List of emperors of Japan

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This list of emperors of Japan presents the traditional order of succession.[1] Records of the reigns are compiled according to the traditional Japanese calendar. In the nengō system which has been in use since the late-seventh century, years are numbered using the Japanese era name and the number of years which have taken place since that nengō era started.[2]The sequence, order and dates of the first 28 emperors, and especially the first 16, are based on the Japanese calendar system.

Emperors of JapanEdit

No. Portrait Personal name Posthumous name Reign and era names Life details
1   Hikohohodemi
彦火火出見
Emperor Jimmu
神武天皇
660–585 BC
(75 years)
711–585 BC
(126 years)
  Son of Ugayafukiaezu. Claimed descent from the sun goddess, Amaterasu.[3] Presumed legendary. Traditional dates used.[3]
2   Kamununakawamimi
神渟名川耳
Emperor Suizei
綏靖天皇
581–549 BC
(31 years)
632–549 BC
(83 years)
  Son of Emperor Jimmu.[4] Presumed legendary. Traditional dates used.[5]
3   Shikitsuhikotamatemi
磯城津彦玉手看
Emperor Annei
安寧天皇
549–511 BC
(38 years)
567–511 BC
(56 years)
  Son of Emperor Suizei.[4] Presumed legendary. Traditional dates used.[6]
4   Ōyamatohikosukitomo
大日本彦耜友
Emperor Itoku
懿徳天皇
510–476 BC
(34 years)
553–477 BC
(76 years)
  Son of Emperor Annei.[4] Presumed legendary. Traditional dates used.[6]
5   Mimatsuhikokaeshine
観松彦香殖稲
Emperor Kōshō
孝昭天皇
475–393 BC
(82 years)
501–393 BC
(108 years)
Son of Emperor Itoku.[4] Presumed legendary. Traditional dates used.[7]
6   Yamatotarashihikokunioshihito
日本足彦国押人
Emperor Kōan
孝安天皇
392–291 BC
(101 years)
427–291 BC
(136 years)
Son of Emperor Kōshō.[4] Presumed legendary. Traditional dates used.[8]
7   Ōyamatonekohikofutoni
大日本根子彦太瓊
Emperor Kōrei
孝霊天皇
290–215 BC
(75 years)
342–215 BC
(127 years)
Son of Emperor Kōan.[4] Presumed legendary. Traditional dates used.[9]
8   Ōyamatonekohikokunikuru
大日本根子彦国牽
Emperor Kōgen
孝元天皇
214–158 BC
(56 years)
273–158 BC
(115 years)
Son of Emperor Kōrei.[4] Presumed legendary. Traditional dates used.[10]
9   Wakayamato Nekohiko Ōbibi
稚日本根子彦大日日
Emperor Kaika
開化天皇
157–98 BC
(59 years)
208–98 BC
(110 years)
Son of Emperor Kōgen.[4] Presumed legendary. Traditional dates used.[11]
10   Mimaki
御間城
Emperor Sujin
崇神天皇
97–30 BC
(67 years)
148–30 BC
(118 years)
Son of Emperor Kaika. First Emperor with a direct possibility of existence.[12] Still presumed legendary. Traditional dates used.[13]
11   Ikume
活目
Emperor Suinin
垂仁天皇
29 BC–AD 70
(99 years)
69 BC–AD 70
(127 years)
Son of Emperor Sujin. Presumed legendary. Traditional dates used.[14]
12   Ōtarashihiko
大足彦
Emperor Keikō
景行天皇
71–130
(59 years)
13–130
(143 years)
Son of Emperor Suinin. Presumed legendary. Traditional dates used.[15]
13   Wakatarashihiko
稚足彦
Emperor Seimu
成務天皇
131–191
(60 years)
84–190
(107 years)
Son of Emperor Keikō. Presumed legendary. Traditional dates used.[16]
14   Tarashinakatsuhiko
足仲彦
Emperor Chūai
仲哀天皇
192–200
(8 years)
149–200
(50–51 years)
Son of Yamato Takeru; nephew of Emperor Seimu; grandson of Emperor Keikō. First Emperor to ascend the throne without being the son of the previous Emperor. Died during a campaign against the Kumaso tribe. Presumed legendary. Traditional dates used.[17]
  Okinagatarashi
息長帯比売
Empress Jingū
神功皇后
201–269
(68 years)
169–269
(100 years)

