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Timeline of Emperors of Japan

This list of Emperors of Japan presents the traditional order of succession.[1] Records of the reigns of the Emperors of Japan are compiled according to the traditional Japanese calendar. In the nengō system which has been in use since the late-seventh century, years are numbered using the Japanese era name and the number of years which have taken place since that nengō era started.[2]

The sequence, order and dates of the first 28 Emperors of Japan, and especially the first 16, are based on the Japanese calendar system.[3]

Contents

Emperors of JapanEdit

No. Portrait Personal name Reign Posthumous name Notes
Legendary Emperors (660 BC – 269 AD)
1   Kamu-yamato Iware-biko no Mikoto 660–585 BC Emperor Jimmu   Traditional dates; claimed descent from the sun goddess, Amaterasu[4]
2   Kamu Nunagawamimi no Mikoto 581–549 BC Emperor Suizei   Traditional dates;[5] 3rd son of Jimmu;[6] presumed legendary
3   Shikitsuhiko Tamademi no Mikoto 549–511 BC Emperor Annei   Traditional dates;[7] son and heir of Suizei;[6] presumed legendary
4   Oho Yamatohiko Sukitomo no Mikoto 510–476 BC Emperor Itoku   Traditional dates;[7] 2nd son of Annei;[6] presumed legendary
5   Mimatsuhiko Kaeshine no Mikoto 475–393 BC Emperor Kōshō   Traditional dates;[8] son and heir of Itoku;[6] presumed legendary
6   Oho Yamato Tarashihiko Kunioshi Hito no Mikoto 392–291 BC Emperor Kōan   Traditional dates;[9] 2nd son of Kōshō;[6] presumed legendary
7   Oho Yamato Nekohiko Futoni no Mikoto 290–215 BC Emperor Kōrei   Traditional dates;[10] son and heir of Kōan;[6] presumed legendary
8   Oho Yamato Nekohiko Kuni Kuru no Mikoto 214–158 BC Emperor Kōgen   Traditional dates;[11] son and heir of Kōrei;[6] presumed legendary
9   Waka Yamato Nekohiko Oho Bibino no Mikoto 157–98 BC Emperor Kaika   Traditional dates;[12] 2nd son of Kōgen;[6] presumed legendary
10   Mimaki Irihiko Inie no Mikoto 97–30 BC Emperor Sujin Traditional dates;[13] first emperor of plausible historicity[14]
11   Ikume Irihiko Isachi no Mikoto 29 BC–70 AD Emperor Suinin Traditional dates[15]
12   Oho Tarashihiko Oshirowake no Mikoto 71–130 Emperor Keikō Traditional dates[16]
13   Waka Tarashihiko 131–191 Emperor Seimu Traditional dates[17]
14   Tarashi Nakatsuhiko no Mikoto 192–200 Emperor Chūai Traditional dates[18]
  Okinaga Tarashihime no Mikoto 201–269 Empress Jingū Traditional dates;[19] served as regent for Emperor Ōjin; not counted among the officially numbered Emperors
Kofun period (269–539)
15   Honda no Sumeramikoto / Ōtomowake no Mikoto / Homutawake no Mikoto 270–310 Emperor Ōjin Traditional dates;[20] deified as Hachiman
16   Ō Sazaki no Mikoto 313–399 Emperor Nintoku Traditional dates[21]
17   Isaho Wake no Mikoto 400–405 Emperor Richū Traditional dates[22]
18   Tajihi Mizuha Wake no Mikoto 406–410 Emperor Hanzei Traditional dates[23]
19   Wo Asazuma Wakugo no Sukune 411–453 Emperor Ingyō Traditional dates[24]
20   Anaho no Mikoto 453–456 Emperor Ankō Traditional dates[25]
21   Oho Hatsuse Wakatakeru no Mikoto 456–479 Emperor Yūryaku Traditional dates[26]
