash University. pp. 2–. ISBN 978-0-7326-0521-6.
- L. Richmond Wheeler (19 March 2019). The Modern Malay. Taylor & Francis. pp. 50–70. ISBN 978-0-429-60316-7.
- Edward Balfour (1873). Cyclopædia of India and of Eastern and Southern Asia, Commercial, Industrial and Scientific: Products of the Mineral, Vegetable and Animal Kingdoms, Useful Arts and Manufactures. Printed at the Scottish & Adelphi presses. pp. 377–.
- Kobkua Suwwannathat-pian (1999). "A Brief Moment in Time: Kedah-Siam Relations Revisited". Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. 72 (2): 65–90. JSTOR 41493393.
- Anuar Nik Mahmud (Nik.) (1 January 1999). Sejarah perjuangan Melayu Patani, 1785-1954 [History of the Patani Malay struggle, 1785-1954] (in Malay). Penerbit Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. ISBN 978-967-942-443-0.
- Karl R. DeRouen; Paul Bellamy (2008). International Security and the United States: An Encyclopedia. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 804–. ISBN 978-0-275-99255-2.
- Sharom Ahmad (1971). "Kedah-Siam Relations, 1821-1905" (PDF). pp. 97–99. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 September 2019. Retrieved 10 September 2019 – via Siamese Heritage Trust.
- The Asiatic Journal and Monthly Register for British and Foreign India, China, and Australia. Parbury, Allen, and Company. 1841. pp. 153–.
- J. G. de Casparis; Hermanus Johannes de Graaf; Joseph Kennedy; William Henry Scott (1900). Geschichte. BRILL. pp. 137–141. ISBN 90-04-04859-6.
- "The Treaty Between The States Of Selangor And Perak". National Archives of Malaysia. 11 July 1823. Archived from the original on 15 September 2019. Retrieved 15 September 2019.
- Peter James Begbie; Diptendra M. Banerjee (1834). The Malayan Peninsula: Embracing Its History, Manners and Customs of the Inhabitants, Politics, Natural History, Etc. from Its Earliest Records. Vepery Mission Press. pp. 85–.
- Daniel George Edward Hall (1 May 1981). History of South East Asia. Macmillan International Higher Education. pp. 554–555. ISBN 978-1-349-16521-6.
- "The Surrender of Reman Occupied Districts To Perak". National Archives of Malaysia. 16 July 1909. Archived from the original on 13 September 2019. Retrieved 10 September 2019.
- Roger Kershaw (4 January 2002). Monarchy in South East Asia: The Faces of Tradition in Transition. Routledge. pp. 189–. ISBN 978-1-134-66707-9.
- Monographs on Malay Subjects. 1933.
- Ismail Mohd. Abu Hassan; Hakimah Haji Yaacob; Khairatul Akmar Ab. Latif (2004). Introduction to Malaysian legal history. Ilmiah Publishers. ISBN 978-983-3074-23-5.
- "Raja Abdullah's Letter To The English Governor". National Library Board, Singapore. 30 December 1873. Archived from the original on 13 September 2019. Retrieved 13 September 2019.
- "Pangkor Treaty is Signed [20 January 1874]". National Library Board, Singapore. Archived from the original on 13 September 2019. Retrieved 13 September 2019.
- The Directory & Chronicle for China, Japan, Corea, Indo-China, Straits Settlements, Malay States, Sian, Netherlands India, Borneo, the Philippines, &c: With which are Incorporated "The China Directory" and "The Hong Kong List for the Far East" ... Hong Kong Daily Press Office. 1912. pp. 1388–1389.
- M Hamzah (1995). "Bab 1 (Pengenalan)" [Chapter 1 (Introduction)] (PDF) (in Malay). University of Malaya Students Repository. p. 8 [7/31]. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 September 2019. Retrieved 16 September 2019.
- Derek Mackay (24 March 2005). Eastern Customs: The Customs Service in British Malaya and the Hunt for Opium. I.B.Tauris. pp. 10–. ISBN 978-0-85771-230-1.
- Joginder Singh Jessy (1963). History of Malaya, 1400-1959. Jointly published by the United Publishers and Peninsular Publications. pp. 82–.
- Harry Miller (1966). A short history of Malaysia. F.A. Praeger. pp. 79–.
- Virginia Thompson (1941). Thailand, the new Siam. The Macmillan company. pp. 150–.
- "Signing of the Anglo-Dutch Treaty (Treaty of London) of 1824 [17 March 1824]". National Library Board, Singapore. Archived from the original on 16 September 2019. Retrieved 16 September 2019.
- "British-Siam Negotiation". National Archives of Malaysia. 31 July 1825. Archived from the original on 13 September 2019. Retrieved 10 September 2019.
- "Selangor-English Peace And Friendship Treaty". National Archives of Malaysia. 20 August 1825. Archived from the original on 10 September 2019. Retrieved 10 September 2019.
- Daniel George Edward Hall (1974). Henry Burney: A Political Biography. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-713583-9.
- Thongchai Winichakul (1997). Siam Mapped: A History of the Geo-Body of a Nation. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 62–. ISBN 978-0-8248-1974-3.
- Khoo Kay Kim (1983). "Succession to the Perak Sultanate". Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. 56 (2): 7–29. JSTOR 41492955.
- Mervyn Llewelyn Wynne (2000). Triad Societies: Western Accounts of the History, Sociology and Linguistics of Chinese Secret Societies. Taylor & Francis. pp. 282–. ISBN 978-0-415-24397-1.
- Simon Groenveld; Michael Joseph Wintle; Anglo-Dutch Historical Conference (1992). State and Trade: Government and the Economy in Britain and the Netherlands Since the Middle Ages ; [papers Delivered to the Tenth Anglo-Dutch Historical Conference, Nijmegen, 1988]. Walburg Press. pp. 117–. ISBN 978-90-6011-794-1.
- Arthur Cotterell (4 August 2011). Western Power in Asia: Its Slow Rise and Swift Fall, 1415 - 1999. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 383–. ISBN 978-1-118-16999-5.
- Anthony Webster (31 December 1998). Gentleman Capitalists: British Imperialism in Southeast Asia, 1770-1890. I.B.Tauris. pp. 182–. ISBN 978-1-86064-171-8.
- "J.W.W. Birch, The Resident Of Perak Was Killed". National Archives of Malaysia. 2 November 1875. Archived from the original on 16 September 2019. Retrieved 16 September 2019.
- Deryck Scarr (2000). Seychelles Since 1770: History of a Slave and Post-slavery Society. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. pp. 106–. ISBN 978-1-85065-363-9.