Wife of Emperor Chūai; mother and regent of Emperor Ōjin. Not counted among the officially numbered Emperors. Presumed legendary. Traditional dates used.[18]
15   Homutawake
誉田別
Emperor Ōjin
応神天皇
270–310
(40 years)
201–310
(108–109 years)
Son of Emperor Chūai and Empress Jingū. Deified in Shinto and Buddhism in Japan as Hachiman. Traditional dates used.[19]
16   Ohosazaki
大鷦鷯
Emperor Nintoku
仁徳天皇
313–399
(86 years)
290–399
(108–109 years)
Son of Emperor Ōjin. Traditional dates used.[20]
17   Ōenoizahowake
大兄去来穂別
Emperor Richū
履中天皇
400–405
(5 years)
336–405
(69–70 years)
Son of Emperor Nintoku. Traditional dates used.[21]
18   Mizuhawake
瑞歯別
Emperor Hanzei
反正天皇
406–410
(4 years)
336–410
(73–74 years)
Son of Emperor Nintoku; younger brother of Emperor Richū. Traditional dates used.[22]
19   Oasatsuma Wakugo no Sukune
雄朝津間稚子宿禰
Emperor Ingyō
允恭天皇
411–453
(42 years)
376–453
(76–77 years)
Son of Emperor Nintoku; younger brother of Emperor Richū and Emperor Hanzei. Traditional dates used.[23]
20   Anaho
穴穂
Emperor Ankō
安康天皇
453–456
(3 years)
401–456
(54–55 years)
Son of Emperor Ingyō. Assassinated by Prince Mayowa. Traditional dates used.[24]
21   Ōhatuse no Wakatakeru
大泊瀬稚武
Emperor Yūryaku
雄略天皇
456–479
(23 years)
418–479
(60–61 years)
Son of Emperor Ingyō; younger brother of Emperor Ankō. Traditional dates used.[25]
22   Shiraka
白髪
Emperor Seinei
清寧天皇
480–484
(4 years)
444–484
(39–40 years)
Son of Emperor Yūryaku. Traditional dates used.[26]
23   Woke
弘計
Emperor Kenzō
顕宗天皇
485–487
(2 years)
450–487
(36–37 years)
Son of Ichinobe no Oshiwa; cousin and adopted son of Emperor Seinei; grandson of Emperor Richū. Traditional dates used.[27]
24   Oke
億計
Emperor Ninken
仁賢天皇
488–498
(10 years)
449–498
(48–49 years)
Son of Ichinobe no Oshiwa; older brother of Emperor Kenzō; cousin and adopted son of Emperor Seinei; grandson of Emperor Richū. Traditional dates used.[28]
25   Ohatsuse no Wakasazaki
小泊瀬稚鷦鷯
Emperor Buretsu
武烈天皇
498–506
(8 years)
489–507
(17–18 years)
Son of Emperor Ninken. Traditional dates used.[29]
26   Ohodo[i]
袁本杼
Emperor Keitai
継体天皇
507–531
(24 years)
401–456
(54 years)
Son of Hikoushi no Ōkimi; 5th-generation grandson of Emperor Ōjin; 8th-generation grandson of Emperor Suinin. Became Emperor at the recommendation of Ōtomo no Kanamura. Traditional dates used.[30]
27   Magari
Emperor Ankan
安閑天皇
531–535
(4 years)
466–536
(69–70 years)
Son of Emperor Keitai. Traditional dates used.[31]
28   Hinokuma-no-takata
檜隈高田
Emperor Senka
宣化天皇
535–539
(4 years)
466–539
(72–73 years)
Son of Emperor Keitai; younger brother of Emperor Senka. Traditional dates used.[32]
29   Amekunioshiharakihironiwa
天国排開広庭
Emperor Kinmei
欽明天皇
539–571
(32 years)
509–571
(62 years)
Son of Emperor Keitai; younger brother of Emperor Ankan and Emperor Senka. All Emperors from Emperor Kenmei onwards are historically verifiable.[33] Traditional dates used.[34]
30   Nunakura no Futotamashiki
渟中倉太珠敷
Emperor Bidatsu
敏達天皇
572–585
(13 years)
538–585
(46–47 years)
Son of Emperor Kinmei. Traditional dates used.[35]
31   Tachibana no Toyohi
橘豊日
Emperor Yōmei
用明天皇
585–587
(2 years)
517–587
(69 years)
Son of Emperor Kinmei; half-brother of Emperor Bidatsu. Traditional dates used.[36]
32   Hatsusebe
泊瀬部
Emperor Sushun
崇峻天皇
587–592
(5 years)
553–592
(38–39 years)
Son of Emperor Kinmei; half-brother of Emperor Bidatsu and Emperor Yōmei. Made Emperor by Soga no Umako following the Soga–Mononobe conflict. Assassinated by Yamatonoaya no Koma under the orders of Soga no Umako. Traditional dates[37]
33   Nukatabe
額田部
Empress Suiko
推古天皇
592–628
(36 years)
554–628
(74 years)
Daughter of Emperor Kinmei; wife of Emperor Bidatsu. First non-legendary female monarch. Prince Shōtoku acted as her regent. Traditional dates used.[38]
34   Tamura
田村
Emperor Jomei
舒明天皇
629–641
(12 years)
593–641
(48 years)
Son of Prince Oshisako-no-hikohito-no-Ōe; grandson of Emperor Bidatsu; great nephew of Empress Suiko. Traditional dates used.[39]
35   Takara
Empress Kōgyoku
皇極天皇
642–645
(3 years)
594–661
(67 years)
Wife of Emperor Jomei; daughter of Prince Chinu; great-granddaughter of Emperor Bidatsu. First reign. Abdicated as a result of the Isshi incident. Traditional dates used.[40]
36   Karu
Emperor Kōtoku
孝徳天皇
645–654
(9 years)
Taika, Hakuchi
596–654
(57–58 years)
Son of Prince Chinu; younger brother of Empress Kōgyoku; great-grandson of Emperor Bidatsu. Traditional dates used.[41]
37   Takara
Empress Saimei
斉明天皇
655–661
(6 years)
594–661
(67 years)
Older sister of Emperor Kōtoku. Second reign of Empress Kōgyoku. Traditional dates used.[42]
38   Kazuraki
葛城
Emperor Tenji
天智天皇
661–672
(11 years)
626–672
(45–46 years)
Son of Emperor Jomei and Empress Kōgyoku. Traditional dates used.[43]
39   Ōtomo[ii]
大友
Emperor Kōbun
弘文天皇
672
(8 months)
648–672
(23–24 years)
Son of Emperor Tenji. Deposed and committed suicide during the Jinshin War. Posthumously named Emperor in 1870. Traditional dates used.[44]
40   Ōama
大海人
Emperor Tenmu
天武天皇
672–686
(14 years)
Shuchō
631–686
(54–55 years)
Son of Emperor Tenji. Deposed his nephew, Emperor Kōbun, during the Jinshin War. Traditional dates used.[45]
41   Unonosarara[iii]
鸕野讚良
Empress Jitō
持統天皇
686–697
(11 years)
645–703
(57–58 years)
Wife of Emperor Tenmu; daughter of Emperor Tenji. Abdicated. Traditional dates used.[46]
42   Karu[iv]
珂瑠
Emperor Monmu
文武天皇
697–707
(10 years)
Taihō, Keiun
681–707
(25 years)
Son of Prince Kusakabe and Empress Genmei; grandson of Emperor Tenmu and his wife, Empress Jitō, and Emperor Tenji. Traditional dates used.[47]
43   Ahe[v]
阿閇
Empress Genmei
元明天皇
707–715
(8 years)
Keiun, Wadō
660–721
(61 years)
Mother of Emperor Monmu; daughter of Emperor Tenji; half-sister of Empress Jitō. Abdicated. Traditional dates used.[48]