22   Shiraka Takehiro Kuni Oshi Waka Yamato Neko no Mikoto 480–484 Emperor Seinei Traditional dates[27]
23   Ohoke no Mikoto 485–487 Emperor Kenzō Traditional dates[28]
24   Ohoshi (Ohosu) no Mikoto/ Shimano Iratsuko 488–498 Emperor Ninken Traditional dates[29]
25   Wohatsuse Wakasazaki 498–506 Emperor Buretsu Traditional dates[30]
26   Ōto/Hikofuto (Hikofuto no Mikoto/Ōdo no Sumera Mikoto) 507–531 Emperor Keitai Traditional dates[31]
27   Hirokuni Oshitake Kanahi no Mikoto 531–535 Emperor Ankan Traditional dates[32]
28   Takeo Hirokuni Oshitate no Mikoto 535–539 Emperor Senka Traditional dates[33]
Asuka period (539–710)
29   Amekuni Oshiharuki Hironiwa no Sumera Mikoto 539–571 Emperor Kinmei Traditional dates;[34] all Emperors from Kinmei onwards are historically verifiable[35]
30   Osada no Nunakura no Futotamashiki no Mikoto 572–585 Emperor Bidatsu Traditional dates[36]
31   Ooe/Tachibana no Toyohi no Sumera Mikoto 585–587 Emperor Yōmei Traditional dates[37]
32   Hatsusebe no (Wakasasagi) Mikoto 587–592 Emperor Sushun Traditional dates[38]
33   Nukatabe/Toyomike Kashikiyahime 592–628 Empress Suiko Traditional dates;[39] first non-legendary female Emperor; Prince Shotoku acted as her regent
34   Tamura (Oki Nagatarashihi Hironuka no Sumera Mikoto) 629–641 Emperor Jomei Traditional dates[40]
35   Takara (Ame Toyotakaraikashi Hitarashi Hime no Sumera Mikoto) 642–645 Empress Kōgyoku Traditional dates;[41] reigned twice
36   Karu (Ame Yorozu Toyohi no Sumera Mikoto) 645–654 Emperor Kōtoku Traditional dates[42]
37   Takara (Ame Toyotakaraikashi Hitarashi Hime no Sumera Mikoto) 655–661 Empress Saimei Traditional dates;[43] second reign of Empress Kōgyoku
38   Katsuragi/Nakano-ooe (Ame Mikoto Hirakasuwake no Mikoto/Amatsu Mikoto Sakiwake no Mikoto) 661–672 Emperor Tenji Traditional dates[44]
39   Ōtomo 672 Emperor Kōbun Traditional dates;[45] usurped by Temmu; posthumously named (1870)
40   Ōama/Ohoshiama/Ōsama (Ame no Nunahara Oki no Mahito no Sumera Mikoto) 672–686 Emperor Tenmu Traditional dates[46]
41   Unonosarara (Takama no Harahiro no Hime no Sumera Mikoto) 686–697 Empress Jitō Traditional dates[47]
42   Karu (Ame no Mamune Toyoohoji no Sumera Mikoto) 697–707 Emperor Monmu Traditional dates[48]
Nara period (710–794)
43   Ahe (Yamatoneko Amatsu Mishiro Toyokuni Narihime no Sumera Mikoto) 707–715 Empress Genmei Traditional dates[49]
44   Hidaka/Niinomi (Yamatoneko Takamizu Kiyotarashi Hime no Sumera Mikoto) 715–724 Empress Genshō Traditional dates[50]
45   Obito (Ameshirushi Kunioshiharuki Toyosakurahiko no Sumera Mikoto) 724–749 Emperor Shōmu Traditional dates[51]
46   Abe (Yamatoneko no Sumera Mikoto) 749–758 Empress Kōken Traditional dates;[52] reigned twice
47   Ōi 758–764 Emperor Junnin Traditional dates[53] dethroned by Shōtoku; posthumously named (1870)
48   Abe (Yamatoneko no Sumera Mikoto) 764–770 Empress Shōtoku Traditional dates;[54] second reign of Empress Kōken
49   Shirakabe (Amemune Takatsugi no Mikoto) 770–781 Emperor Kōnin Traditional dates[55]
50   Yamabe (Yamatoneko Amatsu Hitsugi Iyaderi no Mikoto) 781–806 Emperor Kanmu Traditional dates[56]
Heian period (794–1185)
51   Ate (Yamatoneko Ameoshikuni Takahiko no Mikoto) 806–809 Emperor Heizei Traditional dates[57]