- Julien Durup (11 July 2010). "The Innocent Sultan of Perak in the Seychelles". Seychelles Weekly. Archived from the original on 16 September 2019. Retrieved 16 September 2019.
- "The First Federated Malay States Durbar Meeting, Kuala Kangsar, July 1897". National Archives of Malaysia. 31 July 1825. Archived from the original on 13 September 2019. Retrieved 10 September 2019.
- Alan Teh Leam Seng (1 July 2018). "Conference of Rulers: How it all started". New Straits Times. Retrieved 13 September 2019.
- Cheah Boon Kheng (1991). "Letters From Exile — Correspondence of Sultan Abdullah of Perak from Seychelles and Mauritius, 1877—1891". Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. 64 (1): 33–74. JSTOR 41493172.
- "Pardon Application Documents Sultan Abdullah, Perak". National Archives of Malaysia. 31 July 1825. Archived from the original on 6 February 2019. Retrieved 10 September 2019.
- Emily Sadka (1954). "The Journal of Sir Hugh Low, Perak, 1877". Journal of the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. 27 (4): 1–108. JSTOR 24249161.
- Susan M. Martin (2004). The Up Saga. NIAS Press. pp. 26–. ISBN 978-87-91114-51-9.
- Azrai Abdullah; Izdihar Baharin; Rizal Yaakop (2012). "The Transformation of Perak's Political and Economic Structure in the British Colonial Period in Malaya (1874-1957)" (PDF). Malaysian Journal of History, Politics & Strategy, School of History, Politics & Strategy. 39 (2): 63–72. ISSN 2180-0251. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 September 2019 – via Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.
- "Anglo-Siamese Treaty Of 1909". National Archives of Malaysia. 10 March 1909. Archived from the original on 17 September 2019. Retrieved 17 September 2019.
- Joseph Kennedy (18 June 1987). British Civilians and the Japanese War in Malaya and Singapore, 1941-45. Palgrave Macmillan UK. pp. 26–28. ISBN 978-1-349-08691-7.
- Japanese Land Operations (from Japanese Sources), December 8, 1941, to June 8, 1942. Military Intelligence Service, War Department. 1942. pp. 31–.
- Yōji Akashi; Mako Yoshimura (1 December 2008). New Perspectives on the Japanese Occupation in Malaya and Singapore, 1941-1945. NUS Press. pp. 43–. ISBN 978-9971-69-299-5.
- United States. Army Service Forces (1944). Civil Affairs Handbook: Japan. Headquarters, Army Service Forces. pp. 3–.
- Paul H. Kratoska (1998). The Japanese Occupation of Malaya: A Social and Economic History. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. pp. 85–299. ISBN 978-1-85065-284-7.
- Hong Kuan Yap (1957). Perak Under the Japanese, 1942-1945. University of Malaya, Singapore.
- Annabel Teh Gallop (13 May 2016). "The Perak Times: a rare Japanese-occupation newspaper from Malaya". British Library. Archived from the original on 20 September 2019. Retrieved 20 September 2019.
- Christopher R. Duncan (2008). Civilizing the Margins: Southeast Asian Government Policies for the Development of Minorities. NUS Press. pp. 27–. ISBN 978-9971-69-418-0.
- Paul Morris; Naoko Shimazu; Edward Vickers (26 March 2014). Imagining Japan in Post-war East Asia: Identity Politics, Schooling and Popular Culture. Routledge. pp. 200–. ISBN 978-1-134-68490-8.
- Paul H. Kratoska (30 April 2018). The Japanese Occupation of Malaya and Singapore, 1941-45: A Social and Economic History. NUS Press. pp. 299–. ISBN 978-9971-69-638-2.
- Veena Babulal (22 October 2017). "Forgotten Perak town was backdrop of Sybil Kathigasu's heroism". New Straits Times. Retrieved 2 October 2019.
- John Bunyan (14 July 2018). "Memories of resistance fighter Sybil Kathigasu live on". The Malay Mail. Archived from the original on 2 October 2019. Retrieved 2 October 2019.
- Alex Chow (1 August 2014). "Force 136 (Operation Gustavus in Malaya)". National Library Board, Singapore. Archived from the original on 2 October 2019. Retrieved 2 October 2019.
- Ronnie Tan (9 April 2018). "Hunting Down the Malayan Mata Hari". National Library Board, Singapore. Retrieved 2 October 2019.
- Likhit Dhiravegin (1974). Siam and Colonialism, 1855-1909: An Analysis of Diplomatic Relations. Thai Watana Panich.
- Thak Chaloemtiarana (2007). Thailand: The Politics of Despotic Paternalism. SEAP Publications. pp. 20–. ISBN 978-0-87727-742-2.
- Edward R. Kantowicz (2000). Coming Apart, Coming Together. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. pp. 111–. ISBN 978-0-8028-4456-9.
- "Emergency Brought by Communist". National Archives of Malaysia. Archived from the original on 1 February 2019. Retrieved 1 October 2019.
- M. Ladd Thomas (1977). "The Malayan Communist Insurgency". Asian Affairs: An American Review. 4 (5): 306–316. doi:10.1080/00927678.1977.10554134. JSTOR 30171520.
- Guan Heng Tan (2008). 100 Inspiring Rafflesians, 1823-2003. World Scientific. pp. 2–. ISBN 978-981-277-892-5.
- Leon Comber (2012). "The Malayan Emergency: General Templer and the Kinta Valley Home Guard, 1952—1954". Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. 85 (1): 45–62. JSTOR 24894129.
- Leon Comber (2014). "General Sir Gerald Templer, the MCA, and the Kinta Valley Home Guard (1952–54). In Templer and the Road to Malayan Independence: The Man and His Time". 85 (1): 118–138 – via ISEAS–Yusof Ishak Institute. Cite journal requires
- Joseph M. Fernando; Shanthiah Rajagopal (2017). "Politics, Security and Early Ideas of 'Greater Malaysia', 1945-1961". Archipel. 94 (94): 97–119. doi:10.4000/archipel.445.
- United States. Dept. of State. International Information Administration. Documentary Studies Section; United States Information Agency. Special Materials Section; United States. International Communication Agency (1964). Problems of Communism. Special Materials Section, United States Information Agency.
- Ramses Amer (23 May 2016). Conflict Management and Dispute Settlement in East Asia. Routledge. pp. 52–. ISBN 978-1-317-16216-2.
- "Indonesia announces Konfrontasi (Confrontation) [19 January 1963]". National Library Board, Singapore. Archived from the original on 30 June 2018. Retrieved 4 October 2019.
- "Aggression Must be Deterred". The Age. 7 September 1964. Retrieved 4 October 2019.
