Open main menu

Jambi is a province of Indonesia. It is located on the east coast of central Sumatra and spans to the Barisan Mountains in the west. Its capital and largest city is Jambi. The province has a land area of 50,058 km2, and it has a population of 3,092,265 according to the 2010 Census;[3] by January 2014 this had risen to 3,412,459.

Jambi
Other transcription(s)
 • Jawiجمبي
Mount Kerinci, the highest peak in Sumatra Island
Mount Kerinci, the highest peak in Sumatra Island
Flag of Jambi
Flag
Coat of arms of Jambi
Coat of arms
Motto(s): 
Sepucuk Jambi Sembilan Lurah
(One Jambi, formed by nine regional entities)
Location of Jambi in Indonesia
Location of Jambi in Indonesia
Coordinates (History): 1°35′S 103°37′E / 1.583°S 103.617°E / -1.583; 103.617Coordinates: 1°35′S 103°37′E / 1.583°S 103.617°E / -1.583; 103.617History
Country Indonesia
Established6 January 1957
Capital
(and largest city)
Jambi
Government
 • GovernorFachrori Umar (NasDem)
Area
History
 • Total50,058 km2 (19,328 sq mi)
Area rank11th
 History
Elevation
500 m (1,600 ft)
Highest elevation
3,805 m (12,484 ft)
Lowest elevation
0 m (0 ft)
Population
 (2017[1])
 • Total3,515,000
 • Rank19th
 • Density70/km2 (180/sq mi)
 • Density rank23rd
Demonym(s)Jambian
Warga Jambi (id)
Kaum Jambi (ms)
Demographics
 • Ethnic groupsMalay (38%), Javanese (28.8%), Kerinci (10%), Minangkabau (5.2%), Batak (3.43%), Banjarese (3.3%), Buginese (3.1%), Sundanese (2.56%), Tionghoa (1.2%), Other (4.41%)[2]
 • ReligionIslam (95.41%)
Protestantism (2.66%)
Roman Catholicism (0.43%)
Buddhism (0.97%)
Confucianism (0.05%)
Hinduism (0.02%)
 • LanguagesIndonesian (official)
Jambi Malay, Kerinci, Kubu (regional)
Time zoneUTC+7 (Indonesia Western Time)
Postcodes
36xxx, 37xxx
Area codes(62)74x
ISO 3166 codeID-JA
Vehicle signBH
GRP per capitaUS$4,064
GRP rank7th
HDIIncrease 0.696 (Medium)
HDI rank17th (2016)
Largest city by areaSungai Penuh – 391.5 square kilometres (151.2 sq mi)
Largest city by populationJambi City – (576,067 – 2016)
Largest regency by areaMerangin Regency – 7,679 square kilometres (2,965 sq mi)
Largest regency by populationMuaro Jambi Regency – (399,157 – 2016)
WebsiteGovernment official site

Contents

HistoryEdit

 
Mosque in Jambi, during the colonial period. ca 1900-1939.

Jambi was the site of the Srivijayan kingdom that engaged in trade throughout the Strait of Malacca and beyond. Jambi succeeded Palembang, its southern economic and military rival, as the capital of the kingdom. The movement of the capital to Jambi was partly induced by the 1025 raid by pirates from the Chola region of southern India, which destroyed much of Palembang.

In the early decades of the Dutch presence in the region (see Dutch East India Company in Indonesia), when the Dutch were one of several traders competing with the British, Chinese, Arabs, and Malays, the Jambi Sultanate profited from trade in pepper with the Dutch. This relationship declined by about 1770, and the sultanate had little contact with the Dutch for about sixty years.[citation needed]

In 1833, minor conflicts with the Dutch (the Indonesian colonial possessions of which were now nationalised as the Dutch East Indies) who were well established in Palembang, meant the Dutch increasingly felt the need to control the actions of Jambi. They coerced Sultan Facharudin to agree to greater Dutch presence in the region and control over trade, although the sultanate remained nominally independent. In 1858 the Dutch, apparently concerned over the risk of competition for control from other foreign powers, invaded Jambi with a force from their capital Batavia. They met little resistance, and Sultan Taha fled upriver, to the inland regions of Jambi. The Dutch installed a puppet ruler, Nazarudin, in the lower region, which included the capital city. For the next forty years Taha maintained the upriver kingdom, and slowly reextended his influence over the lower regions through political agreements and marriage connections. In 1904, however, the Dutch were stronger and, as a part of a larger campaign to consolidate control over the entire archipelago, soldiers finally managed to capture and kill Taha, and in 1906, the entire area was brought under direct colonial management.