52   Kamino 809–823 Emperor Saga Traditional dates[58]
53   Ōtomo 823–833 Emperor Junna Traditional dates[59]
54   Masara 833–850 Emperor Ninmyō Traditional dates[60]
55   Michiyasu 850–858 Emperor Montoku Traditional dates[61]
56   Korehito 858–876 Emperor Seiwa Traditional dates[62]
57   Sadaakira 876–884 Emperor Yōzei Traditional dates[63]
58   Tokiyasu 884–887 Emperor Kōkō Traditional dates[64]
59   Sadami 887–897 Emperor Uda Traditional dates[65]
60   Atsuhito 897–930 Emperor Daigo Traditional dates[66]
61   Yutaakira 930–946 Emperor Suzaku Traditional dates[67]
62   Nariakira 946–967 Emperor Murakami Traditional dates[68]
63   Norihira 967–969 Emperor Reizei Traditional dates[69]
64   Morihira 969–984 Emperor En'yū Traditional dates[70]
65   Morosada 984–986 Emperor Kazan Traditional dates[71]
66   Kanehito 986–1011 Emperor Ichijō Traditional dates[72]
67   Okisada/Iyasada 1011–1016 Emperor Sanjō Traditional dates[73]
68   Atsuhira 1016–1036 Emperor Go-Ichijō Traditional dates[74]
69   Atsunaga/Atsuyoshi 1036–1045 Emperor Go-Suzaku Traditional dates[75]
70   Chikahito 1045–1068 Emperor Go-Reizei Traditional dates[76]
71   Takahito 1068–1073 Emperor Go-Sanjō Traditional dates[77]
72   Sadahito 1073–1087 Emperor Shirakawa Traditional dates[78]
73   Taruhito 1087–1107 Emperor Horikawa Traditional dates[79]
74   Munehito 1107–1123 Emperor Toba Traditional dates[80]
75   Akihito 1123–1142 Emperor Sutoku Traditional dates[81]
76   Narihito 1142–1155 Emperor Konoe Traditional dates[82]
77   Masahito 1155–1158 Emperor Go-Shirakawa Traditional dates[83]
78   Morihito 1158–1165 Emperor Nijō Traditional dates[84]
79   Yorihito 1165–1168 Emperor Rokujō Traditional dates[85]
80   Norihito 1168–1180 Emperor Takakura Traditional dates[85]
81   Tokihito 1180–1185 Emperor Antoku Traditional dates[86]
Kamakura period (1185–1333)
82   Takahira 1183–1198 Emperor Go-Toba Traditional dates[87]
83   Tamehito 1198–1210 Emperor Tsuchimikado Traditional dates[88]
84   Morihira/Morinari 1210–1221 Emperor Juntoku Traditional dates[89]
85   Kanehira/Kanenari 1221 Emperor Chūkyō Traditional dates;[90] posthumously named (1870)
86   Yutahito 1221–1232 Emperor Go-Horikawa Traditional dates[91]
87   Mitsuhito/Toshihito 1232–1242 Emperor Shijō Traditional dates[92]
88   Kunihito 1242–1246 Emperor Go-Saga Traditional dates[93]
89   Hisahito 1246–1260 Emperor Go-Fukakusa Traditional dates[94]
90   Tsunehito 1260–1274 Emperor Kameyama Traditional dates[95]
91   Yohito 1274–1287 Emperor Go-Uda Traditional dates[96]
92   Hirohito 1287–1298 Emperor Fushimi Traditional dates[97]
93   Tanehito 1298–1301 Emperor Go-Fushimi Traditional dates[98]
94   Kuniharu 1301–1308 Emperor Go-Nijō Traditional dates[99]
95   Tomihito 1308–1318 Emperor Hanazono Traditional dates[100]
96   Takaharu 1318–1339 Emperor Go-Daigo Traditional dates;[101] Southern Court
Northern Court (1331–1392)
  Kazuhito 1331–1333 Emperor Kōgon Traditional dates[102]
  Yutahito 1336–1348 Emperor Kōmyō Traditional dates[103]
  Okihito 1348–1351 Emperor Sukō Traditional dates[104]
  Iyahito 1352–1371 Emperor Go-Kōgon Traditional dates[105]
  Ohito 1371–1382 Emperor Go-En'yū Traditional dates[106]
