Jambi (Jawi: جمبي) is a province of Indonesia. It is located on the east coast of central Sumatra and spans to the Barisan Mountains in the west. Its capital and largest city is Jambi. The province has a land area of 50,160.05 km2, and a sea area of 3,274.95 km2. It had a population of 3,092,265 according to the 2010 Census[4] and 3,548,228 according to the 2020 Census.[1]

Flag of Jambi
Coat of arms of Jambi
سڤوچوق جمبي سمبيلن لوره
Sepucuk Jambi Sembilan Lurah (Jambi Malay)
One Jambi formed by nine regional entities
Location of Jambi in Indonesia
Location of Jambi in Indonesia
Coordinates: 1°35′S 103°37′E / 1.583°S 103.617°E / -1.583; 103.617Coordinates: 1°35′S 103°37′E / 1.583°S 103.617°E / -1.583; 103.617
Established6 January 1957
and largest city
 • BodyJambi Provincial Government
 • GovernorAl Haris [id]
 • Vice GovernorAbdullah Sani [id]
 • Total50,160.05 km2 (19,366.90 sq mi)
Area rank11th
500 m (1,600 ft)
Highest elevation3,805 m (12,484 ft)
 (2020 Census)[1]
 • Total3,548,228
 • Rank19th
 • Density71/km2 (180/sq mi)
 • Density rank23rd
 • Ethnic groups38% Malay
30% Javanese
10% Kerinci
5.2% Minangkabau
3.4% Batak
13.4% other[2]
 • Religion95% Islam
3.1% Christianity
0.9% Buddhism
1% other
 • LanguagesIndonesian (official)
Jambi Malay, Kerinci, Kubu (regional)
HDIIncrease 0.712 (High)
HDI rank18th in Indonesia (2019)
GRP NominalIncrease$15.40 billion[3]
GDP PPP (2019)Increase$50.33 billion[3]
GDP rank15th in Indonesia (2019)
Nominal per capitaUS$ 4,248 (2019)[3]
PPP per capitaUS$ 13,963 (2019)[3]
Per capita rank7th in Indonesia (2019)


Mosque in Jambi, during the colonial period. ca 1900-1939.

Jambi was the site of the Srivijayan kingdom that engaged in trade throughout the Strait of Malacca and beyond. Jambi succeeded Palembang, its southern economic and military rival, as the capital of the kingdom. The movement of the capital to Jambi was partly induced by the 1025 raid by pirates from the Chola region of southern India, which destroyed much of Palembang.

In the early decades of the Dutch presence in the region (see Dutch East India Company in Indonesia), when the Dutch were one of several traders competing with the British, Chinese, Arabs, and Malays, the Jambi Sultanate profited from trade in pepper with the Dutch. This relationship declined by about 1770, and the sultanate had little contact with the Dutch for about sixty years.[citation needed]

In 1833, minor conflicts with the Dutch (the Indonesian colonial possessions of which were now nationalised as the Dutch East Indies) who were well established in Palembang, meant the Dutch increasingly felt the need to control the actions of Jambi. They coerced Sultan Facharudin to agree to greater Dutch presence in the region and control over trade, although the sultanate remained nominally independent. In 1858 the Dutch, apparently concerned over the risk of competition for control from other foreign powers, invaded Jambi with a force from their capital Batavia. They met little resistance, and Sultan Taha fled upriver, to the inland regions of Jambi. The Dutch installed a puppet ruler, Nazarudin, in the lower region, which included the capital city. For the next forty years Taha maintained the upriver kingdom, and slowly reextended his influence over the lower regions through political agreements and marriage connections. In 1904, however, the Dutch were stronger and, as a part of a larger campaign to consolidate control over the entire archipelago, soldiers finally managed to capture and kill Taha, and in 1906, the entire area was brought under direct colonial management.

Following the death of Jambi sultan, Taha Saifuddin, on 27 April 1904 and the success of the Dutch controlled areas of the Sultanate of Jambi, Jambi then set as the Residency and entry into the territory Nederlandsch Indie. Jambi's first Resident OL Helfrich was appointed by the Governor General under Dutch Decree No. 20, dated 4 May 1906 with his inauguration held on 2 July 1906.

