Japanese occupation of Singapore
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|Military occupation by the Empire of Japan|
|Historical era||World War II|
|•||Pacific War begins||8 December 1941a|
|•||Britain surrenders Singapore to Japan|
15 February 1942
|•||Allied bombing raids||Nov 1944 – May 1945|
|•||Surrender of Japan||15 August 1945|
|•||Singapore surrendered to British Military Administration|
12 September 1945
|•||Singapore becomes a Crown colony|
1 April 1946
|Currency||Japanese-issued dollar ("Banana money")|
|Today part of||Singapore|
|a.||The Pacific War started on 8 December 1941 in Asian timezones, but is often referred to as starting on 7 December, as that was the date in European and American timezones (such as for the attack on Pearl Harbor in the United States' Territory of Hawaii).|
The Japanese occupation of Singapore in World War II took place from 1942 to 1945, following the fall of the British colony on 15 February 1942. Military forces of the Empire of Japan occupied it after defeating the combined British, Indian, Australian, and Malayan garrison in the Battle of Singapore. The occupation was to become a major turning point in the histories of several nations, including those of Japan, Britain, and the then-colonial state of Singapore. Singapore was renamed Syonan-to (昭南島 Shōnan-tō), meaning "Light of the South Island".
Singapore was officially returned to British colonial rule on 12 September 1945, following the formal signing of the surrender instrument at the Municipal Building.
Events leading to the occupationEdit
The Japanese captured all of Malaya during the Malayan Campaign in a little more than two months. The garrison defending Singapore surrendered on 15 February 1942, only a week after the invasion of the island commenced. British Prime Minister Winston Churchill called the fall of Singapore "the worst disaster and largest capitulation in British history".
Life during the occupationEdit
Time of terrorEdit
The Kempeitai (the Japanese military secret police), committed numerous atrocities towards the common people. They introduced the system of "Sook Ching", which means "purge through purification" in Chinese, to get rid of those deemed to be anti-Japanese. The Sook Ching Massacre claimed the lives of between 25,000 and 50,000 ethnic Chinese in Singapore and Malaya. These men were rounded up and taken to deserted spots around the island and killed systematically. Moreover, the Kempeitai established a network of informants around the island to help them identify anti-Japanese. These informers were well-paid by the Kempeitai and had no fear of being arrested. Japanese soldiers patrolled the streets and commoners had to bow to them when they passed by. Those who failed to do so would be slapped or beaten and some people would be taken away.
Other changes made while Singapore was Syonan-toEdit
To discourage Western influence, the Japanese set up schools and forced people to learn their language. Textbooks were printed in Japanese. Every morning, children had to stand facing the direction of Japan and sing the Japanese national anthem ("Kimigayo").
Scarcity of basic needsEdit
Resources were scarce during the occupation. The prices of basic necessities increased drastically due to hyperinflation. For example, the price of rice increased from $5 per 100 catties (about 60 g or 0.13 lb) to $5,000 by the end of the occupation. The Japanese issued ration cards, also known as "Peace living Certificates" to limit the amount of resources received by the civilian population. Adults could purchase 5 kg (11 lb) of rice per month and 2 kg (4.4 lb) for children. The amount of rice for adults was reduced by 25% as the war progressed.
The Japanese issued banana money as their main currency since Straits currency became rare. They instituted elements of a command economy in which there were restrictions on the demand and supply of resources, thus creating a popular black market. The "banana currency" started to suffer from high inflation and dropped drastically in value because the authorities would simply print more whenever they needed it; consequently the black market often used Straits currency.
Food quality and availability decreased greatly. Sweet potatoes and yams became the staple food of most diets of Singaporeans because they were considerably cheaper than rice and could also be grown in gardens. They were then turned into a variety of dishes, as both dessert and all were used in all three meals of the day. The nutrients helped to fend starvation off; new ways of consuming tapioca with other products were regularly invented to stave off the monotony. Both of the British and Japanese authorities encouraged the population to grow their own food even if they had the smallest amount of land. The encouragement and produces were similar to what occurred with victory gardens in the Western nations during World War II. Ipomoea aquatica, which grew relatively easy and flourished relatively well near the water and became a popular crop just as it did to the other "vegetables."
After taking Singapore, the Japanese established the Shonan Japanese School (昭南日本学園 Shōnan Nihon Gakuen), to educate Malays, Chinese, Indians, and Eurasians in the Japanese language. Faye Yuan Kleeman, the author of Under an Imperial Sun: Japanese Colonial Literature of Taiwan and the South wrote that it was the most successful of such schools in Southeast Asia. During the occupation, the Japanese had also opened the Shonan First People's School.