- "Confrontation in Borneo". NZ History. Government of New Zealand. Retrieved 4 October 2019.
- Ong Weichong (3 October 2014). Malaysia's Defeat of Armed Communism: The Second Emergency, 1968-1989. Routledge. pp. 66–. ISBN 978-1-317-62689-3.
- Translations on South and East Asia. Joint Publications Research Service. pp. 161–.
- Muhammad Fazli Taib Saearani; Abdul Hamid Chan; Nur Nabila Michael Luang Abdullah (2017). "Development Phase of Traditional Dance in the State of Perak, Malaysia: A Literature Review" (PDF). International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences. 17 (11): 735 [5/7]. doi:10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i11/3511. ISSN 2222-6990. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 October 2019.
- "Marine Gazetteer Placedetails [Malaysian Exclusive Economic Zone]". Marineregions.org. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
- "Information Access (Perak)". Government of Perak. Archived from the original on 10 October 2019. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
Perak or also known as Perak Darul Ridzuan is the second largest state in Peninsular Malaysia (after Pahang).
- Jim Bowden (15 November 2018). "Malaysia: responsibility in the factory and deep in the forests" (PDF). Timber & Forestry ENews (537): 3–4. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 October 2019. Retrieved 10 October 2019 – via Malaysian Timber Council.
It was at the state forest in Perak, the fourth-largest of Malaysia's 13 states, that we saw how deep the responsibility for forest management has been planted.
- Ir. Ooi Choon Ann (1996). "Coastal erosion management in Malaysia" (PDF). Director of Coastal Engineering Division Department of Irrigation and Drainage of Malaysia, Proc. 13th Annual Seminar of the Malaysian Society of Marine Sciences: 9 (10). Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 October 2019. Retrieved 14 October 2019 – via Department of Irrigation and Drainage, Ministry of Water, Land and Natural Resources of Malaysia.
- Chan Kin Onn; J. van Rooijen; L. Lee Grismer; Daicus Belabut; Mohd. Abdul Muin Md. Akil; Hamidi Jamaludin; Rick Gregory; Norhayati Ahmad (2010). "First Report on the Herpetofauna of Pulau Pangkor, Perak, Malaysia" (PDF). Russian Journal of Herpetology. 17 (2): 139–146 – via Malaysia Biodiversity Information System.
- Eric Bird (25 February 2010). Encyclopedia of the World's Coastal Landforms. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 1122–. ISBN 978-1-4020-8638-0.
- Zulkifly Ab Latif (17 August 2017). "Naturally beautiful". New Straits Times. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
- F. L. Dunn (1975). Rain-forest Collectors and Traders: A Study of Resource Utilization in Modern and Ancient Malaya. MBRAS. pp. 30–.
- "Forest Resources". Perak State Forestry Department. Archived from the original on 9 October 2019. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
- "Perak's forest reserve stands at over 900,000ha". The Star. 10 December 2014. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
- Geological Survey (U.S.) (1895). Annual Report of the United States Geological Survey to the Secretary of the Interior. U.S. Government Printing Office. pp. 469–.
- Colonial Reports, Annual. H.M. Stationery Office. 1923.
- American University (Washington, D.C.). Foreign Areas Studies Division (1965). Area Handbook for Malaysia and Singapore. U.S. Government Printing Office. pp. 12–.
- ¬The Journal of the Royal Geographical Society0. Murray. 1876. pp. 357–.
- "The River, Basin & Reserves". Department of Irrigation and Drainage, Perak. Archived from the original on 12 October 2019. Retrieved 12 October 2019.
- Nena Vreeland (1977). Area Handbook for Malaysia. U.S. Government Printing Office. pp. 11–.
- George Thomas Kurian (1989). Geo-data: The World Geographical Encyclopedia. Gale Research Company. ISBN 978-0-914746-31-7.
- Indo-Pacific Fishery Commission (1995). Regional Symposium on Sustainable Development of Inland Fisheries Under Environmental Constraints: Bangkok, Thailand, 19-21 October 1994, and Country Reports Presented at the IPFC Working Party of Experts on Inland Fisheries : Bangkok, Thailand, 17-21 October 1994. Food & Agriculture Org. pp. 230–. ISBN 978-92-5-103559-7.
- "Kompendium (Data dan Maklumat Asas JPS)" [Compendium (DID Basic Data and Information)] (PDF) (in Malay). Department of Irrigation and Drainage, Malaysia. 2018: 23. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 May 2019. Retrieved 12 October 2019. Cite journal requires
- "Climate: Perak". Climate Data. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
- T. Suntharalingam; Malaysia. Jabatan Penyiasatan Kajibumi (1985). Quaternary geology of the coastal plain of Beruas, Perak. Geological Survey Headquarters.
- Chin Aik Yeap; BirdLife International. Important Bird Area Programme; Malayan Nature Society (January 2007). Directory of important bird areas in Malaysia: key sites for conservation. Malaysian Nature Society. ISBN 978-983-9681-39-0.
- "Climate & Weather". Perak Tourism. Archived from the original on 11 October 2019. Retrieved 11 October 2019.
- Wan Nooraishah Wan Abdul Kadir (2015). "Flood Damage Assessment for Perak Tengah District" (PDF): 11 [20/49]. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 October 2019 – via Universiti Teknologi Petronas. Cite journal requires
- R. O. Winstedt (1927). "The Great Flood, 1926". Journal of the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. 5 (2): 295–309. JSTOR 24249117.
• Fiona Williamson (2016). "The "Great Flood" of 1926: environmental change and post‐disaster management in British Malaya". Ecosystem Health and Sustainability. 2 (11): e01248. doi:10.1002/ehs2.1248 – via Taylor & Francis.
• "Thorough solution needed to overcome floods in Hulu Perak, MB says". Bernama. The Malay Mail. 7 November 2017. Archived from the original on 11 October 2019. Retrieved 11 October 2019.
• "Managing the Flood Problem in Malaysia" (PDF). Department of Irrigation and Drainage, Malaysia: 23. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 October 2019. Retrieved 12 October 2019. Cite journal requires
- Frank Tinley Ingham; Ernest Frederick Bradford (1960). The Geology and Mineral Resources of the Kinta Valley, Perak. Federation of Malaya, Geological Survey.
- Hafezatul Rasyidah Othman (2010). "Wind Environment Evaluation on Major Town of Malaysia" (PDF). Faculty of Civil Engineering & Earth Resources, Universiti Malaysia Pahang: 1–13 [2/24]. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 October 2019 – via CORE.