  Motohito 1382–1392 Emperor Go-Komatsu Traditional dates;[107] reunified courts in 1392; see 100 below
Muromachi period and Azuchi–Momoyama period (1333–1603)
97   Norinaga/Noriyoshi 1339–1368 Emperor Go-Murakami Traditional dates;[108] Southern Court
98   Yutanari 1368–1383 Emperor Chōkei Traditional dates;[109] Southern Court
99   Hironari 1383–1392 Emperor Go-Kameyama Traditional dates;[110] Southern Court
100   Motohito 1392–1412 Emperor Go-Komatsu Traditional dates;[111] reunified courts; see also entry in Northern Court section above
101   Mihito 1412–1428 Emperor Shōkō Traditional dates[112]
102   Hikohito 1428–1464 Emperor Go-Hanazono Traditional dates[113]
103   Fusahito 1464–1500 Emperor Go-Tsuchimikado Traditional dates[114]
104   Katsuhito 1500–1526 Emperor Go-Kashiwabara Traditional dates[115]
105   Tomohito 1526–1557 Emperor Go-Nara Traditional dates[116]
106   Michihito 1557–1586 Emperor Ōgimachi Traditional dates[117]
107   Kazuhito/Katahito 1586–1611 Emperor Go-Yōzei Traditional dates[118]
Edo period (1603–1867)
108   Kotohito 1611–1629 Emperor Go-Mizunoo
(Go-Minoo)
Traditional dates[119]
109   Okiko 1629–1643 Empress Meishō Traditional dates[120]
110   Tsuguhito 1643–1654 Emperor Go-Kōmyō Traditional dates[121]
111   Nagahito 1655–1663 Emperor Go-Sai Traditional dates[122]
112   Satohito 1663–1687 Emperor Reigen Traditional dates[123]
113   Asahito/Tomohito 1687–1709 Emperor Higashiyama Traditional dates[124]
114   Yasuhito/Yoshihito 1709–1735 Emperor Nakamikado Traditional dates[125]
115   Teruhito 1735–1747 Emperor Sakuramachi Traditional dates[126]
116   Toohito 1747–1762 Emperor Momozono Traditional dates[127]
117   Toshiko 1762–1771 Empress Go-Sakuramachi Traditional dates[128] Last female Emperor. Abdicated; died in 1813
118   Hidehito 1771–1779 Emperor Go-Momozono Traditional dates[129]
119   Morohito 1780–1817 Emperor Kōkaku Traditional dates[130] Died in 1840
120   Ayahito 1817–1846 Emperor Ninkō
121   Osahito 1846–1867 Emperor Kōmei Last instance of an Emperor with multiple era names
Modern Japan (from 1867)
122   Mutsuhito 1867–1912 Emperor Meiji The first Emperor of the Empire of Japan
123   Yoshihito 1912–1926 Emperor Taishō Crown Prince Hirohito served as Sesshō (Prince Regent) 1921–1926
124   Hirohito 1926–1989 Emperor Shōwa Served as Sesshō (Prince Regent) 1921–1926.
The last Emperor of the Empire of Japan
125   Akihito 1989–2019 N/A Abdicated at the end of 30 April 2019, first to abdicate in over 200 years. Referred to as Jōkō in Japanese, and as "Emperor Emeritus" in English.
126   Naruhito 2019–present N/A Ascended on 1 May 2019. Referred to as Kinjō Tennō ("the Reigning Emperor") or Tennō Heika ("His Majesty the Emperor") in Japanese, and as "Emperor Naruhito" in English.[131]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Nussbaum, Louis Frédéric. (2005). "Traditional Order of Tennō" in Japan Encyclopedia, p. 962.
  2. ^ Nussbaum, "Nengō" in Japan Encyclopedia, p. 704.
  3. ^ A list of other Japanese calling themselves or being called emperors (追尊天皇, 尊称天皇, 異説に天皇とされる者, 天皇に準ずる者, 自称天皇) can be seen on the Japanese Wikipedia page 天皇の一覧 (List of Japanese monarchs).