44   Hidaka[vi]
氷高
Empress Genshō
元正天皇
715–724
(9 years)
Reiki, Yōrō
680–748
(67–68 years)
Daughter of Prince Kusakabe and Empress Genmei; elder sister of Emperor Monmu; granddaughter of Emperor Tenmu, Empress Jitō and Emperor Tenji. Only instance of Empress Regnant to inheriting the throne from another Empress Regnant. Abdicated. Traditional dates used.[49]
45   Obito
Emperor Shōmu
聖武天皇
724–749
(25 years)
Jinki, Tenpyō, Tenpyō-kanpō
701–755
(53 years)
Son of Emperor Monmu; nephew of Empress Genshō. Abdicated. Traditional dates used.[50]
46   Abe
阿倍
Empress Kōken
孝謙天皇
749–758
(9 years)
Tenpyō-kanpō, Tenpyō-shōhō, Tenpyō-shōhō, Tenpyō-hōji
718–770
(51–52 years)
Daughter of Emperor Shōmu. First reign. Abdicated. Traditional dates used.[51]
47   Ōi
大炊
Emperor Junnin
淳仁天皇
758–764
(6 years)
Tenpyō-hōji
733–765
(31–32 years)
Son of Prince Toneri; cousin of Empress Kōken; grandson of Emperor Tenmu. Deposed. Posthumously named Emperor in 1870. Traditional dates used.[52]
48   Abe
阿倍
Empress Shōtoku
称徳天皇
764–770
(6 years)
Tenpyō-hōji, Tenpyō-jingo, Jingo-keiun
718–770
(51–52 years)
Deposed her cousin, Emperor Junnin. Second reign of Empress Kōken. Traditional dates used.[53]
49   Shirakabe
白壁
Emperor Kōnin
光仁天皇
770–781
(11 years)
Hōki, Ten'ō
708–782
(73 years)
Son of Prince Shiki; grandson of Emperor Tenji; brother-in-law of Empress Shōtoku. Abdicated. Traditional dates used.[54]
50   Yamabe
山部
Emperor Kanmu
桓武天皇
781–806
(25 years)
Ten'ō, Enryaku
736–806
(70 years)
Son of Emperor Kōnin. Traditional dates used.[55]
51   Ate
安殿
Emperor Heizei
平城天皇
806–809
(3 years)
Daidō
773–824
(50–51 years)
Son of Emperor Kanmu. Abdicated. Traditional dates used.[56]
52   Kamino
神野
Emperor Saga
嵯峨天皇
809–823
(14 years)
Daidō, Kōnin
784–842
(51–52 years)
Son of Emperor Kanmu; younger brother of Emperor Heizei. Abdicated. Traditional dates used.[57]
53   Ōtomo
大伴
Emperor Junna
淳和天皇
823–833
(10 years)
Kōnin, Tenchō
786–840
(54–55 years)
Son of Emperor Kanmu; younger brother of Emperor Heizei and Emperor Saga. Abdicated. Traditional dates used.[58]
54   Masara
正良
Emperor Ninmyō
仁明天皇
833–850
(17 years)
Tenchō, Jōwa, Kashō
808–850
(41 years)
Son of Emperor Saga; nephew, and later adopted son, of Emperor Junna. Traditional dates used.[59]
55   Michiyasu
道康
Emperor Montoku
文徳天皇
850–858
(8 years)
Kashō, Ninju, Saikō, Ten'an
827–858
(31 years)
Son of Emperor Ninmyō. Traditional dates used.[60]
56   Korehito
惟仁
Emperor Seiwa
清和天皇
858–876
(18 years)
Ten'an, Jōgan
850–881
(30 years)
Son of Empereor Montoku. Abdicated. Traditional dates used.[61]
57   Sadaakira
貞明
Emperor Yōzei
陽成天皇
876–884
(8 years)
Jōgan, Gangyō
869–949
(80 years)
Son of Emperor Seiwa. Deposed by Fujiwara no Mototsune. Traditional dates used.[62]
58   Tokiyasu
時康
Emperor Kōkō
光孝天皇
884–887
(3 years)
Gangyō, Ninna
830–887
(56–57 years)
Son of Emperor Ninmyō; great uncle of Emperor Yōzei. Became Emperor at the recommendation of Fujiwara no Mototsune. Traditional dates used.[63]
59   Sadami
定省
Emperor Uda
宇多天皇
887–897
(10 years)
Ninna, Kanpyō
866–931
(65 years)
Son of Emperor Kōkō. Abdicated. Traditional dates used.[64]
60   Atsuhito[vii]
敦仁
Emperor Daigo
醍醐天皇
897–930
(33 years)
Kanpyō, Shōtai, Engi, Enchō
884–930
(46 years)
Son of Emperor Uda. Abdicated. Traditional dates used.[65]
61   Yutaakira[viii]
寛明
Emperor Suzaku
朱雀天皇
930–946
(16 years)
Enchō, Jōhei, Tengyō
921–952
(30 years)
Son of Emperor Daigo. Abdicated. Traditional dates used.[66]
62   Nariakira
成明
Emperor Murakami
村上天皇
946–967
(21 years)
Tengyō, Tenryaku, Tentoku, Ōwa, Kōhō
924–967
(42 years)
Son of Emperor Daigo; younger brother of Emperor Suzaku. Traditional dates used.[67]
63   Norihara
憲平
Emperor Reizei
冷泉天皇
967–969
(2 years)
Kōhō, Anna
949–1011
(62 years)
Son of Emperor Murakami. Abdicated. Traditional dates used.[68]
64   Morihira
守平
Emperor En'yū
円融天皇
969–984
(15 years)
Anna, Tenroku, Ten'en, Jōgen, Tengen, Eikan
958–991
(32 years)
Son of Emperor Murakami; younger brother of Emperor Reizei. Abdicated. Traditional dates used.[69]
65   Morosada
師貞
Emperor Kazan
花山天皇
984–986
(2 years)
Eikan, Kanna
968–1008
(39 years)
Son of Emperor Reizei; nephew of Emperor En'yū. Abdicated. Traditional dates used.[70]
66   Kanehito
懐仁
Emperor Ichijō
一条天皇
986–1011
(25 years)
Kanna, Eien, Eiso, Shōryaku, Chōtoku, Chōhō, Kankō
980–1011
(31 years)
Son of Emperor Emperor En'yū. Abdicated. Traditional dates used.[71]
67   Okisada[ix]
居貞
Emperor Sanjō
三条天皇
1011–1016
(5 years)
Kankō, Chōwa
975–1017
(42 years)
Son of Emperor Reizei; half-brother of Emperor Kazan. Abdicated. Traditional dates used.[72]
68   Atsuhira[x]
敦成
Emperor Go-Ichijō
後一条天皇
1016–1036
(20 years)
Chōwa, Kannin, Jian, Manju, Chōgen
1008–1036
(27 years)
Son of Emperor Ichijō. Traditional dates used.[73]
69   Atsunaga
敦良
Emperor Go-Suzaku
後朱雀天皇
1036–1045
(9 years)
Chōgen, Chōryaku, Chōkyū, Kantoku
1009–1045
(37 years)
Son of Emperor Ichijō; younger brother of Son of Emperor Go-Ichijō. Abdicated. Traditional dates used.[74]
70   Chikahito
親仁
Emperor Go-Reizei
後冷泉天皇
1045–1068
(23 years)
Kantoku, Eishō, Tengi, Kōhei, Jiryaku
1025–1068
(42 years)
Son of Emperor Go-Suzaku. Traditional dates used.[75]
71   Takahito
尊仁
Emperor Go-Sanjō
後三条天皇
1068–1073
(5 years)
Jiryaku, Enkyū
1032–1073
(40 years)
Son of Emperor Go-Suzaku; half-brother of Emperor Go-Reizei; grandson of Emperor Sanjō. Abdicated. Traditional dates used.[76]
72   Sadahito
貞仁
Emperor Shirakawa
白河天皇
1073–1087
(14 years)
Enkyū, Jōhō, Jōryaku, Eihō, Ōtoku
1053–1129
(76 years)
Son of Emperor Go-Sanjō. Abdicated. Traditional dates used.[77]
73   Taruhito[xi]
善仁
Emperor Horikawa
堀河天皇
1087–1107
(20 years)
Kanji, Kahō, Eichō, Jōtoku, Kōwa, Chōji, Kajō
1079–1107
(28 years)