- Casey Keat Chuan Ng; Teow Yeong Lim; Amirrudin B. Ahmad; Md Zain Khaironizam (2019). "Provisional checklist of freshwater fish diversity and distribution in Perak, Malaysia, and some latest taxonomic concerns". Zootaxa. 4567 (3). doi:10.11646/zootaxa.4567.3.5.
- "Royal Belum State Park" (PDF). pp. 5/9. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 October 2019. Retrieved 12 October 2019 – via Department of National Heritage, Malaysia.
- "Royal Belum State Park". UNESCO. Archived from the original on 12 October 2019. Retrieved 12 October 2019.
- Ahmad Erwan Othman (20 September 2018). "Birdwatching: An ecotourism potential". The Borneo Post. Retrieved 12 October 2019 – via PressReader.
- Rahmah Ilias; Hamdon Tak (2010). "A Checklist of Birds at Three Forest Reserves of Pangkor Island, Perak" (PDF). Journal of Wildlife and Parks. XXVI (26): 71–77. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 October 2019. Retrieved 12 October 2019 – via Department of Wildlife and National Parks, Peninsular Malaysia.
- "Royal Belum". World Wide Fund for Nature. Archived from the original on 12 October 2019. Retrieved 12 October 2019.
- "Pulau Sembilan". Ministry of Water, Land and Natural Resources of Malaysia. Archived from the original on 13 October 2019. Retrieved 13 October 2019 – via Malaysia Biodiversity Information System.
- "Pulau Sembilan" [Nine Islands] (in Malay). Manjung Municipal Council. Archived from the original on 13 October 2019. Retrieved 13 October 2019.
- Amanda Yeap (2 October 2017). "Kinta Nature Park gazetted as a nature reserve". The Star. Retrieved 13 October 2019.
- "Kinta nature park never leased out". Bernama. 25 July 2018. Archived from the original on 13 October 2019. Retrieved 13 October 2019.
- Fong Kee Soon (23 February 2013). "Committed to protect the forests". The Star. Retrieved 12 October 2019.
- "Forest Management & Planning". Perak State Forestry Department. Archived from the original on 14 October 2019. Retrieved 14 October 2019.
- "Tree Planting Program". Perak State Forestry Department. Archived from the original on 12 October 2019. Retrieved 12 October 2019.
- A Common Vision on Biodiversity (PDF). Ministry of Water, Land and Natural Resources of Malaysia. 2008. p. 7 (23/130). ISBN 978-983-42956-8-4. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 October 2019. Retrieved 14 October 2019.
- "Only 23 tigers left in Royal Belum, Temenggor". Bernama. The Borneo Post. 4 August 2019. Archived from the original on 14 October 2019. Retrieved 14 October 2019.
- Jeremy Hance (26 September 2013). "Malaysia clearcutting forest reserves for timber and palm oil". Mongabay. Archived from the original on 14 October 2019. Retrieved 14 October 2019.
- Cheryl Rita Kaur. "Pollution from Land-Based Sources" (PDF). Profile of the Straits of Malacca : Malaysia's Perspectives: 129 & 140 (2 & 8). Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 October 2019. Retrieved 14 October 2019 – via Maritime Institute of Malaysia.
- Zahratulhayat Mat Arif (15 March 2019). "Sungai Raja Hitam falls under Class Four, needs extensive treatment". New Straits Times. Retrieved 14 October 2019.
- Ili Aqilah (5 April 2019). "Perak sets up task force to handle pollution in Sungai Rui". The Star. Retrieved 14 October 2019.
- Keith Bradsher (8 March 2011). "Mitsubishi Quietly Cleans Up Its Former Refinery". The New York Times. Retrieved 14 October 2019.
- "Chronology of events in the Bukit Merah Asian Rare Earth development". Penang Consumer Association. 11 May 2011. Archived from the original on 14 October 2019. Retrieved 14 October 2019.
- Jahara Yahaya; Santha Chenayah Ramu (2003). "Coastal Resource Development in Malaysia: Is There a Need for Sustainable Mangrove Forest Management?" (PDF). FEA Working Paper No. 2003-2, Department of Development Studies Faculty of Economics & Administration and Department of Applied Economics Faculty of Economics & Administration: 10 (11). Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 October 2019. Retrieved 14 October 2019 – via University of Malaya.
- Abu Talib Ahmad (10 October 2014). Museums, History and Culture in Malaysia. NUS Press. pp. 242–. ISBN 978-9971-69-819-5.
- "Raja Nazrin Shah proclaimed new Perak Sultan". The Star. 29 May 2014. Retrieved 15 October 2019.
- "Istana Iskandariah". National Archives of Malaysia. Archived from the original on 3 February 2019. Retrieved 15 October 2019.
- "Pejabat DYMM Paduka Seri Sultan Perak Darul Ridzuan" [The Sultan of Perak Darul Ridzuan's Office] (in Malay). The Administration Office of His Majesty the Sultan of Perak. Archived from the original on 15 October 2019. Retrieved 15 October 2019.
- "Perak State Exco Members Sworn In". Government of Perak. 19 May 2018. Archived from the original on 15 October 2019. Retrieved 15 October 2019.
- Allison Lai (12 May 2018). "Pakatan secures Perak with 31 seats". The Star. Retrieved 15 October 2019.
- Azrai Abdullah (2007). "From Natural Economy to Capitalism: the State and Economic Transformation in Perak, Malaysia c.1800-2000" (PDF). University of Hull: 41–42. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 October 2019 – via Universiti Teknologi Petronas.
- "State PAS secretary made Perak Mentri Besar". The Star. 12 March 2008. Archived from the original on 1 February 2009. Retrieved 12 March 2008.
- Julian Bernauer; Daniel Bochsler; Rogers Brubaker; Magdalena Dembinska; Fulya Memisoglu; Karolina Prasad; Antoine Roger; Edina Szöcsik; Hanna Vasilevich; Doris Wydra; Christina Isabel Zuber (3 March 2014). New Nation-States and National Minorities. ECPR Press. pp. 142–. ISBN 978-1-907301-86-5.
- Mohsin Abdullah (5 April 2019). "Politics and Policy: Storm brewing in Perak". The Edge Markets. Archived from the original on 15 October 2019. Retrieved 15 October 2019.
According to the state constitution, the menteri besar must be a Malay Muslim.
- Zanariah Abdul Mutalib (4 February 2009). "Pakatan Rakyat Perak tumbang, BN bentuk kerajaan" [Perak Pakatan Rakyat collapsed, BN form the government] (in Malay). mStar. Archived from the original on 15 October 2019. Retrieved 15 October 2019.