  4. ^ Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Annales des empereurs du japon (Nihon Ōdai Ichiran), pp. 1–3; Brown, Delmer M. (1979). Gukanshō, p. 249; Varley, H. Paul. (1980). Jinnō Shōtōki, pp. 84–88;
  5. ^ Titsingh, pp. 3–4; Brown, pp. 250–251; Varley, pp. 88–89.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h Brown, p. 248.
  7. ^ a b Titsingh, p. 4; Brown, p. 251; Varley, p. 89.
  8. ^ Titsingh, pp. 4–5; Brown, p. 251; Varley, p. 90.
  9. ^ Titsingh, p. 5; Brown, pp. 251–252; Varley, p. 90.
  10. ^ Titsingh, pp. 5–6; Brown, p. 252; Varley, pp. 90–92.
  11. ^ Titsingh, p. 6; Brown, p. 252; Varley, pp. 92–93.
  12. ^ Titsingh, pp. 6–7; Brown, p. 252; Varley, p. 93.
  13. ^ Titsingh, pp. 7–9; Brown, p. 253; Varley, pp. 93–95.
  14. ^ Yoshida, Reiji. "Life in the Cloudy Imperial Fishbowl," Japan Times. March 27, 2007; retrieved 2013-8-22.
  15. ^ Titsingh, pp. 9–10; Brown, pp. 253–254; Varley, pp. 95–96.
  16. ^ Titsingh, pp. 11–14; Brown, p. 254; Varley, pp. 96–99.
  17. ^ Brown, p. 254; Varley, pp. 99–100; Titsingh, pp. 14–15.
  18. ^ Brown, pp. 254–255; Varley, pp. 100–101; Titsingh, p. 15.
  19. ^ Brown, p. 255; Varley, pp. 101–103; Titsingh, pp. 16–19.
  20. ^ Titsingh, pp. 19–22; Brown, pp. 255–256; Varley, pp. 103–10.
  21. ^ Brown, pp. 256–257; Varley, pp. 110–111; Titsingh, pp. 22–24.
  22. ^ Brown, p. 257; Varley, p. 111; Titsingh, pp. 24–25.
  23. ^ Brown, p. 257; Varley, p. 112; Titsingh, p. 25.
  24. ^ Brown, pp. 257–258; Varley, p. 112; Titsingh, p. 26.
  25. ^ Brown, p. 258; Varley, p. 113; Titsingh, p. 26.
  26. ^ Brown, p. 258; Varley, pp. 113–115; Titsingh, pp. 27–28.
  27. ^ Brown, p. 258–259; Varley, pp. 115–116; Titsingh, pp. 28–29.
  28. ^ Brown, p. 259; Varley, p. 116; Titsingh, pp. 29–30.
  29. ^ Titsingh, p. 30; Brown, p. 259-260; Varley, p. 117.
  30. ^ Brown, p. 260; Varley, pp. 117–118; Titsingh, p. 31.
  31. ^ Brown, pp. 260–261; Varley, pp. 17–18, 119–120; Titsingh, p. 31–32.
  32. ^ Brown, p. 261; Varley, pp. 120–121; Brown, p. 261; Titsingh, p. 33.
  33. ^ Brown, p. 261; Varley, p. 121; Titsingh, p. 33–34.
  34. ^ Brown, pp. 261–262; Varley, pp. 123–124; Titsingh, p. 34–36.
  35. ^ Hoye, Timothy. (1999). Japanese Politics: Fixed and Floating Worlds, p. 78; excerpt, "According to legend, the first Japanese emperor was Jinmu. Along with the next 13 emperors, Jinmu is not considered an actual, historical figure. Historically verifiable Emperors of Japan date from the early sixth century with Kinmei."
  36. ^ Varley, pp. 124–125; Brown, pp. 262–263; Titsingh, p. 36–37.
  37. ^ Brown, p. 263; Varley, pp. 125–126; Titsingh, p. 37–38.
  38. ^ Brown, p. 263; Varley, p. 126; Titsingh, p. 38–39.
  39. ^ Brown, pp. 263–264; Varley, pp. 126–129; Titsingh, pp. 39–42.