Son of Emperor Shirakawa. Traditional dates used.[78]
74   Munehito
宗仁
Emperor Toba
鳥羽天皇
1107–1123
(16 years)
Kajō, Tennin, Ten'ei, Eikyū, Gen'ei, Hōan
1103–1156
(53 years)
Son of Emperor Horikawa. Forced to abdicate by Emperor Shirakawa. Traditional dates used.[79]
75   Akihito
顕仁
Emperor Sutoku
崇徳天皇
1123–1142
(19 years)
Hōan, Tenji, Daiji, Tenshō, Chōshō, Hōen, Eiji
1119–1164
(45 years)
Son of Emperor Toba. Abdicated. Exiled for attempting to depose Emperor Go-Shirakawa during the Hōgen rebellion. Traditional dates used.[80]
76   Narihito
体仁
Emperor Konoe
近衛天皇
1142–1155
(13 years)
Eiji, Kōji, Ten'yō, Kyūan, Ninpei, Kyūju
1139–1155
(16 years)
Son of Emperor Toba; half-brother of Emperor Sutoku. Traditional dates used.[81]
77   Masahito
雅仁
Emperor Go-Shirakawa
後白河天皇
1155–1158
(3 years)
Kyūju, Hōgen
1127–1192
(64 years)
Son of Emperor Toba; younger brother of Emperor Sutoku; half-brother of Emperor Konoe. Abdicated. Traditional dates used.[82]
78   Morihito
守仁
Emperor Nijō
二条天皇
1158–1165
(7 years)
Hōgen, Heiji, Eiryaku, Ōhō, Chōkan
1143–1165
(22 years)
Son of Emperor Go-Shirakawa. Abdicated. Traditional dates used.[83]
79   Nobuhito[xii]
順仁
Emperor Rokujō
六条天皇
1165–1168
(3 years)
Chōkan, Eiman, Nin'an
1164–1176
(11 years)
Son of Emperor Nijō. Deposed by Emperor Go-Shirakawa. Traditional dates used.[84]
80   Norihito[xiii]
憲仁
Emperor Takakura
高倉天皇
1168–1180
(12 years)
Nin'an, Kaō, Jōan, Angen, Jishō
1161–1181
(19 years)
Son of Emperor Go-Shirakawa; half-brother of Emperor Nijō; uncle of Emperor Rokujō. Forced to abdicate by Taira no Kiyomori. Traditional dates used.[84]
81   Tokohito[xiv]
言仁
Emperor Antoku
安徳天皇
1180–1185
(5 years)
Jishō, Yōwa, Juei, Genryaku
1178–1185
(6 years)
Son of Emperor Takakura. Died at the Battle of Dan-no-ura during the Genpei War. Traditional dates used.[85]
82   Takahira[xv]
尊成
Emperor Go-Toba
後鳥羽天皇
1183–1198
(15 years)
Juei, Genryaku, Bunji, Kenkyū
1180–1239
(58 years)
Son of Emperor Takakura; half-brother of Emperor Antoku. Made Emperor by Emperor Go-Shirakawa during the Genpei War. Creation of the Kamakura shogunate turned the Emperor into a figurehead. Abdicated. Exiled for attempting to overthrow the Kamakura shogunate during the Jōkyū War. Traditional dates used.[86]
83   Tamehito
為仁
Emperor Tsuchimikado
土御門天皇
1198–1210
(12 years)
Kenkyū, Shōji, Kennin, Genkyū, Ken'ei, Jōgen
1196–1231
(35 years)
Son of Emperor Go-Toba. Persuaded by Emperor Go-Toba to abdicate. Exiled following the Jōkyū War. Traditional dates used.[87]
84   Morinari
守成
Emperor Juntoku
順徳天皇
1210–1221
(11 years)
Jōgen, Kenryaku, Kempo, Jōkyū
1197–1242
(44 years)
Son of Emperor Go-Toba; half-brother of Emperor Tsuchimikado. Forced to abdicate following the Jōkyū War. Traditional dates used.[88]
85   Kanenari
懐成
Emperor Chūkyō
仲恭天皇
1221
(2 months)
Jōkyū
1218–1234
(15 years)
Son of Emperor Juntoku. Deposed and exiled following the Jōkyū War. Posthumously named Emperor in 1870. Traditional dates[89]
86   Yutahito[xvi]
茂仁
Emperor Go-Horikawa
後堀河天皇
1221–1232
(11 years)
Jōkyū, Jōō, Gennin, Karoku, Antei, Kangi, Jōei
1212–1234
(22 years)
Son of Prince Morisada; grandson of Emperor Takakura. Abdicated. Traditional dates used.[90]
87   Mitsuhito[xvii]
秀仁
Emperor Shijō
四条天皇
1232–1242
(10 years)
Jōei, Tenpuku, Bunryaku, Katei, Ryakunin, En'ō, Ninji
1231–1242
(10 years)
Son of Emperor Go-Horikawa. Traditional dates used.[91]
88   Kunihito
邦仁
Emperor Go-Saga
後嵯峨天皇
1242–1246
(4 years)
Ninji, Kangen
1220–1272
(51 years)
Son of Emperor Tsuchimikado; second cousin of Emperor Shijō. Abdicated. Traditional dates used.[92]
89   Hisahito
久仁
Emperor Go-Fukakusa
後深草天皇
1246–1260
(14 years)
Kangen, Hōji, Kenchō, Kōgen, Shōka, Shōgen
1243–1304
(61 years)
Son of Emperor Go-Saga. From the Jimyōin line. Abdicated at the insistence of Emperor Go-Saga. Traditional dates used.[93]
90   Tsunehito
恒仁
Emperor Kameyama
亀山天皇
1260–1274
(14 years)
Shōgen, Bun'ō, Kōchō, Bun'ei
1249–1305
(56 years)
Son of Emperor Go-Saga; younger brother of Emperor Go-Fukakusa. From the Daikakuji line. Abdicated. Traditional dates used.[94]
91   Yohito
世仁
Emperor Go-Uda
後宇多天皇
1274–1287
(13 years)
Bun'ei, Kenji, Kōan
1267–1324
(56 years)
Son of Emperor Kameyama. From the Daikakuji line. Forced to abdicate at the persuasion of Emperor Go-Fukakusa. Traditional dates used.[95]
92   Hirohito
熈仁
Emperor Fushimi
伏見天皇
1287–1298
(11 years)
Kōan, Shōō, Einin
1265–1317
(52 years)
Son of Emperor Go-Fukakusa. From the Jimyōin line. Abdicated. Traditional dates used.[96]
93   Tanehito
胤仁
Emperor Go-Fushimi
後伏見天皇
1298–1301
(3 years)
Einin, Shōan
1288–1336
(48 years)
Son of Emperor Fushimi. From the Jimyōin line. Forced to abdicate by the Daikakuji line. Traditional dates used.[97]
94   Kuniharu
邦治
Emperor Go-Nijō
後二条天皇
1301–1308
(7 years)
Shōan, Kengen, Kagen, Tokuji
1285–1308
(23 years)
Son of Emperor Go-Uda. From the Daikakuji line. Traditional dates used.[98]
95   Tomihito
富仁
Emperor Hanazono
花園天皇
1308–1318
(10 years)
Enkyō, Ōchō, Shōwa, Bunpō
1297–1348
(51 years)
Son of Emperor Fushimi. From the Jimyōin line. Agreed to alternate control of the throne between the Daikakuji and Jimyōin lines. Abdicated. Traditional dates used.[99]
96   Takaharu
尊治
Emperor Go-Daigo
後醍醐天皇
1318–1339
(21 years)
Bunpō, Gen'ō, Genkō (1321–24), Shōchū, Karyaku, Gentoku, Genkō (1331–34), Kenmu, Engen
1288–1339
(50 years)
Son of Emperor Go-Uda; younger brother of Emperor Go-Nijō; cousin of Emperor Hanazono. From the Daikakuji line.Kamakura shogunate ended in the Genkō War. Imperial rule briefly restored. Creation of the Ashikaga shogunate forced him to set up the Southern Court. First Emperor of the Southern Court. Traditional dates used.[100]
(1)   Kazuhito
量仁
Emperor Kōgon
光厳天皇
1331–1333
(2 years)