- Kee Thuan Chye (2 October 2010). March 8: Time for Real Change. Marshall Cavendish International Asia Pte Ltd. pp. 44–. ISBN 978-981-4382-81-6.
- "Kronologi Krisis Politik Perak" [Chronology of the Perak Political Crisis] (in Malay). mStar. 9 February 2009. Archived from the original on 15 October 2019. Retrieved 15 October 2019.
- David Chance; Razak Ahmad; Soo Ai Peng; Julie Goh; Bill Tarrant (11 May 2009). "Malaysia court rules opposition runs Perak state". Reuters. Archived from the original on 15 October 2019. Retrieved 15 October 2019.
- Kee Beng Ooi (2010). Between UMNO and a Hard Place: The Najib Razak Era Begins. Institute of Southeast Asian. pp. 37–. ISBN 978-981-4311-28-1.
- Lucius Goon (11 June 2012). "Why give Raja Nazrin space?". The Malaysian Insider. Archived from the original on 13 June 2012. Retrieved 15 October 2019.
- "Kod Dan Nama Sempadan Pentadbiran Tanah" [Land Administration Boundary Code And Name] (PDF) (in Malay). Centre for Geospatial Data Infrastructure, Ministry of Water, Land and Natural Resources of Malaysia. 2011. p. 1–49 [1/55]. Retrieved 18 October 2019.
- "Local Authorities". Government of Perak. Archived from the original on 18 October 2019. Retrieved 18 October 2019.
- Paul H. Kratoska (1984). "Penghulus in Perak and Selangor: The Rationalization and Decline of a Traditional Malay Office". Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. 57 (2): 31–59. JSTOR 41492983.
- "Rancangan Struktur Negeri Perak 2040 (Jadual 1.2: Senarai Daerah Di Negeri Perak)" [Perak State Structure Plan 2040 (Table 1.2: List of Districts In Perak State)]. National Institute of Land and Survey of Malaysia. p. 1–10 [30/194]. Archived from the original on 25 October 2019.
- "Laman Web Pejabat Daerah Dan Tanah - Geografi". pdtselama.perak.gov.my.
- Chan Li Leen (27 November 2015). "Muallim is new district in Perak". The Star. Retrieved 16 October 2019.
- "Muallim the Eleventh District of Perak State". Office of the Director of Land and Mines Perak. 11 January 2016. Archived from the original on 16 October 2019. Retrieved 16 October 2019.
- M. Hamzah Jamaludin (11 January 2016). "Muallim is now Perak's 11th district". New Straits Times. Retrieved 16 October 2019.
- "Pengisytiharan Rasmi Bagan Datuk Sebagai Daerah Baru" [Official Declaration of Bagan Datuk As a New District] (in Malay). Federal Development Office of Perak State. 9 January 2017. Archived from the original on 16 October 2019. Retrieved 16 October 2019.
- "Bagan Datuk is now Perak's 12th district". The Star. 10 January 2017. Retrieved 16 October 2019.
- Nuradzimmah Daim (21 January 2017). "Transforming Bagan Datuk". New Straits Times. Retrieved 16 October 2019.
- "GDP By State (2010–2016)". Department of Statistics, Malaysia. 6 September 2017. Archived from the original on 4 August 2018. Retrieved 18 October 2019.
- John Gullick (2010). "The Economy of Perak in the Mid-1870s". Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. 83 (2): 27–46. JSTOR 41493778.
- Muhammad Afiq Ziekry Mohd Shukry. "Chapter 1 (Introduction – Background Study)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 October 2019. Retrieved 18 October 2019 – via Universiti Teknologi Petronas.
Most of the abandon tin mine sites has been converted to agricultural land due the closing of tin industry in Perak around 1980s.
- "Home". InvestPerak Malaysia. Retrieved 18 October 2019.
- "GDP By State (2010–2014)". Department of Statistics, Malaysia. p. 2 and 5. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 August 2018. Retrieved 18 October 2019.
- "Deputy YDP Agong launches Perak Museum's 135th anniversary". Bernama. 24 November 2018. Archived from the original on 18 October 2019. Retrieved 18 October 2019.
- "Perak State Government 5 Year Development Plan - 11th Malaysia Plan (2016 to 2020)". Federation of Malaysian Manufacturers. Archived from the original on 18 October 2019. Retrieved 18 October 2019.
- "Perak Government Development Corridor". Government of Perak. 27 May 2016. Archived from the original on 19 October 2019. Retrieved 19 October 2019.
- "Perak to drive economy with new blueprint". Bernama. The Malaysian Reserve. 7 August 2017. Archived from the original on 18 October 2019. Retrieved 18 October 2019.
- "Perak records RM1.43 bln investments for Jan-March 2019". Bernama. 22 June 2019. Archived from the original on 18 October 2019. Retrieved 18 October 2019.
- "Perak attracts almost RM2 billion worth of investments". Bernama. The Borneo Post. 4 October 2018. Archived from the original on 18 October 2019. Retrieved 18 October 2019.
- "Perak aims to remain tops in farming". The Star. 16 November 2005. Retrieved 18 October 2019.
- Chan Li Leen (16 November 2008). "Perak to legalise prawn-farming industry". The Star. Retrieved 18 October 2019.
- "Bid to legalise prawn farming industry". The Star. 17 November 2008. Retrieved 18 October 2019.
- Ivan Loh (9 November 2015). "Tanjung Tualang: Perak's prawn town". The Star. Retrieved 18 October 2019.
- "17,589 youths in Perak venture into agriculture sector as of 2015". Bernama. New Straits Times. 13 April 2016. Retrieved 18 October 2019.
- "Perak SADC to initiate RM1 billion Agrovalley project". Bernama. 20 June 2016. Archived from the original on 18 October 2019. Retrieved 18 October 2019.
- "Perak Committed To Be A Major Contributor To Country's Agriculture Sector". Government of Perak. 28 September 2019. Archived from the original on 18 October 2019. Retrieved 18 October 2019.
- "Supplying 80% of national market Storehouse of aqua food". Perak Biz-Route. 7 September 2015. Retrieved 18 October 2019.
- "Versatile agricultural policies to meet escalating demands". Perak Biz-Route. 7 September 2015. Retrieved 18 October 2019.
- "Major Contributor to Perak's GDP: Construction sector". iProperty.com.my. 17 January 2017. Retrieved 18 October 2019.
- Manjit Kaur (10 July 2018). "Perak is No 2 for local tourists". The Star. Retrieved 25 October 2019.
- Chan Li Leen; Zabidi Tusin (22 September 2005). "Royal town steeped in history and tradition". The Star. Retrieved 25 October 2019.