Singapore was the target of various operations masterminded by Allied forces to disrupt Japanese military activities. On 26 September 1943, an Allied commando unit known as Z Force led by Major Ivan Lyon infiltrated Singapore Harbour and sank or damaged seven Japanese ships comprising over 39,000 long tons (40,000 metric tons). Lyon led another operation, codenamed "Rimau", with the same objective almost a year later and sank three ships. Lyon and 13 of his men were killed fighting the Japanese. The other 10 men who participated in the operation were captured, charged with espionage in a kangaroo court and subsequently executed.
Lim Bo Seng of Force 136 led another operation, code-named Gustavus, he recruited and trained hundreds of secret agents through intensive military intelligence missions from China and India. He set up the Sino-British guerrilla task force Force 136 in 1942 with Captain John Davis of the Special Operations Executive (SOE). Operation Gustavus was aimed at establishing an espionage network in Malaya and Singapore to gather intelligence about Japanese activities, and thereby aid the British in Operation Zipper – the code name for their plan to take back Singapore from the Japanese. Force 136 was eventually disbanded after the war.
In August 1945, two midget submarines of the Royal Navy took part in Operation Struggle, a plan to infiltrate Singapore Harbour and sabotage the Japanese cruisers Takao and Myōkō using limpet mines. They inflicted heavy damage on Takao, earning Lieutenant Ian Edward Fraser the Victoria Cross. From November 1944 to May 1945, Singapore was subjected to air raids by British and American long-range bomber units.
Naval facilities and docks in Singapore were also bombed on eleven occasions by American air units between November 1944 and May 1945. These attacks caused some damage to their targets, but also killed a number of civilians. Most Singaporeans, however, welcomed the raids as they were seen as heralding Singapore's liberation from Japanese rule.
End of the occupationEdit
On 6 and 9 August 1945, two US B-29 bombers called 'Enola Gay' and 'Bockscar', dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. On 8 August 1945, the Soviet Union declared war on Japan and invaded Manchuria. The bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki along with the entry of the Soviet Union into the war ended the Japanese occupation of Southeast Asia.
On 15 August 1945, Japan announced its surrender. The formal signing of the surrender instrument was held at Municipal Building on 12 September. This was followed by a celebration at the Padang, which included a victory parade. Lord Louis Mountbatten, Supreme Allied Commander of South East Asia Command, came to Singapore to receive the formal surrender of the Japanese forces in the region from General Seishirō Itagaki on behalf of General Hisaichi Terauchi. A British military administration used surrendered Japanese troops as security forces was formed to govern the island until March 1946.
After the Japanese surrendered, there was a state of anomie in Singapore, as the British had not yet arrived to take control. The Japanese occupiers had a considerably weakened hold over the populace. There were widespread incidents of looting and revenge-killing. Much of the infrastructure had been wrecked, including the harbour facilities and electricity, water supply and telephone services. It took four or five years for the economy to return to pre-war levels. When British troops finally arrived they were met with cheering and fanfare.
Banana money became worthless after the occupation ended.
To keep alive the memory of the Japanese occupation and its lessons learnt for future generations, the Singapore government erected several memorials with some at the former massacre sites:
Civilian War MemorialEdit
Spearheaded and managed by the Singapore Chinese Chamber of Commerce and Industry, the Civilian War Memorial is located in the War Memorial Park at Beach Road. Comprising four white concrete columns, this 61 metres tall memorial commemorates the civilian dead of all races. It was built after thousands of remains were discovered all over Singapore during the urban redevelopment boom in the early 1960s. The memorial was officially unveiled by Singapore's first prime minister Lee Kuan Yew on the 25th anniversary of the start of the Japanese occupation in 1967. It was constructed with part of the S$50 million 'blood debt' compensation paid by the Japanese government in October 1966. Speaking at the unveiling ceremony, Lee said:
We meet to remember the men and women who were the hapless victims of one of the fires of history... If today we remember these lessons of the past, we strengthen our resolve and determination to make our future more secure then these men and women for whom we mourn would not have died in vain.
On 15 February every year, memorial services (opened to the public) are held at the memorial.
Sook Ching Centre MonumentEdit
The site of this monument lies within the compound of Hong Lim Complex in Chinatown. The inscription on the monument reads:
|“||The site was one of the temporary registration centres of the Japanese Military Police, the Kempeitai, for screening 'anti-Japanese' Chinese.