  40. ^ Brown, pp. 264–265; Varley, pp. 129–130; Titsingh, pp. 42–43.
  41. ^ Brown, pp. 265–266; Varley, pp. 130–132; Titsingh, pp. 43–47.
  42. ^ Brown, pp. 266–267; Varley, pp. 132–133; Titsingh, pp. 47–50.
  43. ^ Brown, p. 267; Varley, pp. 133–134; Titsingh, pp. 50–52.
  44. ^ Brown, p. 268; Varley, p. 135; Titsingh, pp. 52–56.
  45. ^ Brown, pp. 268–269; Varley, pp. 135–136; Titsingh, pp. 56–58.
  46. ^ Brown, pp. 268–269; Varley, pp. 135–136; Titsingh, pp. 58–59.
  47. ^ Brown, pp. 269–270; Varley, pp. 136–137; Titsingh, pp. 59–60.
  48. ^ Brown, pp. 270–271; Varley, pp. 137–140; Titsingh, pp. 60–63.
  49. ^ Brown, p. 271; Varley, p. 140; Titsingh, pp. 63–65.
  50. ^ Brown, p. 271–272; Varley, pp. 140–141; Titsingh, pp. 65–67.
  51. ^ Brown, pp. 272–273; Varley, pp. 141–143; Titsingh, pp. 67–73.
  52. ^ Brown, pp. 274–275; Varley, p. 143; Titsingh, pp. 73–75.
  53. ^ Brown, p. 275; Varley, pp. 143–144; Titsingh, pp. 75–78.
  54. ^ Brown, p. 276; Varley, pp. 144–147; Titsingh, pp. 78–81.
  55. ^ Brown, p. 276–277; Varley, pp. 147–148; Titsingh, pp. 81–85.
  56. ^ Brown, pp. 277–279; Varley, pp. 148–150; Titsingh, pp. 86–95.
  57. ^ Brown, pp. 279–280; Varley, p. 151; Titsingh, pp. 96–97.
  58. ^ Brown, pp. 280–282; Varley, pp. 151–164; Titsingh, pp. 97–102.
  59. ^ Brown, p. 282–283; Varley, p. 164; Titsingh, pp. 103–106.
  60. ^ Brown, pp. 283–284; Varley, pp. 164–165; Titsingh, pp. 106–112.
  61. ^ Brown, pp. 285–286; Varley, p. 165; Titsingh, pp. 112–115.
  62. ^ Brown, pp. 286–288; Varley, pp. 166–170; Titsingh, pp. 115–121.
  63. ^ Brown, pp. 288–289; Varley, pp. 170–171; Titsingh, pp. 121–124.
  64. ^ Brown, p. 289; Varley, pp. 171–175; Titsingh, pp. 124–125.
  65. ^ Brown, p. 289–290; Varley, pp. 175–179; Titsingh, pp. 125–129.
  66. ^ Brown, pp. 290–293; Varley, pp. 179–181; Titsingh, pp. 129–134.
  67. ^ Brown, pp. 294–295; Varley, pp. 181–183; Titsingh, pp. 134–138.
  68. ^ Brown, pp. 295–298; Varley, pp. 183–190; Titsingh, pp. 139–142.
  69. ^ Brown, p. 298; Varley, pp. 190–191; Titsingh, pp. 142–143.
  70. ^ Brown, pp. 299–300; Varley, pp. 191–192; Titsingh, pp. 144–148.
  71. ^ Brown, pp. 300–302; Varley, p. 192; Titsingh, pp. 148–149.
  72. ^ Brown, pp. 302–307; Varley, pp. 192–195; Titsingh, pp. 150–154.
  73. ^ Brown, p. 307; Varley, p. 195; Titsingh, pp. 154–155.
  74. ^ Brown, pp. 307–310; Varley, pp. 195–196; Titsingh, pp. 156–160.
  75. ^ Brown, pp. 310–311; Varley, p. 197; Titsingh, pp. 160–162.
  76. ^ Brown, pp. 311–314; Varley, pp. 197–198; Titsingh, pp. 162–166.
  77. ^ Brown, pp. 314–315; Varley, pp. 198–199; Titsingh, pp. 166–168.