- David Bowden (16 February 2017). "The royal town of Kuala Kangsar". New Straits Times. Retrieved 25 October 2019.
- Ming Teoh (19 September 2017). "Exploring Kuala Kangsar, Perak's royal town". Star2.com. Archived from the original on 25 October 2019. Retrieved 25 October 2019.
- "Perak Museum". Department of Museums Malaysia. Retrieved 25 October 2019.
- Sam Bedford (22 May 2018). "The Most Beautiful Architecture in Ipoh, Malaysia". Culture Trip. Retrieved 25 October 2019.
- "Pasir Salak Historical Complex". Perak State Museum Board. Archived from the original on 5 July 2018. Retrieved 25 October 2019.
- Chan Li Leen (13 November 2017). "More than just about Birch and Maharaja Lela". The Star. Retrieved 25 October 2019.
- "Darul Ridzuan Museum". Perak State Museum Board. Archived from the original on 6 July 2018. Retrieved 25 October 2019.
- "Menara Condong" [Leaning Tower]. Teluk Intan Municipal Council. Archived from the original on 25 October 2019. Retrieved 25 October 2019.
- "Living tale of nature". Belum Temenggor. Retrieved 25 October 2019.
- Sam Bedford (23 May 2018). "8 Gorgeous Natural Sights near Ipoh, Malaysia". Culture Trip. Retrieved 25 October 2019.
- Sam Bedford (18 July 2018). "How to Travel to Pangkor Island". Culture Trip. Retrieved 25 October 2019.
- "Tempurung Cave". Kampar District Council. Archived from the original on 25 October 2019. Retrieved 25 October 2019.
- "Category: Nature". Visit Perak. Retrieved 25 October 2019.
- V. P. Sujata; Lew Yong Kan; Zabidi Tusin (8 September 2005). "Welcome to Perak's garden city". The Star. Retrieved 25 October 2019.
- "Home". Gaharu Tea Valley Gopeng. Retrieved 25 October 2019.
- Foong Pek Yee (15 December 2017). "Thriving in Tambun". The Star. Retrieved 25 October 2019.
- "Home". Sunway Lost World of Tambun. Retrieved 25 October 2019.
- Ivan Loh (26 August 2015). "Ipoh going through a transformation". The Star. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
- "Perak state assembly passes State Budget 2016". Bernama. The Malay Mail. 24 November 2015. Archived from the original on 21 October 2019. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
- "Perak Allocates RM1.17 Billion For Budget 2018". Government of Perak. 21 November 2017. Archived from the original on 21 October 2019. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
- Nuradzimmah Daim (22 November 2017). "Perak allocates RM1.2b for budget". New Straits Times. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
- Zahratulhayat Mat Arif (4 December 2018). "Perak govt to continue projects by previous administration, says MB". New Straits Times. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
- Ezuria Nadzri (2002). "Development of the Cascading Module for Hydro Energy Decision Support System (HEDSS) for Temengor-Bersiak-Kenering Power Plants" (PDF): 4 (17–25). Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 October 2019 – via Universiti Putra Malaysia.
The generation facilities consist of four units with a total installed capacity of 348 MW.Cite journal requires
- "(Datasheet) Power Generation Plants in Malaysia" (PDF). Palm Oil Engineering Bulletin (113): 45. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 October 2019 – via Palm Information Online Services, Malaysian Palm Oil Board.
- Saim Suratman (1986). "Engineering geology of Sungai Piah Hydro-Electric Project, Perak, Peninsular Malaysia" (PDF). Bulletin of the Geological Society of Malaysia: 871–881. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 October 2019. Retrieved 21 October 2019 – via Geological Society of Malaysia.
- "Manjung Power Plant, Perak". NS Energy. Archived from the original on 21 October 2019. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
- "Power Plant and Water Desalination Plant Locations (GB3 Power Plant)". Malakoff. Archived from the original on 21 October 2019. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
- "About Us". Perak Water Board. Archived from the original on 21 October 2019. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
- Zahratulhayat Mat Arif (24 March 2019). "Water at major Perak dams remains at normal level despite dry spell". New Straits Times. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
- "Chapter 2: An Overview of the Telecommunications Industry in Malaysia" (PDF). University of Malaya. p. 2/21 (7). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 July 2016. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
- "Changing role of the Telecoms Department". New Straits Times. 17 May 1997. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
- "Telekom Malaysia puts last 'stop' to telegram service". The Borneo Post. 4 July 2012. Archived from the original on 21 October 2019. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
The first telegraph line was set up by the now defunct Department of Posts and Telegraph from Kuala Kangsar to Taiping in 1874. It signalled the beginning of an era of telecommunications in the country.
- "Supplement to the F.M.S. Government Gazette [XIV. – Posts and Telegraphs]" (PDF). Federated Malay States Authority: 8 [10/36]. 1921. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 October 2019 – via University of Malaya Repository.
- Sharmila Nair (31 August 2017). "Ringing in the many changes". The Star. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
- "Perak committed to implementing high-impact telecommunications development projects". Bernama. 27 July 2019. Archived from the original on 21 October 2019. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
- Ili Aqilah (4 July 2019). "Perak to be first state to introduce high-speed Internet in rural areas". The Star. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
- "TM UniFi Service now in Perak". Telekom Malaysia. 19 January 2012. Archived from the original on 21 October 2019. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
- "Perak TM targets 90% Unifi users by 2021". The Sun. 28 July 2019. Archived from the original on 21 October 2019. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
- "Sejarah" [History] (in Malay). Perak FM. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
- "Statistik Jalan" [Road Statistics] (PDF) (in Malay). Malaysian Public Works Department. 2016. p. 10/148 . ISSN 1985-9619. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
- Mohd Noor Aswad (1 April 2019). "West Coast Expressway to ease traffic". New Straits Times. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
- Shaarani Ismail (23 April 2019). "Twenty-three 11MP projects worth RM4.7 billion boost state". New Straits Times. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
- T. Avineshwaran (15 April 2017). "100 years old and going strong despite apathy". The Star. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
- Dominique Grele (November 2004). 100 Resorts Malaysia: Places with a Heart. Asiatype, Inc. pp. 71–. ISBN 978-971-0321-03-2.
- Manjit Kaur (10 October 2019). "RM5bil project to turn Ipoh railway station into transport hub". The Star. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
- Isabel Albiston; Brett Atkinson; Greg Benchwick; Cristian Bonetto; Austin Bush; Robert Kelly; Simon Richmond; Richard Waters; Anita Isalska (1 August 2016). Lonely Planet Malaysia Singapore & Brunei. Lonely Planet. pp. 347–. ISBN 978-1-76034-162-6.