Gentoku, Shōkyō
1313–1364
(51 years)

Son of Emperor Go-Fushimi; nephew and adopted son of Emperor Hanazono. From the Jimyōin line. First Emperor of the Northern Court. Made Emperor by the Kamakura shogunate during the Genkō War. Deposed by Emperor Go-Daigo of the Daikakuji line. Captured by the Southern Court during the Kannō disturbance. Traditional dates used.[101]
(2)   Yutahito
豊仁
Emperor Kōmyō
光明天皇
1336–1348
(12 years)

Kenmu, Ryakuō, Kōei, Jōwa
1322–1380
(58 years)

Son of Emperor Go-Fushimi; younger brother of Emperor Kōgon. Second Emperor of the Northern Court. Made Emperor by the Ashikaga shogunate. Abdicated. Captured by the Southern Court during the Kannō disturbance. Traditional dates used.[102]
97   Noriyoshi[xviii]
義良
Emperor Go-Murakami
後村上天皇
1339–1368
(29 years)
Engen, Kōkoku, Shōhei
1328–1368
(39–40 years)
Son of Emperor Go-Daigo. Second Emperor of the Southern Court. Southern Court briefly took the Northern Court's capital, Kyoto, during the Kannō disturbance in his reign. Traditional dates used.[103]
(3)   Okihito[xix]
興仁
Emperor Sukō
崇光天皇
1348–1351
(3 years)

Jōwa, Kannō
1334–1398
(63 years)

Son of Emperor Kōgon; nephew of Emperor Kōmyō. Third Emperor of the Northern Court. Abdicated. Captured by the Southern Court during the Kannō disturbance. Traditional dates used.[104]
(4)   Iyahito
彌仁
Emperor Go-Kōgon
後光厳天皇
1352–1371
(19 years)

Bunna, Kōan, Jōji, Ōan
1338–1374
(35 years)

Son of Emperor Kōgon; younger brother of Emperor Sukō. Became the fourth Emperor of the Northern Court after the Kannō disturbance. Abdicated. Traditional dates used.[105]
98   Yutanari
寛成
Emperor Chōkei
長慶天皇
1368–1383
(15 years)
Shōhei, Kentoku, Bunchū, Tenju, Kōwa
1343–1394
(50–51 years)
Son of Emperor Go-Murakami. Third Emperor of the Southern Court. Abdicated. Third Emperor of the Southern Court. Traditional dates used.[106]
(5)   Ohito
緒仁
Emperor Go-En'yū
後円融天皇
1371–1382
(11 years)

Ōan, Eiwa, Kōryaku, Eitoku
1359–1393
(34 years)

Son of Emperor Go-Kōgon. Fifth Emperor of the Northern Court. Abdicated in favor of Emperor Go-Komatsu of the Northern Court. Traditional dates used.[107]
(6)   Motohito
幹仁
Emperor Go-Komatsu[xx]
後小松天皇
1382–1392
(10 years)

Eitoku, Shitoku, Kakei, Kōō, Meitoku
1377–1433
(56 years)

