A Crown colony, also known in the 17th century as royal colony and since 2002 known as a British Overseas Territory, was a type of colonial administration of the overseas territories of the British Empire.
Crown, or royal, colonies were ruled by a governor appointed by the monarch. By the middle of the 19th century, the sovereign appointed royal governors on the advice of the Secretary of State for the Colonies. Under the name of "royal colony", the first of what would later become known as Crown colonies was the English Colony of Virginia in the present-day United States, after the Crown, in 1624, revoked the royal charter it had granted to the Virginia Company, taking over direct administration.
Until the mid-19th century, the term "crown colony" was primarily used to refer to those colonies that had been acquired through wars, such as Trinidad and Tobago and British Guiana, but after that time it was more broadly applied to any colony other than the Presidencies and provinces of British India and the colonies of settlement, such as The Canadas, Newfoundland, British Columbia, New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia, and New Zealand, later to become the Dominions.
The term continued to be used until 1981, when the British Nationality Act 1981 reclassified the remaining British colonies as "British Dependent Territories". By this time, the term "crown colony" referred specifically to those colonies ruled directly by a Governor appointed by the Monarch (as was the case in Hong Kong before the 1997 handover to the People's Republic of China), with or without the assistance of some form of council appointed by the Governor. The term was not used to apply to those colonies which were substantially autonomous, usually described as "self-governed colonies" (at that time, primarily Bermuda, which had become a Crown colony, according to an older definition of the term, when the Crown revoked the Royal Charter it had given to the Somers Isles Company, successor to the Virginia Company, in 1684. This meant that the Crown, from then onwards, appointed the Governor of Bermuda, previously appointed by the Company. Bermuda had already been internally self-governed for sixty-four years, however, and by the Twentieth Century the definition of "crown colony" had narrowed to include only those territories without internal self-government. The House of Assembly of Bermuda had existed continuously since its first session in 1620, including through the Commonwealth of England, when for some years the Mother Country itself had no parliament. From 2002, all remaining British colonies, whether Crown Colonies or self-governed, have been known as British Overseas Territories.
There were three types of Crown colonies as of 1918, with differing degrees of autonomy:
Crown colonies with representative councils such as Bermuda, Jamaica, Ceylon, British Columbia, Newfoundland and Fiji contained two legislative chambers, consisting of Crown-appointed and locally elected members.
Crown colonies with nominated councils such as British Honduras, Sierra Leone, Grenada and Hong Kong were staffed entirely by Crown appointed members, with some appointed representation from the local population. Hong Kong had a representative council following the introduction of election for the Hong Kong Legislative Council in 1995.
|Name of colony||from||to||Reason for change of status|
|Aden||1937||1967||Became part of the Federation of South Arabia.|
|Bahamas||1718||1973||Became an independent Commonwealth Realm.|
|Basutoland||1884||1964||Became British protectorate in 1964; then became independent as Lesotho in 1966.|
|Bermuda||1684||1981||Became British Dependent Territory in 1981.|
|British Bechuanaland||1885||1895||Became part of British Cape Colony in 1895.|
|British Guiana||1831||1966||Became independent as Guyana in 1966.|
|British Honduras (renamed Belize in 1964)||1884||1981||Became independent (as Belize) in 1981.|
|Burma||1937||1948||Separated from British India in 1937 and became a Crown colony.|
|United Province of Canada||1841||1867||Became part of the Dominion of Canada in 1867.|
|Cape Colony||1806||1910||Became part of the Union of South Africa in 1910.|
|Cayman Islands||1962||1981||Became British Dependent Territory in 1981.|
|Ceylon||1815||1948||Became independent as Dominion of Ceylon in 1948.|
|British Columbia||1866||1871||Became part of the Dominion of Canada in 1871.|
|Cyprus||1914||1960||Became independent as Cyprus in 1960.|
|East Florida||1763||1783||Ceded to Spain. Later became part of the United States.|
|Falkland Islands||1841||1981||Became a British Dependent Territory in 1981.|
|Gambia Colony and Protectorate||1888||1965||Became independent as The Gambia in 1965.|
|Georgia||1755||1776||Became part of the United States of America in 1776.|
|Gibraltar||1713||1981||Became British Dependent Territory in 1981.|
|Gold Coast||1821||1957||Became independent in 1957 as Ghana.|
|Hong Kong||1841||1981||Became British Dependent Territory in 1981. Became a self-governing special administrative region when sovereignty transferred to China in 1997.|
|Jamaica||1865||1962||Became independent in 1962 as Jamaica.|
|Kenya||1920||1963||United with the Kenya Protectorate in 1963 to form the independent country of Kenya.|
|Labuan||1846||1890||Administered by British North Borneo Company from 1890–1904.|
|1906||1946||Incorporated in the Straits Settlements on 30 October 1906.|
|1946||1963||Incorporated in North Borneo on 15 July 1946. Became part of Malaysia in 1963.|
|Lower Canada||1791||1841||Became part of Province of Canada in 1841.|
|Malacca||1946||1957||Became part of Malaya in 1957.|
|Malta||1813||1964||Became independent in 1964 as the State of Malta.|
|Massachusetts Bay||1692||1776||Became part of the United States of America in 1776 as the state of Massachusetts.|
|Mauritius||1903||1968||Became independent as Mauritius in 1968.|
|Natal||1843||1910||Became part of the Union of South Africa in 1910.|