- "Airports in Perak, Malaysia". OurAirports. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
- "Sejarah Hospital" [Hospital History] (in Malay). Raja Permaisuri Bainun Hospital. Archived from the original on 22 October 2019. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
- "Hospital" (in Malay). Perak State Health Department. 19 May 2011. Archived from the original on 22 October 2019. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
- "Hospital dan Pusat Rawatan Swasta" [Hospitals and Private Treatment Centres] (in Malay). Perak State Health Department. 9 February 2015. Archived from the original on 22 October 2019. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
- Kamaliah MN; Teng CL; Nordin S; Noraziah AB; Salmiah MS; Fauzia AM; Normimiroslina CO; Nadia FMG; Farah A; Mohd AY (2008–2009). "Workforce in Primary Care in Malaysia [Table 3.1 Number and Density of Primary Care Doctors in Malaysia by State and Sector]" (PDF). National Healthcare Establishment and Workforce Statistics, Malaysia. p. 2/6 . Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 September 2018. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
- "Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (UTAR) Kampar Campus". Asian Science Camp 2017. Archived from the original on 22 October 2019. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
- "Jabatan Pendidikan Negeri Perak (Perak State Education Department)". Perak State Education Department. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
- Anabelle Ong (8 April 2015). "14 SMKs That Are Over 100 Years Old And Still Going Strong". Says.com. Archived from the original on 14 September 2018. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
- "Senarai Nama Semua Sekolah Menengah di Negeri Perak (Sejumlah 250 buah) (List of All Secondary Schools in Perak) [Total 250]". Educational Management Information System. Archived from the original on 22 October 2019. Retrieved 22 October 2019 – via MySchoolChildren.com.
- "Home". City Harbour International School. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
- "Ipoh Campus". Fairview International School Ipoh Campus. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
- "Imperial International School Ipoh Campus". Imperial International School. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
- "Home". Seri Botani International School. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
- "Home". Tenby Schools Ipoh. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
- "Home". Westlake International School. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
- "List of Chinese Independent Schools [Perak]". School Malaysia. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
- "List of Japanese Language School in Malaysia [Perak]". Japan Foundation Kuala Lumpur. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
- "About QIUP". Quest International University. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
- "Universiti Kuala Lumpur - Malaysian Institute of Marine Engineering Technology (UniKL MIMET)". Malaysian Qualifications Register. Archived from the original on 22 October 2019. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
- "Universiti Kuala Lumpur - Royal College of Medicine Perak (UniKL RCMP) (Previously known as : Kolej Perubatan DiRaja Perak)". Malaysian Qualifications Register. Archived from the original on 22 October 2019. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
- "Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (UTAR), Perak Campus". Malaysian Qualifications Register. Archived from the original on 22 October 2019. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
- "Sultan Azlan Shah Polytechnic". Malaysian Qualifications Register. Archived from the original on 22 October 2019. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
- "Ungku Omar Polytechnic". Malaysian Qualifications Register. Archived from the original on 22 October 2019. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
- "States & Federal Territories [Perak population]". CityPopulation.de. Retrieved 23 October 2019.
- "Population by States and Ethnic Group". Department of Information, Ministry of Communications and Multimedia, Malaysia. 2015. Archived from the original on 12 February 2016. Retrieved 23 October 2019.
- Francis Loh Kok Wah (1988). Beyond the Tin Mines: Coolies, Squatters and New Villagers in the Kinta Valley, Malaysia, c.1880–1980 (PDF). Oxford University Press. p. 1–13 [1/10]. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 October 2019 – via National Library of Malaysia.
- Robin J. Pryor (1979). Migration and development in South-East Asia: a demographic perspective. Oxford University Press. pp. 85–.
- Malaysian Journal of Tropical Geography. Department of Geography, University of Malaya. 1994. pp. 85–.
- Dennis Rumley; Julian V. Minghi (3 October 2014). The Geography of Border Landscapes. Taylor & Francis. pp. 132–. ISBN 978-1-317-59879-4.
- World and Its Peoples: Eastern and Southern Asia. Marshall Cavendish. 2007. pp. 1184–. ISBN 978-0-7614-7642-9.
- Melvin Ember; Carol R. Ember; Ian Skoggard (30 November 2004). Encyclopedia of Diasporas: Immigrant and Refugee Cultures Around the World. Volume I: Overviews and Topics; Volume II: Diaspora Communities. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 274–. ISBN 978-0-306-48321-9.
- Asmah Haji Omar (16 December 2015). Languages in the Malaysian Education System: Monolingual strands in multilingual settings. Routledge. pp. 16–. ISBN 978-1-317-36421-4.
- Thatsanawadi Kaeosanit (2016). "Dynamic Construction of the Siamese-Malaysians' Ethnic Identity, Malaysia" (PDF). A Dissertation Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy (Communication Arts and Innovation). p. 143 [153/384]. Retrieved 24 October 2019 – via Graduate School of Communication Arts and Management Innovation, National Institute of Development Administration, Thailand.
- "Taburan Penduduk dan Ciri-ciri asas demografi (Population Distribution and Basic demographic characteristics 2010)" (PDF). Department of Statistics, Malaysia. 2010. p. 13 [26/156]. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 May 2014. Retrieved 23 October 2019.
- Who's who in Malaysia and Guide to Singapore. J. V. Morais. 1977.
- Hamilton Alexander Rosskeen Gibb (1995). The Encyclopaedia of Islam: NED-SAM. Brill.
- Andrew Harding (27 July 2012). The Constitution of Malaysia: A Contextual Analysis. Bloomsbury Publishing. pp. 141–. ISBN 978-1-84731-983-8.
- Sir Hugh Charles Clifford; Sir Frank Athelstane Swettenham (1894). A Dictionary of the Malay Language. Authors at the Government's Printing Office.
- Tien-Ping Tan; Sang-Seong Goh; Yen-Min Khaw (2012). "A Malay Dialect Translation and Synthesis System: Proposal and Preliminary System" (PDF). International Conference on Asian Language Processing: 1–4 [109–112]. doi:10.1109/IALP.2012.14. ISBN 978-1-4673-6113-2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 October 2019 – via Speech Processing Group, School of Computer Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia.
- Noriah Mohamed (2016). "Hybrid Language and Identity among the Samsam, Baba Nyonya and Jawi Peranakan Communities in North Peninsular Malaysia" (PDF). A Dissertation Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy (Communication Arts and Innovation): 1–23. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 October 2019 – via Universiti Sains Malaysia.