On 18 February 1942, three days after the surrender of Singapore, the Kempeitai launched a month-long purge of 'anti-Japanese elements' in an operation named Sook Ching. All Chinese men between 18 and 50 years old, and in some cases women and children, were ordered to report to these temporary registration centres for interrogation and identification by the Kempeitai.
Those who passed the arbitrary screening were released with 'Examined' stamped on their faces, arms or clothes. Others not so fortunate were taken to outlying parts of Singapore and executed for alleged anti-Japanese activities. Tens of thousands were estimated to have lost their lives.
Changi Beach Massacre MonumentEdit
The site of this monument is located in Changi Beach Park (near Camp Site 2) in the eastern part of Singapore. The inscription on the monument reads:
|“||66 male civilians were killed by Japanese Hojo Kempei (auxiliary military police) firing at the water's edge on this stretch of Changi Beach on 20 February 1942. They were among tens of thousands who lost their lives during the Japanese Sook Ching operation to purge suspected anti-Japanese civilians among Singapore's Chinese population between 18 February and 4 March 1942. Tanah Merah Besar Beach, a few hundred metres south (now part of Singapore Changi Airport runway) was one of the most heavily-used killing grounds where well over a thousand Chinese men and youths lost their lives.
— National Heritage Board.
Punggol Beach Massacre MonumentEdit
The site of this monument is located off Punggol Road in northeastern Singapore. The inscription on the monument reads:
|“||On 23 February 1942, some 300–400 Chinese civilians were killed along Punggol foreshore by Hojo Kempei (auxiliary military police) firing squad. They were among tens of thousands who lost their lives during the Japanese Sook Ching operation to purge suspected anti-Japanese civilians among Singapore's Chinese population between 18 February and 4 March 1942. The victims who perished along the foreshore were among 1,000 Chinese males rounded up following a house-to-house search of the Chinese community living along Upper Serangoon Road by Japanese soldiers.
— National Heritage Board.
The Japanese occupation of Singapore has been depicted in media and popular culture, including films, television series and books
- Early episodes of Tenko, a BBC/ABC production.
- The Heroes (1988), an Australian-British co-production.
- Heroes II: The Return (1991), an Australian miniseries.
- The Last Rhythm (1996), a Chinese language series produced by the Television Corporation of Singapore (TCS).
- The Price of Peace (1997), produced by the TCS.
- A War Diary (2001), produced by MediaCorp.
- In Pursuit of Peace (2001), produced by MediaCorp.
- Changi (2001), produced by the Australian Broadcasting Corporation.
- The Journey: Tumultuous Times (2014), produced by MediaCorp.
List of monuments and historical sitesEdit
- Abshire, Jean (2011). The History of Singapore. ABC-CLIO. p. 104. ISBN 031337743X.
- Giggidy, Kevin; Hack, Karl (2004). Did Singapore Have to Fall?: Churchill and the Impregnable Fortress. Routledge. p. 132. ISBN 0203404408.
- Churchill, Winston S. Second World War IV. 6 vols, London, 1948–54 p. 81.
- "PEACE LIVING CERTIFICATE ISSUED DURING JAPANESE OCCUPATION". National Archives of Singapore. Retrieved 9 October 2016.
- "Japanese Occupation". AsiaOne. Archived from the original on 9 May 2006. Retrieved 1 May 2006.
- "Hungry years". AsiaOne. Archived from the original on 9 May 2006. Retrieved 1 May 2006.
- Kleeman, Faye Yuan. Under an ImSun: Japanese Colonial Literature of Taiwan and the South. University of Hawaii Press, 2003. p. 43. ISBN 0824825926, 9780824825928. "The most successful was the Japanese school in Singapore. A month after the British surrendered (February 15, 1942), Japan renamed the island Syonan-to (literally "illuminating the south") and founded the famous Shonan Japanese School (Shōnan Nihon Gakuen 昭南日本学園)"
- "A BRIEF HISTORY." The Japanese School Singapore. Retrieved on 2 January 2014.
- Lee, "Remembering The Hapless Victims of The Fires of History", pp. 327—9.
- Modder, "Sook Ching Registration Centre in Chinatown", p. 72.
- Modder, "Changi Beach Massacre", p. 69.
- Modder, "Punggol Beach Massacre", p. 67.
- Fall of Malaya and Singapore, a detailed history of the Battle of Singapore.