|Newfoundland||1583||1907||Became the Dominion of Newfoundland in 1907, and later joined the Dominion of Canada in 1949.|
|New Hampshire||1692||1776||Became part of the United States of America in 1776.|
|New Jersey||1702||1776||Became part of the United States of America in 1776.|
|New South Wales||1788||1901||Became part of the Commonwealth of Australia in 1901.|
|New York||1691||1776||Became part of the United States of America in 1776.|
|New Zealand||1841||1907||Became the Dominion of New Zealand in 1907.|
|Nigeria||1914||1960||Became independent as Nigeria in 1960.|
|Norfolk Island||1788||1914||Placed under administration of Australia in 1914 as a non-self governing territory. The island was self-governing between 1979 and 2015.|
|North Borneo||1946||1963||Became part of Malaysia in 1963 as Sabah. Labuan separated from Sabah in 1984 to become a Federal Territory.|
|North Carolina||1729||1776||Became part of the United States of America in 1776.|
|Penang||1946||1957||Became part of Malaya in 1957.|
|Quebec||1763||1791||Divided between Upper and Lower Canada and the Northwest Territory.|
|Queensland||1859||1901||Became part of the Commonwealth of Australia in 1901.|
|Saint Christopher and Nevis||1980||1981||Became British Dependent Territory in 1981.|
|Sarawak||1946||1963||Became part of Malaysia in 1963.|
|Seychelles||1903||1976||Separated from British Mauritius in 1903 and became a Crown Colony and became independent in 1976.|
|Sierra Leone||1808||1961||Became independent as Sierra Leone in 1961.|
|South Australia||1834||1901||Became part of the Commonwealth of Australia in 1901.|
|South Carolina||1729||1776||Became part of the United States of America in 1776.|
|Southern Rhodesia||1923||1965||Declared independence in 1965 as Rhodesia, which became Zimbabwe Rhodesia, independence recognized by Britain in 1980 as Zimbabwe.|
|Singapore||1946||1963||Singapore became part of Malaysia in 1963; then became independent as the Republic of Singapore in 1965.|
|1946||1946||Labuan was incorporated into North Borneo on 15 July 1946, which became part of Malaysia in 1963.|
|1946||1955||Cocos (Keeling) Islands was transferred to Australia in 1955.|
|1946||1957||Christmas Island was transferred to Australia in 1957.|
|Straits Settlements||1786||1946||Penang became a separate Crown colony within the Malayan Union in 1946, which was re-organised as the Federation of Malaya in 1948 and became independent in 1957; later became part of Malaysia in 1963.|
|1826||1946||Singapore became a separate Crown colony in 1946, after the Straits Settlements was dissolved.|
|1826||1946||Malacca became a separate Crown colony within the Malayan Union in 1946, which re-organised as the Federation of Malaya in 1948 and became independent in 1957; later became part of Malaysia in 1963.|
|1857||1946||Cocos (Keeling) Islands became part of the Colony of Singapore in 1946.|
|1874||1937||Dinding (now Manjung) became part of the Federated Malay States in 1937, which later became part of the Malayan Union in 1946; the Malayan Union became the Federation of Malaya in 1948 and became independent in 1957; later became part of Malaysia in 1963.|
|1888||1946||Christmas Island became part of the Colony of Singapore in 1946.|
|1906||1946||Labuan became part of the Colony of Singapore in 1946.|
|Tasmania||1803||1901||Van Diemen's Land from 1803 to 1856; Formerly part of New South Wales from 1803 to 1825, when made an independent colony. Became part of the Commonwealth of Australia in 1901.|
|Upper Canada||1791||1841||Became part of Province of Canada in 1841.|
|Vancouver Island||1848||1866||Merged with the Colony of British Columbia in 1866.|
|Victoria||1851||1901||Became part of the Commonwealth of Australia in 1901.|
|Virginia||1624||1776||Became part of the United States of America in 1776.|
|Western Australia||1829||1901||Swan River Colony from 1829 to 1832. Became part of the Commonwealth of Australia in 1901.|
|West Florida||1763||1783||Ceded to Spain. Later became part of the United States.|
^a Source: This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Great Britain Her Majesty's Stationery Office. Chronological table of the statutes. Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London part of the Office of Public Sector Information.
- Jenks, p. 70.
- Porter, p. 477.
- History of Parliament: Parliament of Trinidad and Tobago – Parliament of Trinidad and Tobago.
- Olson, p. 343.
- "British Overseas Territories Act 2002". Gov.Uk.
- Jenks, pp. 71–4.
- The ending of the British sovereignty and jurisdiction over Hong Kong, See: Acts of Parliament of the United Kingdom – Hong Kong Act 1985 .
- See: Malaysia Act 1963
- See: the Independence of Singapore Agreement 1965 and the Acts of Parliament of the United Kingdom – Singapore Act 1966.
- Cocos (Keeling) Islands Act 1955.
- Christmas Island (Request and Consent) Act 1957 (NO. 102, 1957).
- See: Federation of Malaya Independence Act 1957
- "The Straits Settlements is dissolved". Retrieved August 29, 2015.
- Jenks, Edward (1918). The Government of the British Empire. Little, Brown, and Company.
- Olson, James (1996). Historical Dictionary of the British Empire. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0-313-29366-X.
- Porter, Andrew (1998). The Nineteenth Century, The Oxford History of the British Empire Volume III. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-924678-5.
- Wrong, Hume (1923). "The Old Representative System: The Change To Crown Colony Government". Government of the West Indies. England: Oxford University Press. p. 71. ISBN 1-113-74149-X. Retrieved 2010-03-30.
The phrase 'Crown Colony Government' is used with various meanings. In the broadest, and perhaps most correct, sense it is applied to all the colonies in which the Crown retains the real control of the executive (i.e. to all the West Indian colonies). By both official and common usage, however, it is often narrowed as to exclude colonies with elected Assemblies, though without a responsible executive.