- Jacquetta Megarry; Stanley Nisbet; Eric Hoyle (8 December 2005). World Yearbook of Education: Education of Minorities. Taylor & Francis. pp. 166–. ISBN 978-0-415-39297-6.
- A. Y. Yong (9 December 2017). "The rise and fall of languages and dialects". The Star. Retrieved 24 October 2019.
- "Language unites Malay and Siamese community". Bernama. Daily Express. 5 June 2015. Archived from the original on 24 October 2019. Retrieved 24 October 2019.
Thai was widely used among the Malays who live in villages shared by the Siamese community, especially in states like Perlis, Kedah, Perak, Kelantan and Terengganu.
- Sylvia Looi (17 October 2019). "How knowing Mandarin helps this Perak veterinarian in her work". The Malay Mail. Archived from the original on 24 October 2019. Retrieved 24 October 2019.
- Azmi Arifin (2015). "Traditional Malay Pottery of Kuala Kangsar: Its History and Development" (PDF). Malaysia Research. 33 (2): 113–133. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 October 2019 – via Universiti Sains Malaysia.
- Rachael Lum (28 June 2019). "Golden Heritage: The Malaysian Art Of Gold Embroidery". Going Places Magazine. Archived from the original on 24 October 2019. Retrieved 24 October 2019 – via Malaysia Airlines.
- Ivan Loh (16 September 2017). "Bringing old dances to new audiences". The Star. Retrieved 26 October 2019.
- "Dabus (Pengenalan)" [Dabus (Introduction)] (PDF) (in Malay). Ministry of Communications and Multimedia of Malaysia. 2003. Retrieved 24 October 2019.
- "The Many Colours of Malaysia". Tourism Malaysia. 24 March 2003. Archived from the original on 26 October 2019. Retrieved 26 October 2019.
The most famous product which has every tourist in awe is the labu sayong - a calabash shaped urn used during mystical rituals or simply for storing water. It's a wonder as the water stored in it is always cool. The people of Perak even have a dance called the labu sayong.
- Raihana Abdullah (1987). "Perak perkenal Tarian Bubu sebagai seni budaya Melayu" [Perak introduces Bubu Dance as Malay cultural art] (in Malay). Archived from the original on 25 October 2019. Retrieved 26 October 2019 – via University of Malaya Common Repository.
- "Ipoh's Old Town Revival". Travel + Leisure. 25 March 2016. Archived from the original on 25 October 2019. Retrieved 25 October 2019.
- Chan Li Lin (5 August 2011). "Untiring commitment for Cantonese opera". Sin Chew Daily. Archived from the original on 25 October 2019. Retrieved 25 October 2019.
- Ngo Sheau Shi (2011). "The Shaw Brothers' Wuxia Pian: An Early Identity and Business-Cultural Connection for the Chinese in Malaya" (PDF). Malaysia Research. 29 (1): 75–93. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 October 2019 – via Universiti Sains Malaysia.
- Vivian Chong (24 July 2016). "A walk through time at Ipoh's Qing Xin Ling Leisure & Cultural Village". The Malay Mail. Archived from the original on 26 October 2019. Retrieved 26 October 2019.
- Ming Teoh (19 March 2018). "What to do at Qing Xin Ling Leisure and Cultural Village in Ipoh, Perak". Star2.com. Archived from the original on 26 October 2019. Retrieved 26 October 2019.
- Amanda Yeap (26 November 2015). "Bercham - former tin mining centre turned booming township". The Star. Retrieved 26 October 2019.
- Amanda Yeap (16 January 2017). "Insight into Chinese culture". The Star. Retrieved 26 October 2019.
- "Senarai Persatuan/Pertubuhan Tarian dan Seni Kebudayaan Kaum di Perak" [List of Ethnic Folk Dance and Cultural Arts Association/Organisation in Perak] (PDF) (in Malay). Department of Museums Malaysia. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 October 2019. Retrieved 26 October 2019.
- Dave Avran (10 September 2019). "Intriguing and interesting inception of Ipoh White Coffee". Free Malaysia Today. Archived from the original on 26 October 2019. Retrieved 26 October 2019.
- "Food and Cuisine". Perak Tourism. Archived from the original on 26 October 2019. Retrieved 26 October 2019.
- Casey Ng (2015). "Pomelo—Citrus maxima—the indigenous mega-citrus of South-East Asia" (PDF). UTAR Agriculture Science Journal. 1 (3). Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 October 2019 – via Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman.
- Zari Mahmood (1 August 2007). "Please keep pomelos special to Perak". The Star. Retrieved 26 October 2019.
Talking about fruits, Perak is one state where particular districts are known for certain fruits. Bidor is famous for the guava, Tapah the petai, Menglembu the groundnuts, Hulu Perak the durians, and of course Tambun for the pomelo.
- "Sejarah JBS Perak" [History of Perak YSD] (in Malay). Perak State Youth and Sports Department. Archived from the original on 26 October 2019. Retrieved 26 October 2019.
- "Sports Complex". Ipoh City Council. Archived from the original on 26 October 2019. Retrieved 26 October 2019.
- Ili Aqilah (1 October 2019). "Boost in funding for district-level sports associations". The Star. Retrieved 26 October 2019.
- "Perak FA". Johor Southern Tigers. Archived from the original on 26 October 2019. Retrieved 26 October 2019.
- Dorairaj Nadason (30 May 2014). "A Sultan's legacy". The Star. Retrieved 26 October 2019.
- Azuan (24 September 2018). "Perak Menjadi Negeri Pertama Memperkenalkan E-Sukan Dalam Temasya SUKMA 2018" [Perak Becomes The First State To Introduce E-Sports At SUKMA Games 2018] (in Malay). TeknoRatz. Archived from the original on 26 October 2019. Retrieved 26 October 2019.
- Shamsul Kamal Amarudin (2 March 2019). "Perak mahu bina stadium e-sports" [Perak wants to build an e-sports stadium] (in Malay). Berita Harian. Archived from the original on 30 October 2019. Retrieved 26 October 2019.
- John Frederick Adolphus McNair (1878). "Perak and the Malays: "Sarong" and "kris."". University of Toronto Libraries. London, Tinsley brothers. p. 504.
- Isabella Lucy Bird (1883). "The Golden Chersonese and the Way Thither". Harvard University. G. P. Putnam's sons. p. 543.
- Barbara Watson Andaya (1979). Perak, the Abode of Grace: A Study of an Eighteenth-century Malay State. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-580385-3.
- Abdur-Razzaq Lubis; Khoo Salma Nasution (2003). Raja Bilah and the Mandailings in Perak, 1875-1911. Areca Books. ISBN 978-967-9948-31-8.