Following the death of Jambi sultan, Taha Saifuddin, on 27 April 1904 and the success of the Dutch controlled areas of the Sultanate of Jambi, Jambi then set as the Residency and entry into the territory Nederlandsch Indie. Jambi's first Resident OL Helfrich was appointed by the Governor General under Dutch Decree No. 20, dated 4 May 1906 with his inauguration held on 2 July 1906.


YearPop.±%
1971 1,006,084—    
1980 1,445,994+43.7%
1990 2,020,568+39.7%
1995 2,369,959+17.3%
2000 2,407,166+1.6%
2010 3,092,265+28.5%
2017 3,515,000+13.7%
Source: Badan Pusat Statistik 2014

Administrative divisionsEdit

Jambi province is divided into nine regencies (kabupaten) and two cities (kota), listed below with their areas and their populations at the 2010 Census and according to the latest (January 2014) estimates.

Name Area (km2) Population
Census 2010
Population
Estimate 2014
Capital HDI[4]
2014 Estimates
Jambi City 104 531,857 586,930 - 0.748 (High)
Sungai Penuh City 392 82,293 90,814 - 0.724 (High)
Batanghari Regency 5,804 241,334 266,323 Muara Bulian 0.676 (Medium)
Bungo Regency 4,659 303,135 334,524 Muara Bungo 0.679 (Medium)
East Tanjung Jabung Regency
(Tanjung Jabung Timur)
5,445 205,272 226,527 Muara Sabak 0.598 (Low)
Kerinci Regency 3,355 229,495 253,258 Siulak 0.679 (Medium)
Merangin Regency 7,679 333,206 367,708 Bangko 0.662 (Medium)
Muaro Jambi Regency 5,326 342,952 378,464 Sengeti 0.657 (Medium)
Sarolangun Regency 6,184 246,245 271,743 Sarolangun 0.676 (Medium)
Tebo Regency 6,461 297,735 328,564 Muara Tebo 0.666 (Medium)
West Tanjung Jabung Regency
(Tanjung Jabung Barat)
4,650 278,741 307,604 Kuala Tungkal 0.640 (Medium)
Total province 50,058 3,092,265 3,412,459 Jambi 0.696 (Medium)

LanguagesEdit

The official language of Jambi province is Indonesian as in all parts of Indonesia. However Jambi is also home to several indigenous languages and dialects such as Jambi Malay, Kerinci language, Kubu language, Lempur Malay, and Rantau Panjang Malay, all of which are Malayan languages. [5]

Due to transmigration policy, many ethnic groups from various parts of Indonesia, especially Java, Borneo, Sulawesi and other parts of Sumatra brought their native languages as well. The non-Pribumi people such as the Chinese Indonesians speak several varieties of Chinese.

World Heritage sitesEdit

The largest of the three national parks comprising the Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra, Kerinci Seblat has the distinction of being the second-largest national park in all of Southeast Asia, only after Lorentz National Park on Papua. It is one of the Sumatran Tiger's last strongholds on the island, and within its borders sits the highest active volcano in Southeast Asia - Mount Kerinci.

 
Muaro Jambi Temples

May 2011: The Jambi provincial administration is striving to have the ancient Muaro Jambi temple site at Muaro Jambi village in Maro Sebo District, Muaro Jambi Regency, recognized as a world heritage site.

The site was a Buddhist education centre that flourished during the 7th and 8th centuries and is made from bricks similar to those used in Buddhist temples in India.[6]

DemographicsEdit

Religion in Jambi (2010 census)[7]
religion percent
Islam
95.41%
Christianity
3.09%
Buddhism
0.97%
other, not stated or not asked
0.47%
Confucianism
0.05%
Hinduism
0.02%

Islam is the largest religion in Jambi, beign practised by 96.5% of the population. Minority religions are Christianity with 3%, Buddhism 0.97%, Confucianism 0.05% and Hinduism 0.25% of the population.[8]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Statistik Indonesia 2018". Badan Pusat Statistik. Retrieved July 23, 2018.
  2. ^ . Badan Pusat Statistik. 2010. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  3. ^ (2010 BPS)
  4. ^ Indeks-Pembangunan-Manusia-2014
  5. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-07-14. Retrieved 2014-07-02.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  6. ^ "Waspada Online – Pusat Berita dan Informasi Medan Sumut Aceh". waspada.co.id. Retrieved 22 March 2018.
  7. ^ "Population by Region and Religion in Indonesia". BPS. 2010.
  8. ^ "Penduduk Menurut Wilayah dan Agama yang Dianut". sp2010.bps.go.id. Retrieved 2018-02-25.
  • Locher-Scholten, Elsbeth. 1993. Rivals and rituals in Jambi, South Sumatra. Modern Asian Studies 27(3):573-591.

External linksEdit