Son of Emperor Go-En'yū. Sixth and last Emperor of the Northern Court. Traditional dates used.[108]
99   Hironari
熙成
Emperor Go-Kameyama
後亀山天皇
1383–1392
(9 years)
Kōwa, Genchū
1347–1424
(76–77 years)
Son of Emperor Go-Murakami; younger brother of Emperor Chōkei. Fourth and last Emperor of the Southern Court. Agreed to peace with the Northern Court. Abdicated in favor of the Northern Court line. Traditional dates used.[109]
100   Motohito
幹仁
Emperor Go-Komatsu[xxi]
後小松天皇
1392–1412
(20 years)
Meitoku, Ōei
1377–1433
(56 years)
Became legitimate Emperor following Emperor Go-Kameyama's abdication. Agreed to alternate control of the throne by the Northern Court and the Southern Court. All Emperors after him are from the Northern line. Traditional dates used.[110]
101   Mihito[xxii]
実仁
Emperor Shōkō
称光天皇
1412–1428
(16 years)
Ōei, Shōchō
1401–1428
(27 years)
Son of Emperor Go-Komatsu.Traditional dates used.[111]
102   Hikohito
彦仁
Emperor Go-Hanazono
後花園天皇
1428–1464
(36 years)
Shōchō, Eikyō, Kakitsu, Bun'an, Hōtoku, Kyōtoku, Kōshō, Chōroku, Kanshō
1419–1471
(51 years)
Son of Prince Fushimi-no-miya Sadafusa; great grandson of Northern Emperor Sukō; third cousin of Emperor Shōkō. Abdicated. Traditional dates used.[112]
103   Fusahito
成仁
Emperor Go-Tsuchimikado
後土御門天皇
1464–1500
(36 years)
Kanshō, Bunshō, Ōnin, Bunmei, Chōkyō, Entoku, Meiō
1442–1500
(58 years)
Son of Emperor Go-Hanazono. Ōnin War led to the start of the Sengoku period. Traditional dates used.[113]
104   Katsuhito
勝仁
Emperor Go-Kashiwabara[xxiii]
後柏原天皇
1500–1526
(26 years)
Meiō, Bunki, Daiei
1462–1526
(63 years)
Son of Emperor Go-Tsuchimikado. Imperial rule in the Ashikaga shogunate reached its lowest point in his reign. Traditional dates used.[114]
105   Tomohito
知仁
Emperor Go-Nara[xxiv]
後奈良天皇
1526–1557
(31 years)
Daiei, Kyōroku, Tenbun, Kōji
1495–1557
(62 years)
Son of Emperor Go-Kashiwabara. Traditional dates used.[115]
106   Michihito
方仁
Emperor Ōgimachi
正親町天皇
1557–1586
(29 years)
Kōji, Eiroku, Genki, Tenshō
1517–1593
(75 years)
Son of Emperor Go-Nara. Ashikaga shogunate overthrown by Oda Nobunaga. Abdicated. Traditional dates used.[116]
107   Katahito[xxv]
周仁
Emperor Go-Yōzei
後陽成天皇
1586–1611
(25 years)
Tenshō, Bunroku, Keichō
1571–1617
(45 years)
Son of Prince Masahito; grandson of Emperor Ōgimachi. Tokugawa shogunate established. Sengoku period ended. Traditional dates used.[117]
108   Kotohito[xxvi]
政仁
Emperor Go-Mizunoo[xxvii]
後水尾天皇
1611–1629
(18 years)
Keichō, Genna, Kan'ei
1596–1680
(84 years)
Son of Emperor Go-Yōzei. Japan implements isolationist policy. Abdicated after being accused by the Tokugawa shogunate of illegally bestowing honorific purple garments to more than ten priests. Traditional dates used.[118]
109   Okiko
興子
Empress Meishō
明正天皇
1629–1643
(14 years)
Kan'ei
1624–1696
(72 years)
Daughter of Emperor Go-Mizunoo. First female monarch since Empress Kōken (also known as Empress Shōtoku). Abdicated. Traditional dates used.[119]
110   Tsuguhito
紹仁
Emperor Go-Kōmyō
後光明天皇
1643–1654
(11 years)
Kan'ei, Shōhō, Keian, Jōō
1633–1654
(21 years)
Son of Emperor Go-Mizunoo; younger brother of Empress Meishō. Traditional dates used.[120]
111   Nagahito[xxviii]
良仁
Emperor Go-Sai[xxix]
後西天皇
1655–1663
(8 years)
Jōō, Meireki, Manji, Kanbun
1638–1685
(47 years)
Son of Emperor Go-Mizunoo; younger half-brother of Empress Meishō and Emperor Go-Kōmyō. Abdicated. Traditional dates used.[121]
112   Satohito
識仁
Emperor Reigen
霊元天皇
1663–1687
(24 years)
Kanbun, Enpō, Tenna, Jōkyō
1654–1732
(78 years)
Son of Emperor Go-Sai. Abdicated. Traditional dates used.[122]
113   Asahito[xxx]
朝仁
Emperor Higashiyama
東山天皇
1687–1709
(22 years)
Jōkyō, Genroku, Hōei
1675–1710
(34 years)
Son of Emperor Reigen. Abdicated. Traditional dates used.[123]
114   Yasuhito[xxxi]
慶仁
Emperor Nakamikado
中御門天皇
1709–1735
(26 years)
Hōei, Shōtoku, Kyōhō
1702–1737
(35 years)
Son of Emperor Higashiyama. Abdicated. Traditional dates used.[124]
115   Teruhito
昭仁
Emperor Sakuramachi
桜町天皇
1735–1747
(12 years)
Kyōhō, Genbun, Kanpō, Enkyō
1720–1750
(30 years)
Son of Emperor Nakamikado. Abdicated. Traditional dates used.[125]
116   Tōhito
遐仁
Emperor Momozono
桃園天皇
1747–1762
(15 years)
Enkyō, Kan'en, Hōreki
1741–1762
(20 years)
Son of Emperor Sakuramachi. Abdicated. Traditional dates used.[126]
117   Toshiko
智子
Empress Go-Sakuramachi
後桜町天皇
1762–1771
(9 years)
Hōreki, Meiwa
1740–1813
(73 years)
Daughter of Emperor Sakuramachi; younger sister of Emperor Momozono. Last female monarch. Abdicated.Traditional dates used.[127]
118   Hidehito
英仁
Emperor Go-Momozono
後桃園天皇
1771–1779
(8 years)
Meiwa, An'ei
1758–1779
(21 years)
Son of Emperor Momozono; nephew of Empress Go-Sakuramachi.Traditional dates used.[128]
119   Morohito
師仁
Emperor Kōkaku
光格天皇
1780–1817
(37 years)
An'ei, Tenmei, Kansei, Kyōwa, Bunka
1771–1840
(69 years)
Son of Prince Kan'in Sukehito; great-grandson of Emperor Higashiyama. Abdicated. Traditional dates used.[129]
120   Ayahito
恵仁
Emperor Ninkō
仁孝天皇
1817–1846[130]
(29 years)
Bunka, Bunsei, Tenpō, Kōka
1800–1846
(45 years)
Son of Emperor Kōkaku.
121   Osahito
統仁
Emperor Kōmei
孝明天皇
1846–1867
(21 years)
Kōka, Kaei, Ansei, Man'en, Bunkyū, Genji, Keiō
1831–1867
(35 years)
Son of Emperor Ninkō. Reigned during the Bakumatsu period during which Japan ended its isolationist policy and changed from Tokugawa rule to Imperial rule. Last instance of an Emperor with multiple era names.
122   Mutsuhito
睦仁
Emperor Meiji
明治天皇
3 February 1867