Historical population
1971 1,006,084—    
1980 1,445,994+43.7%
1990 2,020,568+39.7%
1995 2,369,959+17.3%
2000 2,407,166+1.6%
2005 2,635,968+9.5%
2010 3,092,265+17.3%
2015 3,397,164+9.9%
2020 3,548,228+4.4%
Source: Badan Pusat Statistik 2021

Administrative divisionsEdit

Jambi province is divided into nine regencies (kabupaten) and two cities (kota), listed below with their areas and their populations at the 2010, 2015 and 2020 Censuses.[1] These are divided into 141 districts (kecamatan), in turn sub-divided into 153 urban villages (kelurahan) and 1,399 rural villages (desa).

Name Area (km2) Population
Census 2010
Census 2015
Census 2020
Capital HDI[5]
2018 Estimates
Jambi City 205.43 531,857 575,388 606,200 - 0.774 (High)
Sungai Penuh City 391.50 82,293 87,032 96,600 - 0.746 (High)
Batanghari Regency 5,804.00 241,334 260,290 301,700 Muara Bulian 0.693 (Medium)
Bungo Regency 4,659.00 303,135 343,489 362,400 Muara Bungo 0.694 (Medium)
East Tanjung Jabung Regency
(Tanjung Jabung Timur)
5,445.00 205,272 213,536 229,800 Muara Sabak 0.633 (Medium)
Kerinci Regency 3,355.27 229,495 234,912 250,300 Siulak 0.705 (High)
Merangin Regency 7,679.00 333,206 365,763 354,100 Bangko 0.688 (Medium)
Muaro Jambi Regency 5,326.00 342,952 398,196 402,000 Sengeti 0.683 (Medium)
Sarolangun Regency 6,184.00 246,245 277,733 290,100 Sarolangun 0.694 (Medium)
Tebo Regency 6,461.00 297,735 330,403 337,700 Muara Tebo 0.686 (Medium)
West Tanjung Jabung Regency
(Tanjung Jabung Barat)
4,649.85 278,741 310,422 317,500 Kuala Tungkal 0.671 (Medium)
Total province 50,160.05 3,092,265 3,397,164 3,548,228 Jambi 0.705 (High)

World Heritage sitesEdit

Mount Kerinci, the tallest mountain in Sumatra
Muaro Jambi Temples
Detail of a Kain Batik Tulisan, late 19th century, from an unknown village in Jambii.

The largest of the three national parks comprising the Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra, Kerinci Seblat has the distinction of being the second-largest national park in all of Southeast Asia, only after Lorentz National Park on Papua. It is one of the Sumatran Tiger's last strongholds on the island, and within its borders sits the highest active volcano in Southeast Asia - Mount Kerinci.

May 2011: The Jambi provincial administration is striving to have the ancient Muaro Jambi temple site at Muaro Jambi village in Maro Sebo District, Muaro Jambi Regency, recognized as a world heritage site.

The site was a Buddhist education centre that flourished during the 7th and 8th centuries and is made from bricks similar to those used in Buddhist temples in India.[6]


The official language of Jambi province is Indonesian as in all parts of Indonesia. However Jambi is also home to several indigenous languages and dialects such as Jambi Malay, Kerinci language, Kubu language, Lempur Malay, and Rantau Panjang Malay, all of which are Malayan languages.[7]

Due to transmigration policy, many ethnic groups from various parts of Indonesia, especially Java, Borneo, Sulawesi and other parts of Sumatra brought their native languages as well. The non-Pribumi people such as the Chinese Indonesians speak several varieties of Chinese.

Ethnically, the population comprises:

Islam is the largest religion in Jambi, being practised by 96.5% of the population. Minority religions are Christianity with 3%, Buddhism 0.97%, Confucianism 0.05% and Hinduism 0.25% of the population.[9]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ a b c Badan Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2021.
  2. ^ . Badan Pusat Statistik. 2010. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  3. ^ a b c d "Indonesia". Badan Pusat Statistik. Retrieved 20 May 2020.
  4. ^ (2010 BPS)
  5. ^ [1]
  6. ^ "Waspada Online – Pusat Berita dan Informasi Medan Sumut Aceh". waspada.co.id. Retrieved 22 March 2018.
  7. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-07-14. Retrieved 2014-07-02.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  8. ^ . Badan Pusat Statistik. 2010. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  9. ^ "Penduduk Menurut Wilayah dan Agama yang Dianut". sp2010.bps.go.id. Retrieved 2018-02-25.
  • Locher-Scholten, Elsbeth. 1993. Rivals and rituals in Jambi, South Sumatra. Modern Asian Studies 27(3):573-591.

External linksEdit