  78. ^ Brown, pp. 315–317; Varley, pp. 199–202; Titsingh, pp. 169–171.
  79. ^ Brown, pp. 317–320; Varley, p. 202; Titsingh, pp. 172–178.
  80. ^ Brown, pp. 320–322; Varley, pp. 203–204; Titsingh, pp. 178–181.
  81. ^ Brown, pp. 322–324; Varley, pp. 204–205; Titsingh, pp. 181–185.
  82. ^ Brown, pp. 324–326; Varley, p. 205; Titsingh, pp. 186–188.
  83. ^ Brown, p. 326–327; Varley, pp. 205–208; Titsingh, pp. 188–190.
  84. ^ Brown, pp. 327–329; Varley, pp. 208–212; Titsingh, pp. 191–194.
  85. ^ a b Brown, pp. 329–330; Varley, p. 212; Titsingh, pp. 194–195.
  86. ^ Brown, pp. 333–334; Varley, pp. 214–215; Titsingh, pp. 200–207.
  87. ^ Brown, pp. 334–339; Varley, pp. 215–220; Titsingh, pp. 207–221.
  88. ^ Brown, pp. 339–341; Varley, pp 220; Titsingh, pp. 221–230.
  89. ^ Brown, pp. 341–343, Varley, pp. 221–223; Titsingh, pp. 230–238.
  90. ^ Brown, pp. 343–344; Varley, pp. 223–226; Titsingh, pp. 236–238.
  91. ^ Brown, pp. 344–349; Varley, pp. 226–227; Titsingh, pp. 238–241.
  92. ^ Varley, p. 227; Titsingh, pp. 242–245.
  93. ^ Varley, pp. 228–231; Titsingh, pp. 245–247.
  94. ^ Varley, pp. 231–232; Titsingh, pp. 248–253.
  95. ^ Varley, pp. 232–233; Titsingh, pp. 253–261.
  96. ^ Varley, pp. 233–237; Titsingh, pp. 262–269.
  97. ^ Varley, pp. 237–238; Titsingh, pp. 269–274.
  98. ^ Varley, pp. 238–239; Titsingh, pp. 274–275.
  99. ^ Varley, p. 239; Titsingh, pp. 275–278.
  100. ^ Varley, pp. 239–241; Titsingh, pp. 278–281.
  101. ^ Varley, pp. 241–269; Titsingh, pp. 281–286, and Titsingh, p. 290–294.
  102. ^ Titsingh, pp. 286–289.
  103. ^ Titsingh, pp. 294–298.
  104. ^ Titsingh, pp. 298–301.
  105. ^ Titsingh, pp. 302–309.
  106. ^ Titsingh, pp. 310–316.
  107. ^ Titsingh, pp. 317–327.
  108. ^ Varley, pp. 269–270 | Titsingh, p. .
  109. ^ Titsingh, p. .
  110. ^ [Titsingh, p. ]–320.
  111. ^ Titsingh, pp. 320–327.
  112. ^ Titsingh, pp. 327–331.
  113. ^ Titsingh, pp. 331–351.
  114. ^ Titsingh, pp. 352–364.
  115. ^ Titsingh, pp. 364–372.
  116. ^ Titsingh, pp. 372–382.
  117. ^ Titsingh, pp. 382–402.
  118. ^ Titsingh, pp. 402–409.
  119. ^ Titsingh, pp. 410–411.
  120. ^ Titsingh, pp. 411–412.
  121. ^ Titsingh, pp. 412–413.
  122. ^ Titsingh, p. 413.
  123. ^ Titsingh, pp. 414–415.
  124. ^ Titsingh, pp. 415–416.
  125. ^ Titsingh, pp. 416–417.
  126. ^ Titsingh, pp. 417–418.
  127. ^ Titisngh, pp. 418–419.
  128. ^ Titsingh, p. 419.
  129. ^ Titsingh, pp. 419–420.
  130. ^ Titsingh, pp. 420–421.
  131. ^ "Japan's emperor thanks country, prays for peace before abdication". Nikkei Asian Review. Retrieved 30 April 2019.

ReferencesEdit

External linksEdit