30 July 1912
(45 years, 178 days)
Keiō, Meiji
3 November 1852

30 July 1912
(59 years, 270 days)
Son of Emperor Kōmei. Tokugawa Shogunate ended and Imperial rule restored with the Meiji Restoration. First Emperor of the Empire of Japan.
123   Yoshihito
嘉仁
Emperor Taishō
大正天皇
30 July 1912

25 December 1926
(14 years, 148 days)
Taishō
31 August 1879

25 December 1926
(47 years, 116 days)
Son of Emperor Meiji. Taishō Democracy shifted political power from the genrō to the Diet and political parties. His eldest son, Crown Prince Hirohito served as Sesshō (摂政; "Regent") from 1921 to 1926 because of Emperor Taishō's illness.
124   Hirohito
裕仁
Emperor Shōwa
昭和天皇
25 December 1926

7 January 1989
(62 years, 13 days)
Shōwa
29 April 1901

7 January 1989
(87 years, 253 days)
Son of Emperor Taishō. Served as Sesshō (摂政; "Regent") from 1921 to 1926 to Emperor Taishō. Last Emperor of the Empire of Japan. Reign saw World War II and post-war economic miracle.
125   Akihito
明仁
Living 7 January 1989

30 April 2019
(30 years, 113 days)
Heisei
born 23 December 1933
(88 years, 285 days)
Son of Emperor Shōwa. Abdicated and is now referred to as Jōkō (上皇; "Emperor Emeritus"). To be posthumously known as "Emperor Heisei" (平成天皇).
126   Naruhito
徳仁
Living 1 May 2019

present
(3 years, 156 days)
Reiwa
born 23 February 1960
(62 years, 223 days)
Son of Emperor Emeritus Akihito. Ascended on 1 May 2019. Referred to as Kinjō Tennō (今上天皇; "the Reigning Emperor") or Tennō Heika (天皇陛下; "His Majesty the Emperor"). To be posthumously known as "Emperor Reiwa" (令和天皇).[131]
  1. ^ Also called as Hikofuto (彦太).
  2. ^ Also known as Iga (伊賀).
  3. ^ Also known as Unonosasara or Uno.
  4. ^ Name also written as 軽.
  5. ^ Name also written as 阿部.
  6. ^ Name also written as 日高.
  7. ^ Previously named as Minamoto no Korezane (源維城).
  8. ^ Also known as Hiroakira.
  9. ^ Also known as Iyasada or Sukesada.
  10. ^ Also known as Atsunari.
  11. ^ Also known as Yoshihito.
  12. ^ Also known as Yoshihito or Toshihito.
  13. ^ Also known as Nobuhito.
  14. ^ Also known as Kotohito.
  15. ^ Also known as Takanari.
  16. ^ Also known as Motsihito.
  17. ^ Also known as Tosihito.
  18. ^ Also known as Norinaga.
  19. ^ Previously named as Masuhito (益仁).
  20. ^ Also known as Emperor Go-Kōkō.
  21. ^ Also known as Emperor Go-Kōkō.
  22. ^ Initially written as 躬仁.
  23. ^ Also known as Emperor Go-Kanmu.
  24. ^ Also known as Emperor Go-Heizei.
  25. ^ Also known as Kazuhito (和仁).
  26. ^ Also known as Masahito.
  27. ^ Also known as Emperor Go-Minoo or Emperor Go-Seiwa.
  28. ^ Also known as Yoshihito.
  29. ^ Also known as Emperor Go-Saiin or Emperor Go-Junna.
  30. ^ Also known as Tomohito.
  31. ^ Also known as Yoshihito.

Individuals posthumously recognized as emperorsEdit

This is a list of individuals who did not reign as emperor during their lifetime but were later recognized as Japanese emperors posthumously.

Portrait Personal name Posthumous name Year recognized Life details
  Prince Kusakabe
草壁皇子
Emperor Oka
岡宮天皇
758[132] 662–689
(26–27 years)
Son of Emperor Tenmu; husband of Empress Genmei; father of Emperor Monmu and Empress Genshō. Made Crown Prince in 681; heir to Emperor Tenmu. Died prior to acceding the throne following Emperor Tenmu's death.
  Prince Toneri
舎人親王
Emperor Sudōjinkei
崇道尽敬皇帝
759[133] 676–735
(59 years)
Son of Emperor Tenmu; half-brother of Prince Kusakabe; father of Emperor Junnin.
  Prince Shiki
志貴皇子
Emperor Kasuga
春日宮天皇
770[134] died 716
Son of Emperor Tenji; half-brother of Emperor Tenmu, Empress Jitō, Empress Genmei and Emperor Kōbun; father of Emperor Kōnin; half-uncle of Prince Kusakabe and Prince Toneri.
  Prince Sawara
早良親王
Emperor Sudō
崇道天皇
800[135] 750–785
(34–35 years)
Son of Emperor Kōnin; younger brother of Emperor Kanmu. Made Crown Prince in 781. Implicated in the assassination of Fujiwara no Tanetsugu. Died on the way to exile.
  Prince Sanehito
誠仁親王
Cloistered Emperor Yōkō
陽光院[136]
Unknown 1552–1586
(34 years)
Son of Emperor Emperor Ōgimachi; father of Emperor Go-Yōzei. Posthumously recognized as Emperor by Emperor Go-Yōzei.
  Sukehito, Prince Kan'in
閑院宮典仁親王
Emperor Kyōkō
慶光天皇
1884[137] 1733–1794
(61 years)
Son of Naohito, Prince Kan'in; grandson of Emperor Higashiyama; father of Emperor Kōkaku.

GalleryEdit

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Nussbaum, Louis Frédéric. (2005). "Traditional Order of Tennō" in Japan Encyclopedia, p. 962.
  2. ^ Nussbaum, "Nengō" in Japan Encyclopedia, p. 704.
  3. ^ a b Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Annales des empereurs du japon (Nihon Ōdai Ichiran), pp. 1–3; Brown, Delmer M. (1979). Gukanshō, p. 249; Varley, H. Paul. (1980). Jinnō Shōtōki, pp. 84–88;
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h Brown, p. 248.
  5. ^ Titsingh, pp. 3–4; Brown, pp. 250–251; Varley, pp. 88–89.
  6. ^ a b Titsingh, p. 4; Brown, p. 251; Varley, p. 89.
  7. ^ Titsingh, pp. 4–5; Brown, p. 251; Varley, p. 90.
  8. ^ Titsingh, p. 5; Brown, pp. 251–252; Varley, p. 90.
  9. ^ Titsingh, pp. 5–6; Brown, p. 252; Varley, pp. 90–92.
  10. ^ Titsingh, p. 6; Brown, p. 252; Varley, pp. 92–93.
  11. ^ Titsingh, pp. 6–7; Brown, p. 252; Varley, p. 93.
  12. ^ Yoshida, Reiji (March 27, 2007). ""Life in the Cloudy Imperial Fishbowl"". The Japan Times. Archived from the original on 27 July 2020. Retrieved 22 August 2013.
  13. ^ Titsingh, pp. 7–9; Brown, p. 253; Varley, pp. 93–95.
  14. ^ Titsingh, pp. 9–10; Brown, pp. 253–254; Varley, pp. 95–96.
  15. ^ Titsingh, pp. 11–14; Brown, p. 254; Varley, pp. 96–99.
  16. ^ Brown, p. 254; Varley, pp. 99–100; Titsingh, pp. 14–15.
  17. ^ Brown, pp. 254–255; Varley, pp. 100–101; Titsingh, p. 15.
  18. ^ Brown, p. 255; Varley, pp. 101–103; Titsingh, pp. 16–19.
  19. ^ Titsingh, pp. 19–22; Brown, pp. 255–256; Varley, pp. 103–10.
  20. ^ Brown, pp. 256–257; Varley, pp. 110–111; Titsingh, pp. 22–24.
  21. ^ Brown, p. 257; Varley, p. 111; Titsingh, pp. 24–25.
  22. ^ Brown, p. 257; Varley, p. 112; Titsingh, p. 25.
  23. ^ Brown, pp. 257–258; Varley, p. 112; Titsingh, p. 26.
  24. ^ Brown, p. 258; Varley, p. 113; Titsingh, p. 26.
  25. ^ Brown, p. 258; Varley, pp. 113–115; Titsingh, pp. 27–28.
  26. ^ Brown, p. 258–259; Varley, pp. 115–116; Titsingh, pp. 28–29.
  27. ^ Brown, p. 259; Varley, p. 116; Titsingh, pp. 29–30.
  28. ^ Titsingh, p. 30; Brown, p. 259-260; Varley, p. 117.
  29. ^ Brown, p. 260; Varley, pp. 117–118; Titsingh, p. 31.
  30. ^ Brown, pp. 260–261; Varley, pp. 17–18, 119–120; Titsingh, p. 31–32.
  31. ^ Brown, p. 261; Varley, pp. 120–121; Brown, p. 261; Titsingh, p. 33.
  32. ^ Brown, p. 261; Varley, p. 121; Titsingh, p. 33–34.
  33. ^ Hoye, Timothy. (1999). Japanese Politics: Fixed and Floating Worlds, p. 78; excerpt, "According to legend, the first Japanese Emperor was Jinmu. Along with the next 13 Emperors, Jinmu is not considered an actual, historical figure. Historically verifiable Emperors of Japan date from the early sixth century with Kinmei."
  34. ^ Brown, pp. 261–262; Varley, pp. 123–124; Titsingh, p. 34–36.
  35. ^ Varley, pp. 124–125; Brown, pp. 262–263; Titsingh, p. 36–37.
  36. ^ Brown, p. 263; Varley, pp. 125–126; Titsingh, p. 37–38.
  37. ^ Brown, p. 263; Varley, p. 126; Titsingh, p. 38–39.
  38. ^ Brown, pp. 263–264; Varley, pp. 126–129; Titsingh, pp. 39–42.
  39. ^ Brown, pp. 264–265; Varley, pp. 129–130; Titsingh, pp. 42–43.
  40. ^ Brown, pp. 265–266; Varley, pp. 130–132; Titsingh, pp. 43–47.
  41. ^ Brown, pp. 266–267; Varley, pp. 132–133; Titsingh, pp. 47–50.
  42. ^ Brown, p. 267; Varley, pp. 133–134; Titsingh, pp. 50–52.
  43. ^ Brown, p. 268; Varley, p. 135; Titsingh, pp. 52–56.
  44. ^ Brown, pp. 268–269; Varley, pp. 135–136; Titsingh, pp. 56–58.
  45. ^ Brown, pp. 268–269; Varley, pp. 135–136; Titsingh, pp. 58–59.
  46. ^ Brown, pp. 269–270; Varley, pp. 136–137; Titsingh, pp. 59–60.
  47. ^ Brown, pp. 270–271; Varley, pp. 137–140; Titsingh, pp. 60–63.
  48. ^ Brown, p. 271; Varley, p. 140; Titsingh, pp. 63–65.
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  132. ^ 岡宮天皇 デジタル版 日本人名大辞典+Plusの解説.
  133. ^ 崇道尽敬皇帝 デジタル版 日本人名大辞典+Plusの解説.
  134. ^ 春日宮天皇 デジタル版 日本人名大辞典+Plusの解説.
  135. ^ 崇道天皇 デジタル版 日本人名大辞典+Plusの解説.
  136. ^ 陽光院 デジタル版 日本人名大辞典+Plusの解説.
  137. ^ 慶光天皇 デジタル版 日本人名大辞典+Plusの解説.

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